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Role of Pakistani Government & Political Parties in Gilgit Baltistan

and

Why nationalism rise at GB

History of Gilgit Baltistan

Pre-History

The earliest inhabitants of the Gilgit-Baltistan can be traced back to 5th millennium BC

They were known as Rock Art People as they started the tradition of rock carving which was

continued by their successors.

They were hunters and lived in rocks. There is a general perception that they had religion

having faith in mountains.

Megalith Builders

These people came from Chitral and Swat had the tradition of building large megaliths.

They used to have a ceremonial carved stone in the middle which was worshiped.

They used metals like copper, bronze, iron, gold and silver.

They developed irrigated fields and also depended

on livestock like goat, sheep and other cattle. They

lived in mud houses as temporary settlement

Dardic People

According to some historians, the Dardics lived in the present Gilgit Baltistan during

the Achaemenian Empire (4th century B.C).

Their economic activities included mining and trading gold. This led to the

establishment

of

a

trade

Central Asia and China

route

with

Scytho Parthians:

Various rock inscriptions around Chilas suggest that the Scythians from Central Asia had established

their rule in this area around the first century BC

The rule of Scythians resulted in the introduction of Kharoshti script.

The Scythian rule lasted only two generations between 1 B.C and 1 A.D. The influence of the

Parthians on local culture is evident from the rock

carvings of this era which depict some new themes

other than those of the earliest inhabitants.

The Kushans

The

Khushans

moved

to

Northern

Areas

between 1

B.C and

1

A.D

who

had already

established

their

rule

in

Central

Asia

and

China.

They used gold for trade purposes and a route passed through Northern Area which was perhaps the Silk Route on which the current Karakoram Highway has been constructed

The Post Kushans

After

the

Khushans,

the

Sassanis from Persia

controlled the area in the beginning of 3rd century AD. During that period, Budhism continued to flourish and this area remained a famous crossing point for travel to and from India, China and Central Asia.

The Huns: These were tribes from Central Asia who were warriors. They ruled through several Shina and

Brushaski kings called 'Rajas'. By that time, Budhism was still on its way of spreading.

Medieval to Modern Time

With

the

decline

of

Huns,

the

Rajas

became

independent. From 612 to 750 AD, the areas were ruled by Patoal Shahi Dynasty who were Budhists and had

close ties with Chinese empire.

Between 7th Century and early 19th century, parts of the Gilgit-Baltistan were ruled by succession of various

dynasties including: Tarkhans of Gilgit, the Maghlots of

Nagar, the Ayasho of Hunza, the Burshai of Punyal, the Maqpoons of Skardu, the Anchans of Shigar and the Yabgos of Khaplu.

In the beginning of 8th century AD the Tarkhan rulers embraced Islam. In the medieval times, Gilgit-Baltistan remained outside Mughal control although Akber conquered Kashmir and parts of Baltistan

while Gilgit retained its independent status until the Gilgit-Baltistan came under the control of Dogra rulers of Kashmir in the middle of 18th century.

By the end of 19th century, the British Government created the Gilgit agency and appointed a political

agent, under a lease agreement with Maharaja

Harising of Kashmir. In 1947, the people of Gilgit Baltistan fought against the Maharaja and got

independence.

Since

then,

it

is

being

administered

under

the

Federal

Government

of

Pakistan

as

Federally

Administered Northern Areas (FANA

Role of Pakistan

Government& Political Parties

in

Gilgit &Baltistan

.

1947

Through a jointly formed armed struggle of the local

people, the Gilgit Scouts and the Muslim officers of the Maharaja’s army, the area was liberated on November 1, 1947 and an interim government constituted under Raja Shah Rais Khan of Gilgit. The

government of Pakistan was invited through a

telegram to take control of the areas. Responding to

this request Sardar Muhammad Alam (A tehsildar in the NWFP government at that time) was appointed and sent to Gilgit on 16th November, as government of Pakistan’s political agent.

1949

In April 1949 because of several administrative constraints an agreement was reached between the

government of Pakistan and government of Azad Jammu Kashmir (AJ & K)and Gilgit.

This Agreement, the affairs of Gilgit and Baltistan were brought under the control of Political Agent appointed by the government of Pakistan.

1950 Establishment of the Ministry The federal Government established the Ministry of Kashmir Affairs and Northern Areas (KANA) and transferred the affairs of the Northern Areas to the Ministry.

