You are on page 1of 64



Dr.T.V.Rao MD


Dr.T.V.Rao MD

A Patient in Intensive Care Unit is at Risk for Many Reasons..


Dr.T.V.Rao MD

The Purpose of the Programme

The purpose of this program is to maintain a healthy and safe Hospital by the prevention and control of health care related infections / diseases in particular intensive care units. This is achieved by surveillance and investigation of infectious diseases and public education.
3 10/16/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD

Educating our Health Care Workers

Education programs for employees and volunteers are one method to ensure competent infection control practices. It is a unique challenge since employees represent a wide range of expertise and educational background. The ICP must become knowledgeable in adult education principles and use educational tools and techniques that will motivate and sustain behavioral change. Much has been written about the education of healthcare workers (HCWs). Some of the tools used to educate HCWs successfully include newsletter, posters and videos
10/16/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 4

Why ICU patients are different

Sickest patients (multiple diagnoses, multi-organ failure, immunocompromised, septic and trauma) Move less Malnourished More obtunded (Glasgow coma scale) May be associated Diabetics and Heart failure
10/16/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 5

Contributing factors
Patients in ICUs have more chronic comorbid illnesses and more severe acute physiologic derangements. The high frequency of indwelling catheters among ICU patients The use and maintenance of these catheters necessitate frequent contact with health care workers, which predispose patients to colonization and infection with nosocomial pathogens. Multidrug-resistant pathogens such as methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are being isolated with increasing frequency in ICUs
10/16/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 6

Early survival benefit for immediate ICU Care

Early survival benefit for immediate ICU care Difficulty in explaining lack of ICU advantage later: could be related to the more aggressive monitoring and therapy in the ICU, which may be beneficial early by stabilizing the patient but may be deleterious afterward, due to infections, for example.
10/16/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD

ICU Care is Invasive at many Stages

More invasive lines and procedures including surgeries Longer length of stay More IV and parenteral drugs More tube feeding and Parenteral nutrition More ventilation
10/16/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 8

ICU : Factors that increase

Hand washing facilities are inadequate
Patient close together or sharing rooms Understaffing Preparation of IVs on the unit Lack of isolation facilities No separation of clean and dirty AREAS

Excessive antibiotic use

Inadequate decontamination of items &

Inadequate cleaning of environment
10/16/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 9

Some Health-Care Associated Infections May Occur in ICU Patients

UTI associated with Foley catheters Lower respiratory tract infection (post-op and ventilator dependent) Skin necrosis (skin breakdown) Blood stream infection (and line associated)

Surgical-site infection
Nutrition-related and malnutrition
10/16/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 10

Strategy for Prevention

Hand washing
Use gloves to prevent contamination of the hands when handling respiratory secretions Wear gloves and gowns (contact precautions) during all contact with patients and fomites potentially contaminated with respiratory secretions

Use aseptic technique

10/16/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 11

Strategy for Prevention

Clean and decontaminate all equipment after use Sterilise or use high-level disinfection for all items that come into direct or indirect contact with mucous membranes Rinse and dry items that have been chemically disinfected Package and store items to prevent contamination before use Keep environment clean, dry and dust free
10/16/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 12

Strategy for Infection Prevention

Strict attention to Hand hygiene Prudent Antibiotic use Aseptic technique Disinfection/Sterilization of items and equipment Education of staff infection control awareness Keep Environment Clean, Dry and dust free Surveillance of nosocomial infection to identify problems areas & set priorities
Dr.T.V.Rao MD 13


Intensive Care Unit

Prevention of Blood stream infections


Dr.T.V.Rao MD


Central Venous Catheters

IV fluids and drugs Blood and blood products Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN) Hemodialysis Hemodynamic monitoring
10/16/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 15

Serious Infective Complications

Blood Stream Infections (BSI) Septic pulmonary emboli Metastasis infection
Acute endocarditis Osteomyelitis Septic arthritis

Shock and organ failure Poor outcome: Staph.aureus or Candida spp.

