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Presented by : MR. AMIR B.

MOHAMED CIAST, SHAH ALAM SELANGOR
Prepared by AMIR BIN MOHAMED; CIAST, P.O.Box 7012, Jalan Petani 19/1, Section 19, Shah Alam, Selangor

Prepared by AMIR BIN MOHAMED; CIAST, P.O.Box 7012, Jalan Petani 19/1, Section 19, Shah Alam, Selangor

KEMALANGAN JALANRAYA MELIBATKAN KERETA DAN LORI KREN
Prepared by AMIR BIN MOHAMED; CIAST, P.O.Box 7012, Jalan Petani 19/1, Section 19, Shah Alam, Selangor

Section 19. Selangor . P. CIAST.Box 7012.Kemalangan Di Pejabat Prepared by AMIR BIN MOHAMED. Shah Alam.O. Jalan Petani 19/1.

P. CIAST. THERE IS NO RETURN ON MONEY SPENT FOR ACCIDENT. Jalan Petani 19/1. Selangor . Shah Alam. Prepared by AMIR BIN MOHAMED.O.Box 7012.RESULTS HIGHER COST & LOWER PROFIT MONEY SPENT FOR ACCIDENT IS NOT LIKE MONEY SPENT FOR MATERIAL OR WAGES. Section 19.

CIAST. Selangor . Shah Alam.IMMEDIATE DEATH INJURY PAIN DISEASE DAMAGE LOSS FEAR SHORT TERM MEDICAL TREATMENT REPAIRS REPLACEMENTS LOST PRODUCTION INCREASED COSTS DISCIPLINE LOW MORALE LONG TERM SUFFERING DISABILITY LOST INCOME INSURANCE COMPENSATION MISTRUST MISSED TARGETS PROFITABILITY Prepared by AMIR BIN MOHAMED. P.O.Box 7012. Jalan Petani 19/1. Section 19.

Box 7012. Selangor Lost of earning Extra expenses . Shah Alam. Section 19. CIAST.VICTIM AND DEPENDENTS Suffering Effect on sport & hobbies Continuing disability Effect on family Prepared by AMIR BIN MOHAMED. P.O. Jalan Petani 19/1.

Selangor . CIAST.Box 7012.SUPERVISOR Worry Loss prestige Recrimination Report.O. P. training new staff Prepared by AMIR BIN MOHAMED. Jalan Petani 19/1. Section 19. extra work. Shah Alam.

Jalan Petani 19/1.Box 7012. Shah Alam. P. Section 19. CIAST.SECTION OR DEPARTMENT Morale Capacity to produce Prepared by AMIR BIN MOHAMED.O. Selangor .

Selangor .FIRM OR ORGANISATION Loss of earning Loss in paying in legal action Damage to the equipment and materials Compensation Penalty Extra insurance premium Lost of client Prepared by AMIR BIN MOHAMED.O. CIAST. Shah Alam. Jalan Petani 19/1. Section 19.Box 7012. P.

P. Shah Alam.NATION Loss of income in a form of income tax Loss of morale Prepared by AMIR BIN MOHAMED.Box 7012. CIAST. Selangor . Jalan Petani 19/1. Section 19.O.

CIAST. Shah Alam.O. product damage  Production delays and interruptions  Legal expenses  Expenditure on emergency first aid supplies  Interim equipment rentals  Investigation time/clearing site  Wages paid for time lost  Costs hiring and/or training replacements  Overtime working  Extra supervisor time  Loss of expertise/experience  Decreased output of injured worker upon return  Loss of business and goodwill Prepared by AMIR BIN MOHAMED. P.ACCIDENT COSTS ICEBERG INSURED COSTS (1)  Medical (covering injury. Section 19. Selangor THE HIDDEN UNINSURED COSTS (8 – 36 as much as insured costs) . ill health)  Compensation  Building damage  Tool. equipment. Jalan Petani 19/1.Box 7012. material.

