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American Civilization: Review for Final Exam

June 17th OR 18th in Class!!

From Earlier Lectures & Homework

KNOW: A few causes of the American Revolution (acts/events) Boston Massacre Boston Tea Party First President of the United States AND.ANYTHING from any homework or QUIZ (graded or not!!!)

Louisiana Purchase (1803)

Port of New Orleans was a vital part of the American economy. Jefferson, James Monroe, Robert Livingston, were important figures. Largely to avoid war with the United States, France offered to sell the entirety of Louisiana (827,000 square miles) to the U.S. for 15 million dollars. (a small amount) Doubled the size of the U.S.

Lewis and Clark- 1803-1806

Meriwether Lewis & William Clark (official start of expedition 1804 Sent to explore newly acquired lands of the Louisiana Purchase. Went as far west as Oregon and as far north as North Dakota Had a mixed party (or Corps of Discovery) including various European immigrants, a slave named York, and the Shoshone Indian Sacagawea Discovered new flora & fauna, and a number of new animals (previously unknown) such as the grizzly bear, bighorn sheep, and mountain goats. Democratic, though at the end York and Sacagawea were not given the credit they were due.

Monroe Doctrine - 1823

Issued by U.S. President James Monroe A message to the European Powers that colonization of the Western Hemisphere (specifically North and South America) would not be tolerated. Monroe called for non-intervention into the affairs of New World nations by Europe. Also pledged American restraint from involvement in European affairs

Abolition was the movement to end slavery and free the slaves. William Lloyd Garrison was one of the most important abolitionists. Women played an important role in the abolitionist movement. Emancipation became a moral issue for abolitionists. A few prominent abolitionists were: David Walker, Frederick Douglass, Harriet Tubman, and William Lloyd Garrison. Q: What were immediatists and gradualists ?

The Underground Railroad

An underground (secret) organization that helped slaves escape from the south to the north. Stations included houses with hiding places, trapdoors, and secret passageways. Harriett Tubman was one of most famous organizers of the Underground Railroad. Q: Was this really a railroad?

Manifest Destiny
The belief that American expansion westward and southward was inevitable, just, and divinely ordained.. Labeled Manifest Destiny by editor John L. OSullivan in 1845 Texas and Oregon were two territories where this belief became a reality

Brook Farm & Ralph Waldo Emerson (1841-1847)

Brook Farm was a utopian community West Roxbury, Massachusetts (close to Boston) Inspired by transcendentalism or the belief that the spiritual was more important than the physical or material Rejected materialism Lived in rural communities, valued spirituality, manual labor, intellectual life, and play Brook Farm and its ideals helped create one of the most important literary movements in the United States. This was known as the Romantic or American Renaissance period. The most important writers of this period were: Henry David Thoreau Ralph Waldo Emerson Herman Melville Nathaniel Hawthorne

John Browns Raid on Harpers Ferry

On October 16, 1859 the abolitionist John Brown led a group of 18 men (both black & white) in an attack on the federal arsenal located at Harpers Ferry, in Virginia The intent was to incite a slave rebellion but the attack failed Brown was caught, put on trial, and executed soon after the attack. Brown, and his failed assault, came to be a symbol for the abolitionist movement. He was a holy warrior in the cause of ending slavery

Uncle Toms Cabin

Published in 1852, the novel Uncle Toms Cabin, by Harriet Beecher Stowe, portrayed the humanity and suffering of slaves... By 1853 it had sold over one million copies. Indicted the practice of slavery and its ill effects. Helped gain more support for the abolitionist movement.

Secession, Confederate States, and Civil War

Over the issue of slaverys legal status, the nation became divided December 20, 1860 marked the beginning of a series of secessions, with South Carolina passing the first ordinance to secede. In February 1861 a separate government was formed out of the pro-slavery states They were known as the Confederates States of America and at first included: Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas. Jefferson Davis was elected as their president. War officially began on April 12, 1861 at Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor

Union States and Confederate States

American Civil War 1861-1865

Q: What was one main cause of the Civil War? Debate over Slavery!!! July 21, 1861 first battle at Bull Run in Virginia Sides Union and Confederacy Q: Which side supported slavery? Which was fighting to abolish slavery? RESULTS Confederate Surrender at Appomattox Court House April 9, 1865 Drastic change to the economy of the north and south Slavery abolished Lincoln assassinated shortly after the end of the war, on April 14th 1865, by John Wilkes Booth. More than 1 million casualties