10/16/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 16

Incidence of CR-BSI
Type of catheter
Teflon or Polyurethane ( < infections) vs Polyvinyl chloride or Polyethylene

Site of insertion
Subclavian (< infections) vs Internal Jugular & Femoral (high risk of colonization & deep venous thrombosis)

No. of Lumen Single-lumen catheter (< infections) vs Multi-lumen catheter

10/16/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 17

Prevention Strategies: Core

Proper Insertion Practices

Ensure utilization of insertion bundle:
Chlorhexidine for skin antisepsis Maximal sterile barrier precautions (e.g., mask, cap [i.e., similar to those worn in the O.R.], gown, sterile gloves, and large sterile drape) Hand hygiene

Many CLs in patients on non-ICU hospital wards are placed outside those wards (Emergency room, ICU, Operating room, or Pre-operative areas) In one study, 49% of CLs were present on admission to the ward. Rates of BSI in this study were higher in CLs placed in Emergency Room Define where placement occurs and review technique in those areas
Trick et al. Am J Infect Control 2006;34:636-41.
10/16/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 18

Prevention Strategies: Core

Chlorhexidine Skin Cleansing

Chlorhexidine is the preferred agent for skin cleansing for both CL insertion and maintenance
Tincture of iodine, an iodophor, or 70% alcohol are alternatives Recommended application methods and contact time should be followed for maximal effect

Prior to use should ensure agent is compatible with catheter

Alcohol may interact with some polyurethane catheters Some iodine-based compounds may interact with silicone catheters
10/16/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 19

Sources of Infection
Intrinsic contamination of infusion fluid
Port for additives

Connection with administration set Insertion site Injection ports Administration set connection with IV catheter


Dr.T.V.Rao MD


1. Extra luminal Spread Patients own skin micro flora Microorganism transferred by the hands of Health Care Worker Contaminated entry port, catheter tip prior or during insertion Contaminated disinfectant solutions Invading wound attachment Skin
Skin Fibrin

Sources of Infection
2. Intraluminal Spread Intralumunal Spread Contaminated infusate Contaminated (fluid, medication) infusate (fluid, medication)



Dr.T.V.Rao MD

3. Haematogenous Spread Infection from distant focus


Prevention of CR-BSI
Written Protocol Sterile procedure
Must be performed by trained staff according to written guidelines Sterile gown, Sterile gloves, Sterile large drapes Don't shave the site

Hand disinfection

With an antiseptic solution eg Chlorhexidine gluconate

Dr.T.V.Rao MD 22


Prevention of CR-BSI
Skin antisepsis 2% Chlorhexidine gluconate has shown to have lower BSI than 10% Povidone-iodine or 70 % Alcohol 2-min drying time before insertion
Maki DG et al. Lancet 1991;338:339-43

No difference between 0.5% Chlorhexidine gluconate or 10% Povidone-iodine

Humar A et al. Clin Infect Dis 2000;31:1001-7


Dr.T.V.Rao MD


Prevention of CR-BSI
Gauze dressings every 2 days Transparent dressing every 7 days on short term catheter Replace dressing when catheter is replaced or dressing becomes damp or loose.
Grady NP et al, HICPAC draft guidelines: 2002


Dr.T.V.Rao MD


Prevention of CR-BSI
Catheters removal
Dont replace it routinely Replace it if: Inserted in an Emergency Non functioning Evidence of local or systemic infection

General handling

Opening of hub: Use antisepticimpregnated pads eg Chlorhexidine gluconate or povidone iodine

10/16/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 25

Prevention of CR-BSI
Administration sets

Replacement at 72-h intervals No difference in phlebitis if left for 96 hours Lines for lipid emulsion: replacement at 24-h intervals Lines for blood product : remove immediately after use
10/16/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 26

Prevention of CR-BSI
Topical antibiotic
Prophylactic use of topical Mupirocin (Bactroban) at insertion site or in nose is not recommended
Rapid development of Mupirocin resistant Mupirocin affect the integrity of Polyurethane catheter

Systemic antibiotic
Prophylactic use of antibiotic is not recommended at the time of catheter insertion
10/16/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 27

Background: Prevention Strategies

Michigan Keystone Project
Decrease in CLABSI in 103 ICUs in Michigan (66% reduction) Basic interventions:
Hand hygiene Full barrier precautions during CL insertion Skin cleansing with chlorhexidine Avoiding femoral site Removing unnecessary catheters Use of insertion checklist Promotion of safety culture

Pronovost et al. NEJM 2006;355:2725-32.