Shah Alam.O. CIAST. Section 19. Selangor . P.Box 7012.ACCIDENT RATIO STUDIES THE HEINRICH THEORY (USA-1931) 1 29 300 SERIOUS / FATAL MINOR INJURIES NON-INJURY THE TYE/PEARSON THEORY (UK-1974/75) 1 3 50 80 400 SERIOUS / FATAL MINOR INJURIES (1 TO 3 DAYS MC) FIRST-AID INJURIES PROPERTY DAMAGE THE BIRD THEORY (USA-1969) 1 10 30 SERIOUS / FATAL MINOR INJURIES PROPERTY DAMAGE NON-INJURY 600 NON-INJURY / DAMAGE Prepared by AMIR BIN MOHAMED. Jalan Petani 19/1.

Section 19. CIAST. Selangor . Shah Alam.AN UNPLANNED EVENT WHICH RESULTS IN UNACCEPTABLE CONSEQUENCES AN UNDESIREABLE EVENT WHICH INTERRUPTS NORMAL ACTIVITY Prepared by AMIR BIN MOHAMED.O. P.Box 7012. Jalan Petani 19/1.

a near-miss. that occurs through a combination of causes. Jalan Petani 19/1. Shah Alam. Selangor . Prepared by AMIR BIN MOHAMED.Box 7012. unplanned event in sequence of events. P. It results in injury or disease to an individual. CIAST. damage to property or equipment.O. a loss or any combination of these effects”. Section 19.“An unexpected.

Workers. Workers may say that the workplace is : HAZARDOUS * UNSAFE * DANGEROUS * BADLY ORGANISED THE WORKPLACE IS TO BLAME. CIAST.Box 7012. Prepared by AMIR BIN MOHAMED. P. Selangor . Section 19. Shah Alam.O. unions and employees don’t always agree on why accident happen. Jalan Petani 19/1.

Employers sometimes say that the worker is : CARELESS * RECKLESS * SILLY * ACCIDENT PRONE * STUBBORN * INCONSIDERATE * IGNORANT THE WORKER IS TO BLAME. Prepared by AMIR BIN MOHAMED. Section 19.Box 7012.O. Selangor . Shah Alam. Jalan Petani 19/1. CIAST. P.

P. HAS BLAMING EACH OTHER SOLVED THE PROBLEM ? NO. But the work environment must recognise that the workers are human and sometimes make mistakes – this must be acknowledged during workplace design.O. CIAST. Jalan Petani 19/1.Box 7012.Some accidents may be due to human errors. Section 19. Shah Alam. AS CAN BE SEEN FROM THE ACCIDENT FIGURES. Selangor . fatigue and poor working conditions do not cause mistakes. Employers can improve the workplace so that stress. Prepared by AMIR BIN MOHAMED.

CIAST.  Inappropriate purchasing decisions.THE HUMAN FACTOR DIRECTLY INVOLVED  Fatigue  Stress  Taking shorts cut  Lack of experience  Lack of training  Lack of concentration  Not wearing appropriate PPE  Using incorrect tool  Not following work practices INDIRECTLY INVOLVED  Fault with the original design of a piece of equipment. Shah Alam. Selangor .  Behavior of fellow individuals in the workplace. Section 19.O. Jalan Petani 19/1.Box 7012. P. Prepared by AMIR BIN MOHAMED.

UNSAFE ACTS OF PERSON  Operating without clearance/failure to secure or warn. combining. P.  Unsafe loading. startling.  Failure to use safe attire or personal protective devices. mixing. abusing.Box 7012.  Distracting.  Making safety devices inoperative. placing. etc.  Operating or working at unsafe speed. etc. CIAST.O. Section 19. teasing.  Using unsafe equipment or equipment unsafely.  Taking unsafe position of posture. Selangor . Prepared by AMIR BIN MOHAMED. Shah Alam.  Working on moving of dangerous equipment. Jalan Petani 19/1.