Emancipation Proclamation
A declaration that slaves in the Southern (confederate) states would be free. Issued by Abraham Lincoln On January 1, 1863 Paved the way for the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments

13th Amendment
An amendment to the Constitution that prohibited slavery, firmly outlawing the practice. Involuntary servitude was now against the law. Passed in 1865 Congress now had the power to enforce the Amendment

14th Amendment
An Amendment to the Constitution that granted citizenship to African-Americans, predominantly former slaves. Passed in 1866

15th Amendment
An Amendment to the Constitution granting the right to vote to AfricanAmericans. Passed in 1869, put into law in 1870

A plan to rebuild the economy and infrastructure of the parts of the United States affected by the Civil War. Q: How successful was Reconstruction?

Negative Consequences & Issues

Devastating Casualties due to illness More Union troops died from illness than from battle field wounds. (224,000 vs. 140,000) Racism Confederate Flag

Black Codes
Rewritten slave codes which attempted to put newly freed slaves back into a position of inferiority. Former slaves were forced to carry passes, abide by a curfew, live in specified housing, and enter into less desirable jobs

National Park System

Purpose? To protect the natural
landscape and help the conservation movement.

The First National Park was?

1872 - Wyoming

Machine Age
Thomas Edison 1878, perfected the light bulb for the mass market Henry Ford Ford Motor Company started operations in 1903 Q: What was one cause of Fords success? Other inventions: Cigarette Rolling Machine 1876 James Bonsack Sewing Machine 1850s perfected by Howe & Singer Telephone 1870s inventor disputed to Alexander Graham Bell

The term Gilded Age was coined by the American author Mark Twain (his real name was Samuel Clemens) Due to the extreme development and wealth which began to spring up all over the country, the age was seen to be gilded or covered with gold. Q: Was this wealth in the hands of the whole population or a few elites?

Gilded Age

Robber Barons
Robber Barons or Captains of Industry were wealthy and influential capitalists who often owned many different corporations and companies. Often their tactics were shrewd and sometimes illegal or questionable Q: Who were a few Robber Barons? What were their industries?
John D. Rockefeller, Andrew Carnegie

A monopoly is when one company controls an entire market for one product. Q: Examples?
oil steel Railroads

Plessy v Ferguson
An 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized segregation with the doctrine Separate but equal. Q: what type of segregation was legal under this doctrine?

To combat unsanitary and corrupt practices of industry and Robber Barons, muckraking journalists Began to expose these dirty and corrupt Practices. Upton Sinclair wrote The Jungle (1906) to address the conditions in the Chicago meatpacking industry. Q: What changes were made as a result of The Jungle?
Meat Inspection Act The Pure Food & Drug Act

Roaring Twenties/Jazz Age

Due to an increase in wealth and development a new culture of leisure developed including: Baseball leagues, new dances, flappers, more public acceptance of jazz music.
Organized crime also began to become more common, due mostly to Prohibition.

Prohibition 18th Amendment

Passed in 1919, Prohibition outlawed the sale and production of alcoholic beverages. Q: What was one significant consequence Organized crime!! of Prohibition? Q: When was this 1933 with the 21st Amendment Amendment repealed?

Wizard Of Oz

Originally intended as a political parable and indictment of the push for a gold standard. (a promotion for the silver standard.) Dorothy represents the common people The Tin Man represents industrial workers The Scarecrow represents farmers The Lion represents William Jennings Bryan In the original story Dorothys slippers are silver (ruby in the film). The Wizard represents the government (behind the curtain).

Margaret Sanger
Womens rights activist and advocate for birth control For simply sending information About contraception through the mail She was indicted in 1914 for violating postal obscenity laws Founder of the American Birth Control League (now, Planned Parenthood)

19th Amendment
With this Amendment, women were at last given the right to vote! 1920

Great Depression 1929

The Great Depression was a time of widespread and extreme economic instability. Many people lost their jobs The main cause was the stock market crash of October 29, 1929 known as Black Tuesday, as a result of over-speculation and the calling in of credit.