10/16/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 28

Urinary Catheterization


Dr.T.V.Rao MD


External urethral meatus & urethra

Pass catheter when bladder full for wash-out effect. Before catheterization prepare urinary meatus with an antiseptic ( e.g. povidone iodine or 0.2% chlorhexidine aqueous solution) Inject single-use sterile lubricant gel (e.g. 1-2%) lignocaine into urethra and hold there for 3 minutes before inserting catheter. Use sterile catheter. Use non-touch technique for insertion
10/16/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 30

Junction between catheter & drainage tube

Do not disconnect catheter unless absolutely necessary. For urine specimen collection disinfect outside of catheter proximal to junction with drainage tube by applying alcoholic impregnated wipe and allow it to dry completely then aspirate urine with a sterile needle and syringe.
10/16/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 31

Junction between drainage tube & collection bag

Keep bag below level of bladder. If it is necessary to raise collection bag above bladder level for a short period, drainage tube must be clamped temporarily. Empty bag every 8 hours or earlier if full. Do not hold bag upside down when emptying
10/16/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 32

Tap at bottom of collection bag

Collection bag must never touch floor. Always wash or disinfect hands (eg with 70% alcohol) before and after opening tap. Use a separate disinfected jug to collect urine from each bag. Don't put disinfectant into urinary bag.
10/16/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 33

Strategies for Prevention of CAUTI

Avoid unnecessary placement of indwelling urinary catheters Remove catheters as quickly as possible Alternative condom catheter, intermittent bladder catheterization Aseptic technique in catheter insertion Appropriate catheter maintenance Antimicrobial therapy Different catheter composition 10/16/2012
Dr.T.V.Rao MD


+++ +++

+++ ++ +

Intensive Care Unit Nosocomial Pneumonia


Dr.T.V.Rao MD


Incidence of HAI vs. Cost

Hospital acquired Infection Urinary Tract Incidence Additional



Surgical Wound Pneumonia

Blood Stream

29% 9%
Dr.T.V.Rao MD

42 % 39%
Haley, 1986 36

Risk factors for bacterial pneumonia

Host Factors
Elderly Severe Illness Underlying Lung Disease Depressed Mental Status Immunocompromising Conditions or Treatments Viral Respiratory Tract Infection Colonisation Intensive Care Setting Use of Antimicrobial Agents Contaminated hands Contaminated Equipment

Factors that facilitate reflux & aspiration into the lower RT

- Mechanical ventilation - Tracheostomy - Use of a Nasogastric Tube - Supine Position Factors that impede normal Pulmonary Toilet - Abdominal or thoracic surgery - Immobilisation


Dr.T.V.Rao MD


Prevention in ICU
Turn patients to encourage postural drainage Encourage to take deep breaths and cough. Maintain an upright position (elevate patients head to 30- 45 degree angle) to reduce reflux and aspiration of gastric bacteria.
10/16/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 38

Gastric Ulcer Prophylaxis

Stomach of a healthy person : Acidic pH () & normal peristalsis movement prevent bacterial growth Alkaline pH () and loss on normal peristalsis lead to bacterial colonisation which increases the risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia Mechanical ventilation patients are at increased risk for upper GI hemorrhage from stress ulcers. H2 blockers or antacids are used to prevent stress ulcers
10/16/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 39

Nasogastric Tube
May erode the mucosal surface Block the sinus ducts Regurgitation of gastric contents leading to aspiration. Verify placement of the feeding tube in the stomach or small intestine by X ray Elevate the head of the bed 30- 45 degrees

Remove NG Tube if not necessary

10/16/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 40

After every patient, clean and disinfect (high-level) or sterilize re-usable components of the breathing system or the patient circuit according to the manufacturers instructions.

Dr.T.V.Rao MD


Suctioning mechanically ventilated patients

Hand washing before and after the procedure. Wear clean gloves to prevent crosscontamination Use a sterile single-use catheter ; if it is not possible then rinse catheter with sterile water and store it in a dry, clean container between uses and change the catheter every 8 - 12 hours.
10/16/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 42

Suction Bottle
Use single-use disposable, if possible Non-disposable bottles should be washed with detergent and allowed to dry. Heat disinfect in washing machine or send to Sterile Service Department.