Appointment of Resident(1952)

A Joint Secretary of the Ministry of Kashmir Affairs was appointed as Resident in the Northern Areas

with all administrative and judicial authorities.

1967 Empowerment of Resident The Ministry of Kashmir Affairs introduced reforms by transferring powers of High Court and Revenue Commissioner

to the Resident and appointed two Political Agent

Responsibility of Agents

Under the Resident, there used to be two Political Agents, one each for Gilgit and Baltistan agencies.

Each of the Political Agents exercised the following

powers simultaneously in his jurisdiction:

District and Session Judge District Magistrate Revenue Collector Commissioner for FCR Inspector General, Police Chairman District Council

1965-1975

1965-1975

The political, economic, cultural and social aspects of life and living in Nagar, Hunza during a period of relatively greater political awareness, the Raja,s anti-Mir political movement and the resultant demise of the State of Hunza ,Nagar,.

The roles that different elements played during that phase of social change.

1970 First Elections

Elections in Northern Areas conducted for the first

time in 1970. These were for the NA Advisory

Council consisting of 16 members. It was the first representative body of the Northern Areas

During its early days, Commissioner N.A. (Resident) used to chair the Council. Later, a change was brought about, and the Federal Minister for

Kashmir Affairs became the chairman

PPP( Z. A. Bhutto 1972)

During

1972 the

then government of Mr.

Bhutto announced.

Z.

A.

The President of Pakistan, through his proclamation of August 1972, brought about fundamental structural reforms.

The system of Feudal Lords, Rajas, Mir of Nagar and Agency was abolished.

Gilgit and Baltistan agencies were given the status of districts.

Resident

and

Political

Commissioner

and

respectively. Political set-up in Gilgit

Agent

Deputy

till 1973

were re-named Commissioner,

and that

it

was

PPP’s founding father, Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, who had

taken the initiative after he came to power.

In September 1974, Prime Minister Bhutto visited Northern Areas. On the occasion,

He declared Ganchi and

districts .

Ghizar as two

new new

PPP (Z.A Bhutto1974)

The

government

of

Z.

A.

Bhutto

announced

a

package of administrative and judicial reforms by abolishing the State of Hunza and Frontier Crime

Regulation (FCR). The Rajas (rulers) of abolished

States

were

given

government jobs and

maintenance allowances.

The

young

“Mir

of

Nagar

Mir

Barkat

Ali

Khan

That the state of Nagar had been

dissolved by Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto on the basis of popular demand in

1974.

The government of Paksitan, just like the Mir of Hunza and heads of

other former states of Gilgit .

General Zia ul Haq

July 5, 1977 General Zia ul Haq imposed Martial Law in Pakistan, the Northern Areas were also declared “Martial Law Zone-E(A to D being the four Provinces). From the administrative viewpoint, this

was the first important decision that gave rise to confusion about the constitutional position of the

Northern Areas.

To

this,

the

contradictory

statements

made

by

President

Zia

about

the

areas’

future

and

constitutional position added further confusion.

Zia-ul Haq

In April 1982, the newspapers reported the President stating: that Gilgit, Skardu and Hunza were not disputed

areas, but part of Pakistan. Speaking to correspondents in Quetta on May 9, 1982.

He said ,Kashmir has been a disputed issue, but so far as the Northern Areas are concerned, we do not accept them disputed.

He said

I am not talking of Kashmir I am talking about

the Northern Areas, which make part of Pakistan.

  • Zia-ul Haq

while meeting a delegation of the Northern Areas on 15 April, 1985, President Zia-ul Haq again

indicated, that:

Northern

Areas

will

be

given

representation

before

the

next

meeting

of

the

National Assembly, and that elections for the

National Assembly seats will be held in the three

Northern Areas districts including Skardu and Gilgit.

Also, that the Justice Ministry has been directed

and it was considering to remove obstacles in the way of Northern Area’s representation in the National Assembly.

Zia ul haq

A high power Committee was constituted in 1984-

85

to

settle

the

future

of

the

Northern Areas.

Members of the Committee included the

Secretaries of Divisions/ Establishment, Finance, Planning,

Ministries

of

Law,

Interior,

Education, and Kashmir Affairs and Northern Areas. The Committee soon submitted its report. But it

was neither implemented, nor made public

PPP Government

In

the

1988-90

PPP

government

appointed

Mr.

Qurban Ali (chairman PPP, Northern Areas) as

Advisor to the Prime Minister for Northern Areas.

