You are on page 1of 37

Domestic Electricity

Service Mains
A small cable which connects distributers line to home supply wire is known as service mains.

Distribution Boards
A distribution board consist of a suitable enclosure containing - Fuses and/or circuit breakers and other - protective devices - Switching devices - Control devices. - Busbars This enclosure may be either of metal clad or all insulated type of construction.

Protection/ Location of Distribution Boards


Shall be protected against dust, moisture, corrosive or polluting substances, excessive temperatures, impact, vibration and other mechanical stresses. Shall be readily accessible and not located over cooking or heating appliances, in bathrooms, washrooms or WCs, in storage or airing cupboards, under staircases or where it might be covered by garments.

Shall not be located above or below, or within 400mm horizontally from a gas meter or a gas appliance in the same space. Shall be protected against damage arising from a fault in other services achieved by the use of barriers or by separation.

WIRING

Introduction of wiring.
Types of wiring according to the Uses. 1. Domestic Wiring. 2. Commercial Wiring. 3. Industrial Wiring.

Factors Affecting choice of wiring

Safety Duration Appearance Accessibility Maintenance Cost

Types of Wiring 1. Cleat Wiring


2. Casing Capping wiring (a) Wood Casing capping Wiring (b) PVC Casing Capping Wiring. 3. Batten Wiring (a) PVC Batten wiring. (b) TRS/CTS Wiring. Lead Shedh Wiring. 4. Conduit Wiring (a) Surface conduit wiring Metal Conduit Wiring PVC conduit wiring (b) Cunceald Conduit Wiring Metal Conduit Wiring. PVC Conduit wiring.

Introduction The types of wiring to be adopted is dependent on various factors : durability, safety, appearance, cost, consumers budget etc. Cleat wiring This System uses insulated Cables sub protected in porcelain cleats.

CLEAT WIRING

Temporary installations The cleats are made in pairs having bottom and top halves. The bottom half is grooved to receive the wire and the top half is for cable grip. Initially the bottom and top cleats are fixed on the wall loosely according to the layout. Then the cable is drawn, tensioned and the cleats are tightened by the screw. Cleats are of three types, having one, two or three grooves, so as to receive one, two or three wires. Cleat wiring is one of the cheapest wiring considering the initial cost and labor, and is most suitable for temporary wiring. This wiring can be quickly installed, easily inspected and altered. When not required, this wiring could be dismantled without damage to the cables, cleats and accessories

Cleats shall be fixed at distances not more than 60 cm apart and at regular intervals. porcelain or plastic cleats are used.

Fixing of cleats
In ordinary cases, cleats shall be attached to wooden plugs fixed to the walls

CASING CAPPING WIRING


Introduction
This system of wiring is suitable for low voltage installation In this wiring, cables like vulcanized rubber, insulated cables or plastic insulated cables are used and carried within the wood casing enclosures.

Material and pattern of casing


All casing shall be of first class, seasoned teak wood or any other approved hardwood free from knots, shakes, saps or other defects, with all the sides planed to a smooth finish, and all sides well varnished, both inside and out side with pure shellac varnish. The casing shall have a grooved body with a beaded or plain- molded cover as desired. Dimensions of casing. The size of casing and capping to be used for various sizes of 250 volts grade insulated cables in a groove shall be in accordance with those specified in table 1. Bunching of circuits. Attachment of casing to wall and ceiling. Attachment of capping. Passing over the floors. Joints in casing and capping.

CONDUIT WIRING Introduction In general, a conduit is defined as a tube or channel. Tubular conduit is the most commonly used material in electrical installations. When cables are drawn through the conduit and terminated at the outlet or switch points, the system of wiring is called conduit wiring.

Types of conduits. There are four types of conduits used for wiring. 1.Rigid steel conduit 2.Rigid non-metallic conduit 3.Flexible steel conduit 4.Flexible non metallic conduit.

Study of electricity bill

Components of electricity bill

Customer's electric bill consists of the following components for Residential/ Domestic usage:
Energy Charges Fixed Charges Fuel Adjustment Charges (FAC) Depends on Tariff A monthly fixed charge for the installed energy meter The prevailing tariff for energy is based on an average cost of fuel consumed for electrical energy generation. The actual cost of fuel may vary from this cost. To account for this difference in price, a "Fuel Adjustment Charges" (FAC) is levied.

Electricity Duty
Tax on Sale of Electricity Delayed Payment Charges Prompt payment discount

State Government charge


Tax on sale of electricity is applied on all units sold in accordance with State Government In case electricity bills are not paid within the due date mention on the bill, delayed payment charges on the total electricity bill (including Taxes & Duties) shall be applied on the bill amount. A payment discount on the monthly bill (Excluding taxes & Duties) shall be available to the consumers if the bills are paid within time limit.

An example of how to work out your consumption is given below :


Sr No. Description Wattage Nos. Average usage Energy Consumption per in hours per month in units (kWh) day 40 x 5 x 6 x 30 6 = 36 1000 40 4 14 40 x 4 x 14 x 30 1000 3 Electric Iron 750 1 750 x 1 x x 30 1000 4 Geyser 3000 1 3000 x 1 x x 30 = 45 = 11 = 67

Tube Light (Ordinary choke)

40

Fan

1000
5 Colour T.V. 80 1 8 Total 80 x 1 x 8 x 30 = 19

1000
187 units

SWITCH

Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker

An Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker (ELCB) is a safety device used in electrical installations with high earth impedance to prevent shock. It detects small stray voltages on the metal enclosures of electrical equipment, and interrupts the circuit if a dangerous voltage is detected. Once widely used, more recent installations instead use residual current circuit breakers which instead detect leakage current directly.

Operation
An ELCB is a specialised type of latching relay that has a building's incoming mains power connected through its switching contacts so that the ELCB disconnects the power in an earth leakage (unsafe) condition. The ELCB detects fault currents from live to the earth (ground) wire within the installation it protects. If sufficient voltage appears across the ELCB's sense coil, it will switch off the power, and remain off until manually reset. A voltage-sensing ELCB does not sense fault currents from live to any other earthed body.

What is a relay ? A relay is usually an electromechanical device that is actuated by an electrical current. The current flowing in one circuit causes the opening or closing of another circuit. Relays are like remote control switches and are used in many applications because of their relative simplicity, long life, and proven high reliability. Relays are used in a wide variety of applications throughout industry, such as in telephone exchanges, digital computers and automation systems. Highly sophisticated relays are utilized to protect electric power systems against trouble and power blackouts as well as to regulate and control the generation and distribution of power. In the home, relays are used in refrigerators, washing machines and dishwashers, and heating and airconditioning controls.

Relay

Electro mechanical Relay

Solid State Relay