 Unsafely clothed. strength. etc. rough. CIAST. gloves. Jalan Petani 19/1.O.  Unguarded absence of required guards. etc. electrical. decayed. Prepared by AMIR BIN MOHAMED. poor housekeeping. chemical. cracked.Box 7012.UNSAFE PHYSICAL CONDITIONS  Inadequately guarded. mesh. blocked exits.  Inadequately ventilated impure air sources.  Defective. Section 19. mechanical. nuclear. no goggles. wearing high heels. masks. slippery. sources of glare. Shah Alam. Selangor . etc. P. etc. etc.  Unsafely arranged. sharp.  Unsafe processes. etc.  Inadequately lighted. etc. tools. etc. congestion. guards of improper height.  Unsafely designed machines.

taking wrong hold. to place warning signs etc. Hot metal clothing not worn or left unbuttoned. Incorrect type of glove/eye protection used. Gripping objects insecurely. Prepared by AMIR BIN MOHAMED. haste or short cuts taken. valves. to warn others or give instructions. Failure to use safety harness/lifeline. switches. . P. throwing materials. horseplaying. materials against unexpected motion etc. Failure: to shut off equipment not in use. Shah Alam. overloading. tool used in a manner for which it was not intended. operating plants at unsafe speed. Section 19. Jumping from heights. Incorrect posture or improper use of limbs. to lock or secure vehicles. use of obviously defective equipment. Failure to secure warn. Selangor Failure to make proper use of correct protective clothing/equipment.UNSAFE ACTS/CONDITION Improper use equipment TYPICAL UNSAFE ACTS/CONDITION Incorrect tool selected for job. ladders. defeat or removal of safety devices.. improper body position adopted. running.. Jalan Petani 19/1. CIAST. attempting to lift excessive weight or move awkward load manually. Working at unsafe speed.O.Box 7012.

Unnecessary exposure to moving equipment. Selangor . CIAST. P. materials or equipment (housekeeping). Jalan Petani 19/1. inadequately lifting aids. Inadequate guarding. insulation. broken. or equipment/substances which are hot.Box 7012. Personal unsafe position Standing/riding/walking in unsafe places. Section 19. Improper of inadequate clothing or equipment provided. Prepared by AMIR BIN MOHAMED. constructed. improperly designed. Shah Alam.O. worn.UNSAFE ACTS/CONDITION Inattention TYPICAL UNSAFE ACTS/CONDITION To footing or surrounds. hot. assembled or maintained. Unsafe placement Of vehicles. sharp. earthling. labeling. shielding. Hazardous plant/ equipment/materials Unsafe operational method Inadequate personal equipment Unsafe precautions on plant’s/site equipment Accident caused through equipment or plant/materials which are rough. Use of inherently hazardous methods or procedures. shoring.

Excessive noise. P.Box 7012. insufficient space. inadequate traffic control. low headroom. catwalks. Shah Alam.O. lighting. effects of room temperature. Selangor . Prepared by AMIR BIN MOHAMED. clearance. house-keeping. ventilation. airborne dust. Defective premises.UNSAFE ACTS/CONDITION Unsafe storage Environment hazards TYPICAL UNSAFE ACTS/CONDITION Improperly stacked or placed equipment/materials.. Section 19. slippery floors. improperly designed or damaged stairs. holes in floors. Unsafe place of work and unsafe means of access/egress. ladder etc. plant/ equipment inadequately secure against movement. CIAST. Jalan Petani 19/1.

FAULT OF A PERSON 3. Selangor . Jalan Petani 19/1. FIVE FACTORS/STAGES IN THE SEQUENCE OF EVENTS. P. CIAST. ACCIDENT 5. UNSAFE ACTS / CONDITION 4. Shah Alam. Section 19.ACCIDENT CAUSATION THEORIES HEINRICH (1930’s) Emphasis for prevention on unsafe acts/condition.Box 7012. INJURY Prepared by AMIR BIN MOHAMED. 2. ANCESTRY / SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT. Approach can lead to blaming the worker when management system is at faults (prone worker approach). 1.O.

Using 5W.ACCIDENT CAUSATION THEORIES MULTIPLE CAUSATION THEORY More that one cause to any accident. Shah Alam.Box 7012. Prepared by AMIR BIN MOHAMED. What were these cause. Section 19.O. CIAST. 1H. Heinrich made reference to “Underlying causes”. P. Selangor . The multicauses is equivalent to the third stage in the Heinrich theory. Jalan Petani 19/1.

P.THE ACCIDENT HIERARCHY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS WORK ACTIVITIES ROOT CAUSE OPERATING RULES VIOLATIONS MISTAKES DIRECT CAUSE ACCIDENTS Prepared by AMIR BIN MOHAMED. Jalan Petani 19/1. Shah Alam.O. CIAST. Selangor .Box 7012. Section 19.