Later again, during the second PPP regime Federal Cabinet approved a reform package for the Northern Areas, on April 25, 1994. The package

included following actions,

PPP

To

administer

Northern

Areas,

the

Federal

Minister of Kashmir Affairs, will be the Chief

Executive of the Council; To assist C.E the Council will elect a Deputy Chief Executive.

Three to five members of the Council will be taken as Advisors to C.E. They will enjoy the status of provincial ministers. Their appointment will, however, depend on the C.E’s discretion

PPP

Through the package, Northern Areas were turned into defacto province. For the first time, the federal government appointed in the area, a Chief Secretary and four Secretaries.

Under the package, party-based elections were held

for the first time in 1994. A member of Pakistan

People’s Party

got

elected

as

Deputy

Chief

Executive. PPP and Tahrik-i-Jafaria also sent two

Advisors each, while Muslim League (Junejo group)

got one seat of Advisor. These Advisors were

assigned public departments.

Financial and administrative powers

Financial

and

administrative

powers

remained centred in the federal Finance and

Establishment Divisions, which the Chief Executive exercised as his exclusive right.

Thus the lack of power of the Deputy Chief

Executive and the Advisors became evident. Deputy Chief Executive will be authorized to

transfer officers of grade 18, but not the

Deputy Commissioner or the Superintendent of Police.

  • PML-N

General (R) Abdul Majeed Malik, the then Minister

for Kashmir Affairs and

Northern Areas made a

detailed visit of the area and met important

personalities. On October 2, 1999, he announced that government was soon bringing a constitutional

reforms package, through which the Northern Areas

Council will be turned into Northern Areas Legislative Council.

The Northern Areas Legislative Council (NALC), the region’s elected legislature, is powerless, and civil and military bureaucrats run affairs

PMLQ/Pervaz Musharaf

President Musharraf, in his visit to Gilgit on October 23, 2007, announced a package to amend the Legal Framework Order 1999. According to this package, the Legislative Council was upgraded and made a Legislative Assembly, and the Deputy Chief Executive was made its Chief Executive. The Minister for Kashmir Affairs was made the Chairman of the Legislative Assembly the Minister of Kashmir Affairs and Northern Areas who is appointed by the federal government.

Moreover, the assembly was given the prerogative to pass the

annual budget for the Northern Areas. Council’s membership was raised to

29.

Five seats were

reserved

for

women

one

elected

indirectly,

from

each

district.

Pervaz Musharaf

President Musharraf gave the only university to the

region , Karakoram International University.

He also inaugurated an 18-megawatt hydro-power project in Naltar Valley near Gilgit, and a dry port in the

border town of Sost.

Notwithstanding the constitutional and political power struggle, many socio-economic developments are

taking place in Gilgit. Gilgit city is getting more modernized and developed as new roads, buildings, mobile phone companies, etc., become common place.

PPP (2009)

In September 2009, the government enacted ,The Gilgit- Baltistan Empowerment and Self-Governance Ordinance

approved by the federal cabinet, paving way for the region to

become the fifth province of Pakistan

The announcement of the Gilgit-Baltistan Empowerment and Self-Governance Order in Northern areas by PM Syed Yousuf Raza Gilani 2009.

Under the Gilgit-Baltistan Empowerment and Self-governance order 2009 the name of the area has been changed from

Northern Areas to Gilgit-Baltistan, Offices of Governor, Chief

Minster and Ministers are created.

The Gilgit-Baltistan Council headed by the Prime Minster of Pakistan

Gilgit Baltistan Assembly

The Legislative Assembly shall consist of thirty three members of whom-

Twenty four members shall be elected directly on the basis of adult franchise

Six women members shall be elected on the pattern as in case of reserved seat in Pakistan. One additional women seat (total 07) was created for

newly created district of Hunza Nagar. Three technocrats and professional members shall

be elected on the pattern as in case of reserved seat

in Pakistan.

Mr.

Mehdi

Shah

has

been

elected

as

Chief

Minster, Mr. Wazir Beig as Speaker and Mr. Jamil

Ahmad as Deputy Speaker.

Party

General Seats

Women

Technocrats

Total

Pakistan People's Party

14

4

3

21

Pakistan Muslim League (Q)

2

1

3

Pakistan Muslim League (N)

2

2

Jamiat Ulema -e- Islam

3

1

4

Mutaihida Qaumi Movement

1

1

Independent

2

2

Total

24

6

3

33

Gilgit Baltistan Council

The Prime Minister of Pakistan Chairman of the Council

shall be

the

whereas The Governor G-B shall be the Vice- Chairman of the Council

The Minister of State for Kashmir Affairs and Gilgit-Baltistan shall be non voting member of

the Council

Seat of Governor in GilgitBaltistan

The seat of governor in GilgitBaltistan, was started on 16 September 2009.

