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MALAYSIAN STUDIES PRESENTATION PBL 1

GROUP MEMBERS : i. MUHAMMAD SYAFIQ BIN ABDUL KARIM ii. MUHAMMAD IRSYADUDDIN BIN SULAIMAN iii. NURULISZATUL ASSYAKIN BINTI MOHD YUSOF iv. MUHAMMAD ARIFF BIN ISMAIL

Colonial Era
Columbus discovered America in 1492,and brought gold and wealth back to Spain,in order to balance Spainish supremacy in Europe, Portugal has to find a way..

COLONIZATION
Malaysia was once a colonized land. Was subjugated by other powers for total period of 446 years since 1511 until 1957. Portuguese 1511-1641 Dutch 1641-1824 British 1824-1942 Japan 1942-1945 British 1945-1957

COLONIZATION
Portuguese, Dutch, British, Japanese and British had colonized the country before. But only British and Japanese colonized the whole country and left impact on the people

COLONIZATION
colonist Portuguese Duration Notes 1511- 1641 Mainly in Malacca (130 years) Was opposed by the Malays of Malacca with the aid of Acheh Did not leave behind many traces, except in the areas of language (borrowed word) and dance

Dutch

1641- 1824 Mainly in Malacca (183 years) Did not leave many traces, focus on colonizing Indonesia Was opposed by the Malays who frequently received help from the Bugis

British

1824- 1942 Colonized the whole Peninsular Malaysia, two phases Left behind significant influence on the way of life of the 1945-1957 people (political, economic & social) (130 years) Was strongly opposed by the countrys population

COLONIZATION
Colonist Siamese Duration 1821- 1909 (88 years) Notes Was for a long time lord of the states in the north of the Malay Peninsular, but history dates it as having started in 1821 Stayed mainly in the northern states of the Malay Peninsular namely Perlis, Kedah & Kelantan Traces of influence very evident in the states in the north, especially in the areas of religion (Buddhist) and art Colonized the entire country Greatly influenced the life of the people, especially in terms of relations between races Was opposed by the whole country

Japanese

1942- 1945 (3 years)

Portuguese
Led by Alfonso de Albuquerque Took over Malacca in 1511 The main reason: -To control the maritime trade in the East -Spread Christianity -As the achievement on opening sea way to the East

Chronology of Portuguese Colonization


Year Event

1460
1488 1498 1503 1509

Portuguese succeed in exploring west coast of Africa


Bartholomew Diaz succeed sailing to Cape Hope , Africa Vasco Da Gama sailed to Calicut, India Portuguese comes to Cochin Portuguese appoint Alfonso de Albuquerque as the Portuguese viceroy (General) at India. An expeditionary force was sent there in five ships commanded by Diego Lopez de Squeira Portuguese did conquered Goa, India and Build the Portuguese administration headquarters Portuguese attack and conquered Malacca

1510 1511

REASONS FOR PROTUGIS TO GO EAST


Control the spice trade ( spice ingredients of preservation) Control important trade route to the East, to balance the superiority of Arabs traders and Spaniards. Discover the sea route to the east through Cape of Good Hope Process superior sea power and naval expertise Spread Christianity

PORTUGUESE COLONIZATION
Reasons Malacca fell to Portuguese:1. Administrative inefficiency by Sultan Mahmud. 2. Conflict between Malays and Tamil Muslim 3. Disloyalty of the traders. 4. Establishment of Acheh as a new port.

Dutch Colonization
Portugal became the richest country in Europe after Malacca fell, Lisbon became important port in spice trade. Dutch established V.O.C in 1602 to compete with the Portuguese. Dutch and Johor had relationships since 1606, the Dutch granted Johor supremacy and Johor will help the Dutch to oust Portuguese from Malacca.

Dutch Colonization
Johor at that time was under the rule of Sultan Abdul Jalil. 1641, Portuguese was defeated by the Dutch and Johor. In 1650 Dutch, attempted to monopolize tin trade in Perak failed by opposition from the local people, and even to force the Sultan of Perak to sign a treaty to sell the tin only to the Dutch. Dutch had to give up their desire for tin monopoly following an attack by Panglima Kulup Ali in 1650 to the Dutch settlements in Pulau Pangkor and Hilir Perak.