Franklin Delano Roosevelts New Deal

Mass implementation of Public work programs Fireside Chats Eventually helped end the Great Depression

Pearl Harbor
On December 7, 1941 Japan attacked the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. 2,403 casualties Congress voted To declare war on Japan, virtually Unanimously, the next day.

World War II
In response to U.S. entry into the war, Germany and Italy declared war on the U.S. The Second World War was now underway. Who were a few allies of the United States?
Great Britain



Who were a few of their enemies?




Atomic Bombs
Hiroshima On August 6th 1945, the first atomic bomb to be used in warfare was dropped on this Japanese city by an American plane. Nagasaki A second atomic bomb was dropped on August 9th 1945, on this city. In Hiroshima 130,000 people were killed, with countless others affected by the nuclear fallout. Nagasaki saw the deaths of 60,000 people.
Q: What effect did the bombings have on the war?

The war was ended.

Cold War
A post-war, ideological struggle to control spheres of influence after World War II. The two main sides of this war were the West (US) and the East (USSR) One of the first disputes of the Cold War was in Poland over the nature of the government, communist vs. democratic. Rather than traditional fighting, the Cold War consisted mainly of espionage, propaganda, and ideological battles.
Q: Were there any other sides to this war? OR was it only the USA vs. USSR?

McCarthyism: The Second Witch Hunt

As a result of the Cold War and the red scare a climate of paranoia and finger-pointing sprang up in the United States, in which millions of people were investigated, accused, and/or arrested for being suspected communists or communist sympathizers. Senator Joseph McCarthy was the main leader of these witch hunts to find Communists within the United States. He routinely accused Americans from all walks of life (including celebrities, and politicians) of un-American activities or Communist party membership. Q: Why was McCarthyism considered a witch hunt?

What Happens to a Dream Deferred?

Langston Hughes

Martin Luther King Jr.

Rosa Parks

Miles Davis

Civil Rights in Post-war America

Lennox Avenue Mural

What happens to a dream deferred? Does it dry up like a raisin in the sun? Or fester like a soreAnd then run? Does it stink like rotten meat? Or crust and sugar overlike a syrupy sweet? Maybe it just sags like a heavy load.

Or does it explode?
- Langston Hughes

I, Too
I, too, sing America I am the darker brother. They send me to eat in the kitchen When company comes, But I laugh, And eat well, And grow strong. Tomorrow, I'll be at the table When company comes. . . -Langston Hughes

Harlem Renaissance Figures

Countee Cullen

Zora Neal Hurston


Duke Ellington

A Raisin in the Sun

Broadway play debuting in 1959 Written by Lorraine Hansberry First play written by a black woman to be produced on Broadway Original cast included Sidney Poitier & Louis Gossett Jr.

Brown v. Board of Education (1954)

This Supreme Court decision deemed the earlier doctrine of separate but equal education unconstitutional. The earlier case, Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), had established the practice of separate but equal education for black and white students.
But..was this immediately accepted?

Protest, Rebellion, Boycotts

Rosa Parks
Montgomery Alabama 1955

Martin Luther King Statewide Bus Boycotts Supreme Court outlawed Bus Segregation as a result in 1956

Greensboro, North Carolina - 1960

CORE, SNCC, & Freedom Rides

CORE Congress of Racial Equality SNCC Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee Freedom Rides blacks and whites traveled together on
buses going through the South, to try to break the segregation pattern in interstate travel. Q: How were Freedom Riders treated in the segregated South?

SNCC, Nonviolence and Civil Disobedience

The March on Washington

In Washington, D.C. in 1963, Martin Luther King delivered his most famous speech to a crowd of more than 200,000 people. I have a dream.

Civil Right Acts 1964-1965

In August 1965, Lyndon Johnson signed into law the Voting Rights Act, which provided federal registration of black voters to ensure their protection. the same time the most violent riots since the second world war were breaking out all over the United States!!

Black Militancy, Malcolm X, & The Black Panthers

From Ch. 31-33

KNOW: Peace Corps (what is, why was it created, who created it, when?) Fulbright Program (same info as above) Watergate Scandal Pentagon Papers Reaganomics Rodney King & Los Angeles riots

Uncle Sam says:

To this PASS this exam by studying hard, NOT by writing answers on tiny pieces of paper and holding them during the exam. (I heard Nathan has excellent eyesight anyway, so dont try it!)