Qamar Zaman Kaira(acting)

16 September 2009

to 22 March 2010

Dr. Shama Khalid

  • 23 March 2010 to 15 September 2010

Wazir Baig (acting)

  • 17 September 2010 to 26 January 2011

Pir Karam Ali Shah

  • 27 January 2011 - Present

The current Governor is Pir Karam Ali Shah

The package is to succeed, it is important to empower the people and make them self-sufficient by a greater power

transfer to the G-B government and less

dependence on Islamabad. The position of G-B still remains ambiguous.

Nationalist parties of Gilgit Baltistan

Nationalist parties of GB

Balwaristan National Front (BNF), Gilgit-Baltistan Thinkers Forum,

Gilgit-Baltistan United Movement (GBUM), Baltistan National Movement,

Karakoram National Movement,

Gilgit Baltistan National Congress,

Gilgit Baltistan Democratic Alliance (GBDA),

Gilgit Baltistan National Alliance (GBNA),

Why nationalism rise at GB

Genuine representatives have always been marginalized by the Pakistani establishment in favor of servile yes men.

All agreements or discussions on their political framework and

destiny have never consulted or included any individual from the

region, let alone taken public will into account i.e. The Karachi Agreement of 28th April 1949,

UNCIP Resolutions,

Zulfikar Ali Bhutto’s directly elected council in 1974,

the Legal Framework Order (LFO) of 1994,

Musharraf’s re-hashing of the latter in 2007 or the currently ‘package’ of 2009.

Cont ..

Periodic uprisings and nationalist sentiment have been ruthlessly quashed by the non-local military and civilian bureaucratic rule, most notably at the beginning of 1971. At times, they have fomented sectarian strife to deflect people from real issues, Gilgit 1988 is a case in point.

All

three organs

of governance remain firmly in

Pakistan’s control despite the country’s Supreme Court judgment of 1999 (SCMR 1379) which envisaged an independent judiciary and right

to self-rule for the people of the region.

Cont ..

Pakistan

has

levied

and

collected taxes

without legal justification and accountability.

In return, there is no university, medical, engineering or other technical college in the

region.

Members of Pakistan’s armed forces including

ISI,

IB

and

prosecution

violations.

MI

for

have

been

exempt

from

alleged human rights

Cont ..

Pakistan’s executive in the shape of Ministry of Kashmir Affair sand Northern Areas (KANA) in

Islamabad has in the past and still superimposes all ostensible governance in the region.

The local Assembly does not possess the right

to legislate on it’s natural resources, including

water and minerals.

Demands from UN

In the light of UN resolution of January 5, 1949, the UN Security Council must ensure

genuine political, judicial, economic and cultural autonomy in Gilgit Baltistan

Given that Pakistan has failed to ensure security in Gilgit Baltistan, UNO must station its peace keeping troops in the disputed region

Cont ..

Pakistan must be asked to open traditional trade routes leading towards India and

Tajikistan / gulf countries

which can help sustain local economy and provide alternate safe routes to travel as currently, travel on the Karakoram Highway is

life threatening.

Cont ..

Violating UN resolutions, Pakistan abolished State Subject

Rule in Gilgit Baltistan in 1974 and subsequently settled

tens of thousands of her nationals to change local demography.

Today the people of Gilgit Baltistan are threatened with ethnic cleansing.

UNO must ask Pakistan to respect UN resolutions and remove her citizens who have damaged the social fabric by

spreading extremism.

Cont ..

UNO must ask Pakistan to remove fake sedition cases and release all political

prisoners.

A UN commission must be sent to Gilgit Baltistan to assess gross human rights

violations, killings, detentions and torture of political workers

Pak must end curfew in Gilgit and ensure free and safe travel to all inhabitants on all routes.

Cont ..

Recently more than 120 soldiers of Pakistan controlled Gilgit Baltistan and Kashmir died near

the Siachen glacier after glacial melt and overflow damaged a village.

UNO must ask India and Pakistan to remove forces from Siachen sector and convert the area into a peace park.

K 2

K 2

DEVOSAE

DEVOSAE

Shandur

Shandur

sachin glacier

sachin glacier

hunza

hunza

Minerals

Minerals