Dutch Colonization
Johor-Dutch friendship was severely tested by commercial rivalry between the two parties Situation reached its peak in 1782 Dutch laid siege to Riau Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie

Dutch Colonization
Meanwhile in Selangor, Sultan Ibrahim whom the Dutch accused for not wanting to sell the tin and for favoring the English East India Company. Sultan Ibrahim (with help from Rembau and Raja Haji) attacked the Dutch. Attack failed conflict between Selangor and Dutch dragged on to 1786 Dutch tried its best to stifle Johors power

Dutch Colonization
1784 agreement Sultan Mahmud III was forced to surrender Riau ( Riau Indonesia was once under the Johor Sultanate) The Sultans disenchantment was intensified when the Dutch sent a Resident to Riau. 1787 Johor launched a military attack on Dutch in Riau later Dutch recaptured Riau in the same year

Dutch Colonization
Objectives of the Dutch Colonization

To dominate the spice trade ( Maluku Island) To dominate tin industry in the Malay states To chase out Portuguese from the Malay archipelago.

JAPANESE OCCUPATION
Reasons for Japanese Invasion of Malays The Japanese propagated Asian Economic Co-Prosperity Sphere and Asia for the Asians to gain support from Asian people. To get raw materials (tin-important in making weapons, such as bullet, missiles head) To get new places to accommodate Japans increasing population To drive out the Europeans

Japanese Invasion of Malaya

JAPANESE VICTORY
Japanese invasion was well planned Japanese military was well-prepared Good and experienced commander in Gen Yamashita Excellent tactics and co-ordination Japanese army was superior to the British forces Japanese propaganda Japanese promise to free India from British rule

British Colonization
The Chronology of British Colonization Year 1786 1819 1824 1826 Events Penang Island founded by Francis Light Singapore was founded by Stamford Raffles The Dutch handed over Malacca to the British as a result of the Anglo-Dutch Treaty Penang Island, Malacca & Singapore were combined into one administrative unit known as the Straits Settlements. James Brooke took over Sarawak British intervention in Perak, through the Pangkor Agreement

1841 1874

1874
1878

British intervention in Sungai Ujung


The Brunei Sultan handed over Sabah to British

British Colonization
Year
1888 1896

Events
British intervention in Pahang Perak, Selangor, Negeri Sembilan & Pahang were unite into one administrative unit known as the Federated Malay States Under the Bangkok Agreement, Siam handed over Kedah, Perlis, Kelantan & Terengganu to the British ( these are Unfederated Malay States0 Johor accepted a British advisor The British Military Administration (BMA) was establish The Malayan Union established in Peninsular Malay The Federation of Malaya was established to replace the Malayan Union The Malaya achieve independence

1909

1914 1945 1946 1948 1957

British Colonization
FACTORS OF BRITISH INTERVENTION There was no unity among the inhabitants and this gave the British the chance and excuse to intervene by installing an advisor/Resident. The presence of important economic resources such as tin ore and agricultural products (commercial agriculture) in these states.

There was strong competition among the western


powers for colonies to meet the economic needs of their country thus increasing the need for intervention.

Anglo-Dutch Treaty 1824

Anglo-Dutch Treaty 1824


Was signed on 17 March 1824 with the main aim of ending all rivalry between the British and the Dutch. A number of terms had been agreed :

Territories to the North and east of Straits of Malacca were given to British Those to the west and south of the Straits came under Dutch influence Dutch handed over Malacca to the British in exchange for Bencoolen (Bangkahulu)

Anglo-Dutch Treaty 1824


With this exchange, three important ports in the Malay Peninsula-Penang, Singapore and Malacca-were now under control of the British.
In 1826 three territories become known as the Straits Settlement.

PANGKOR TREATY 1874


SIGNIFICANCE : The start of British Intervention in the Malay States

PANGKOR TREATY
The Pangkor Treaty of 1874 was a treaty signed betweenthe British and the Sultan of Perak.