Ability Which Causes or Permits UNSAFE ACTS OF PERSONS UNSAFE MECHANICAL OR PHYSICAL CONDITIONS INEXPLICABLE 88% 10% Which Cause 2% ACCIDENTS 2% are unpreventable 50% are practically preventable 98% are of a preventable type Prepared by AMIR BIN MOHAMED. P. Attitude.O. Fitness. Jalan Petani 19/1.THE ACCIDENT STUDIES MANAGEMENT Through Supervision Controls MAN FAILURE Knowledge. Selangor .Box 7012. Section 19. Shah Alam. CIAST.

Prepared by AMIR BIN MOHAMED. Section 19. P. Jalan Petani 19/1.Box 7012. Shah Alam.O. CIAST. Selangor .

knowing what can injure anyone or anything. It is the awareness of one’s environment and actions. or even a title or rank. Safety is an attitude. P. Safety is knowing what is going on.O. to smell and to think. Jalan Petani 19/1.Box 7012. a frame of mind. Prepared by AMIR BIN MOHAMED. Selangor . Shah Alam. Section 19. To do this does not require genius. CIAST. All it requires is intelligence and a reasonable amount of native ability to see. everyday.Safety is absence of danger. a PhD. to hear. all day. knowing how to prevent that injury and then acting to prevent it.

Jalan Petani 19/1. illness and accidental damage to company property. P. Section 19. CIAST.  can help prevent injury. including emergency response procedures. Shah Alam. Prepared by AMIR BIN MOHAMED.O.  having the right attitude about safety.  signifies you to willingness to take time to prevent accident. both your own and your coworker’s safety. It requires following safety procedures.Box 7012.  being on the lookout for unsafe practices and conditions in your work area.  being able to recognise unsafe practices and conditions.Safety Awareness means . Selangor .  getting to know all you can about the conditions that promote safety.

Safety Awareness is all about understanding the need to prevent avoidable accidents and there are three compelling reasons why every organisation and every individual MUST accept accident prevention as vital element of all activity in the workplace. Section 19. P. CIAST. Selangor . Prepared by AMIR BIN MOHAMED. Jalan Petani 19/1. Shah Alam.Box 7012.O.

CIAST. P.O. Selangor .An accident can lead to a change of lifestyle that can be for an individual and often for a whole family. Prepared by AMIR BIN MOHAMED.Box 7012. Section 19. Shah Alam. Jalan Petani 19/1.

Jalan Petani 19/1. Shah Alam. re-designing Prepared by AMIR BIN MOHAMED. higher accident compensation premium Hidden cost of accidents stopped production. damage to plant and equipment. spoilage of material. replacement of staff.O. Section 19. CIAST.Box 7012. P. re-tooling. training & re-training. Selangor .Organisation face loss absenteeism.

Shah Alam. Selangor . CIAST.O. P. Section 19. Social Security payments to people injured in accidents. Prepared by AMIR BIN MOHAMED. but not adequately covered by other insurance.  Payments to legal personnel relating to court proceedings.  Aid to dependent families where income falls below a minimum level.Box 7012.  Preparation and issuance of laws standards and regulations and their administration. Jalan Petani 19/1.

. E nsure all employees understand the related OSH T raining for OSH commitment. P.EMPLOYER S et OSH policy and committee. CIAST. Section 19. A llocate budget for OSH programmed and activities. Y ield – analyses the achievement for improvement.O. Prepared by AMIR BIN MOHAMED. Shah Alam. Jalan Petani 19/1. Selangor programmed and activities. F ulfill the need of OSH Legislation.Box 7012.

F ind the control measures.Box 7012. P. Y ell for commitment. Jalan Petani 19/1. Shah Alam. Prepared by AMIR BIN MOHAMED. Section 19. A ssess the potential risk.EMPLOYEE S earch all hazards at workplace. Selangor . CIAST.O. T ake part on OSH programmed and activities. E xercise and make it habit.

Shah Alam.Box 7012.O. CIAST. Selangor . Jalan Petani 19/1.Prepared by AMIR BIN MOHAMED. Section 19. P.