Dr.T.V.Rao MD


Use sterile medications and fluids for nebulization Fill with sterile water only. Change and reprocess device between patients by using sterilization or a high level disinfection or use single-use disposable item. Small hand held nebulizers minimise unnecessary use between uses for the same patient disinfect, rinse with sterile water, or air dry and store in a clean, dry place Reprocess nebulizers daily
10/16/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 44

Clean and sterilize device between patients. Fill with sterile water which must be changed every 24 hours or sooner, if necessary. Single-use disposable humidifiers are available but they are expensive.
10/16/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 45

Oxygen mask
Change oxygen mask and tubing between patients and more frequently if soiled

Dr.T.V.Rao MD


The Scientific study ( SENIC ) gives guidelines

Study of the Efficacy of Nosocomial Infection Control (SENIC) project was published, validating the cost-benefit of infection control programs. Data collected in 1970 and 1976-1977 suggested that one-third of all nosocomial infections could be prevented if all the following were present: One infection control professional (ICP) for every 250 beds. An effective infection control physician. A program reporting infection rates back to the surgeon and those clinically involved with the infection. An organized hospital-wide surveillance system.
10/16/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 47

Antibiotics use
Must avoid widespread use of broad spectrum antibiotics
10/16/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 48

Problem-Detection of Infection in the ICUs


Dr.T.V.Rao MD


Examples of difficult to detect infections: Uncultivable organisms

Viruses are under appreciated as causes of nosocomial infections. Except in cases of high morbidity viral cultures are not done in resource scarce settings. Impact food-borne, respiratory, water borne illnesses. We dont know the spectrum of anti-microbial activity of most preservatives and cleaners for many viruses.
10/16/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 50

Symptomatic Urinary Tract Infection:

Examples from the NNIS Manual

Patient must have one of the two criteria:

Fever >38 C OR urgency OR frequency OR dysuria OR suprapubic tenderness without other cause OR Urine culture with at least 105 organisms per ml or no more than two species of organisms
10/16/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 51

Definition of surgical site infection (no implant)

Occurs within 30 days of surgery AND has one of the following: Purulent drainage from drain OR Organism isolated from aseptically obtained fluid in the organ space
10/16/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 52

Prior to starting any surveillance

Agree upon a written case definition that is practical given the laboratory facilities and patient work load in your facility.
10/16/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 53

Our plan for future should include

Unlike scheduled activities, occasional clusters of patients who are colonized or infected will trigger further investigation including a case-control study. New laboratory methods developed and refined within the last decade can now determine how related the strain is at the molecular level. The QI/IC plan should include special problem-focused studies that describe personnel or environmental sampling, including what circumstances and who has the authority to order
10/16/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 54

Hand washing
Single most effective action to prevent HAI resident/transient bacteria Correct method - ensuring all surfaces are cleaned more important than agent used or length of time taken No recommended frequency - should be determined by intended/completed actions Research indicates: poor techniques - not all surfaces cleaned frequency diminishes with workload/distance poor compliance with guidelines/training
10/16/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 55

Why we are not washing hands ??? Working in high-risk areas Lack of hand hygiene promotion Lack of role model Lack of institutional priority Lack of sanction of non-compliers
Dr.T.V.Rao MD 56


A multicenter, prospective cohort surveillance study of 46 hospitals in Central and South America, India, Morocco, and Turkey. Rates of device-associated infection were determined between 2002 and 2005; an overall rate of 14.7 percent or 22.5 infections per 1000 ICU days was found. Specific devices:
Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP); 24.1 cases/1000 ventilator days (range 10.0-52.7) CVC-related bloodstream infections; 12.5/1000 catheter days (7.8-18.5) Catheter-associated urinary tract infections; 8.9/1000 catheter days (1.7-12.8)


Dr.T.V.Rao MD


Our Vision to Future

Infection control
programs must maintain training records of employees. The minimum training required is annual OSHA blood borne pathogen, tuberculosis prevention and control and new employee orientation.
10/16/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 58

Why we need better ICUs

For an incidence as well as for a prevalence population of critically ill patients, there is a window of critical opportunity for admission into the ICU, much like the golden our for the trauma patient.
Efforts should be made to avail ICU facilities to as many recently deteriorated patients as possible, especially those who could be transferred into the ICU very early after deterioration, such as patients on hospital wards.
10/16/2012 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 59

Do remember the Reasons for Infections are Many but solutions are few


Dr.T.V.Rao MD


Yet No Substitute for Hand Washing

Are You Washing ?


Dr.T.V.Rao MD


Let us support our Hospitals with clean hands


Dr.T.V.Rao MD


Follow me for more articles of Interest on Infections on


Dr.T.V.Rao MD


The Programme Created by Dr.T.V.Rao MD for Medical and Paramedical Professionals in the Developing World Email


Dr.T.V.Rao MD