Signed on January 20, 1874, on the island of Pangkor off Perak.

PANGKOR TREATY
Terms of Pangkor Engagement
Raja Abdullah was to be Sultan Raja Ismail was Sultan Muda, monthly pension of $1000 and small territory Ngah Ibrahim was to be Mentri of Larut with Assistant Resident to advise on the administration of Larut Sultan was to accept a British Resident - paid by the Sultan and provided a place of residence

BANGKOK TREATY 1909

BANGKOK TREATY 1909


The reasons:

English alliance - France 1904. Other concerns of foreign intervention. Cancellation rights of foreign territory. Siam financial problems.

BANGKOK TREATY 1909


Conditions: Siam has submitted Perlis, Kedah, Kelantan and Terengganu to English. English will be assigned foreign territory in Siam. Anglo-Siamese Treaty 1897 Confidential canceled

BANGKOK TREATY 1909


Effect:

NNMU changed hands from Siam to England. Acceptance of a British adviser in NNMU. Setting the border between Siam and Malaya. British guarantee carry trade monopoly policy in Malaya.

FEDERATED MALAY STATES UNFEDERATED MALAY STATES &Straits Settlements

FEDERATED MALAY STATES


British Colonial administrator Frank Swettenham (18501946) suggested the idea to form the Federated Malay States, and the FMS was established 1 July 1896 and terminated in 1946. Swettenham and other British officers felt that a central government was needed for greater unity, uniformity, and cooperation between these states. The FMS headquarters were established in Kuala Lumpur, where a Federal Civil Service consisting of departments such as Justice, Communications, Finance, and Public Works was set up.

UNFEDERATED MALAY STATES


Under the Bangkok Treaty of 1909, Siam (as Thailand was once known) transferred whatever rights or power over the northern Malay states (Kelantan, Terengganu, Kedah and Perlis) to the United Kingdom. The British later imposed treaties similar to the Federated Malay States towards these northern states. Johor accepted a treaty of protection in 1885 and eventually succumbed under pressure to accept a British Advisor in 1904.

Straits Settlements
After the Treaty, British transfer of power of the Straits Settlements. It consist of Singapore, Malacca & Penang. These states were unite in 1826 & Penang was the first capital state with a Governor as head. 1832, the head was transferred to Singapore because of Singapore more develop than Penang at that time.

Straits Settlements
On 1st April 1867, the administration of the straits Settlement was transferred from Calcutta India to the Colonial Office in London. This transfer of administration largely influenced the historical development of the country. The administration become more efficient, commercial agriculture , such as black pepper, gambier, nutmeg , clove & sugar cane.

EFFECT OF BRITISH IN TANAH MELAYU

EFFECT OF BRITISH IN TANAH MELAYU

The emergence of new cities: Tin mining creates Kuala Lumpur, Seremban and Taiping petroleum mining creates Miri port expansion port city establish as Klang and Penang. Formation of a multi-racial society: Place an increasing number of Chinese and Indian labor settlements and cause different types of jobs people according to ethnic . Malays live farm labor in city. rural India rubber tappers living in the estate or farm . laborer China trade and miners living in the city.

EFFECT OF BRITISH IN TANAH MELAYU


Manufacturing sector Shum Yip Leong Company mill rubber shoes Bata shoe company set up factories in Klang. United Engineers dredges mill building most factories were owned and operated by foreigners of European capitalists or China.

Development of health services first government hospital in Taiping small health center also built Institute for Medical Research was established to study the causes of disease Sanitary Board was established to protect the health of the city

EFFECT OF BRITISH IN TANAH MELAYU

Development of transport and communication system built railroads connecting the mining area to the port rail first Taiping to Port Weld construction of railways to open up new land for rubber plantation development construction of roads in the mining and plantation accelerate the development of communication systems as telegraph, telephone, postal, and radio.

EFFECT OF BRITISH IN TANAH MELAYU

vernacular education development: change the traditional education system in Malaya. using the mother tongue as the medium of Malay. vernacular schools established in The Straits Malay school first established in Singapore Tamil education provided by the British in the city farm management fund Tamil schools in estates. Chinese school funded by China merchant.