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Welcome to Microbiology 1

For Today…
Introduction to the course Explore the history and foundation of microbiology Dimensional Analysis

Chapter 1 The Microbial World and You

Chapter 1 The Microbial World and You

What is Microbiology?

Microbes, or microorganisms are minute living things that are usually unable to be viewed with the naked eye. What are some examples of microbes?
Bacteria, fungi, protozoa, algae, viruses are examples! Some are pathogenic “Germ” refers to a rapidly growing cell.

Chapter 1 The Microbial World and You

What is Microbiology?

Microbes:
Decompose organic waste Are producers in the ecosystem by photosynthesis Produce industrial chemicals such as ethyl alcohol and acetone Produce fermented foods such as vinegar, cheese, and bread

Chapter 1 The Microbial World and You

What is Microbiology?

Chapter 1 The Microbial World and You What is Microbiology? Knowledge of Microbes allows humans to Prevent food spoilage Prevent disease occurrence Led to aseptic techniques to prevent contamination in medicine and in microbiology laboratories. .

.Chapter 1 The Microbial World and You History of Microbiology Ancestors of bacteria were the first life on Earth.

.Chapter 1 The Microbial World and You History of Microbiology The first microbes were observed in 1673. In 1665. Robert Hooke (Englishman) reported that living things were composed of little boxes or cells.

Chapter 1 The Microbial World and You History of Microbiology 1673-1723. Antoni van Leeuwenhoek (Dutch) described live microorganisms that he observed in teeth scrapings. . and peppercorn infusions. rain water.

the Italian physician Francesco Redi performed an experiment to disprove spontaneous generation. Can you think of an experiment that could disprove spontaneous generation? .Chapter 1 The Microbial World and You History of Microbiology Many believed spontaneous generation: life can arise from non-living matter In 1668.

Conditions 3 jars covered with fine net 3 open jars Results No maggots Maggots appeared From where did the maggots come? What was the purpose of the sealed jars? Spontaneous generation or biogenesis? .Chapter 1 The Microbial World and You History of Microbiology Redi filled six jars with decaying meat.

Chapter 1 The Microbial World and You History of Microbiology Rudolf Virchow (German) presented biogenesis: living cells can arise only from preexisting cells. .

a “vital force’ Forms life. . According to spontaneous generation. The Alternative hypothesis. that the living organisms arise from preexisting life.Chapter 1 The Microbial World and You History of Microbiology So now there are two hypotheses: The hypothesis that living organisms arise from nonliving matter is called spontaneous generation. is called biogenesis.

not sealed Nutrient broth placed No microbial growth in flask. then sealed Spontaneous generation or biogenesis? . heated. heated. Conditions Results Nutrient broth placed Microbial growth in flask.Chapter 1 The Microbial World and You History of Microbiology 1861: Louis Pasteur demonstrated that microorganisms are present in the air.

Pasteur’s S-shaped flask kept microbes out but let air in.Chapter 1 The Microbial World and You History of Microbiology Next experiment. These experiments form the basis of aseptic technique .

Chapter 1 The Microbial World and You History of Microbiology The Golden Age of Microbiology 1857-1914 Beginning with Pasteur’s work. and antimicrobial drugs . discoveries included the relationship between microbes and disease. immunity.

. Microbial growth is also responsible for spoilage of food. Bacteria that use alcohol and produce acetic acid spoil wine by turning it to vinegar (acetic acid).Chapter 1 The Microbial World and You History of Microbiology Pasteur showed that microbes are responsible for fermentation. Fermentation is the conversation of sugar to alcohol to make beer and wine.

This application of a high heat for a short time is called pasteurization.Chapter 1 The Microbial World and You History of Microbiology Pasteur demonstrated that these spoilage bacteria could be killed by heat that was not hot enough to evaporate the alcohol in wine. .

1840s: Ignaz Semmelwise advocated handwashing to prevent transmission of puerperal fever from one OB patient to another. 1865: Pasteur believed that another silkworm disease was caused by a protozoan. .Chapter 1 The Microbial World and You History of Microbiology The Germ Theory of Disease 1835: Agostino Bassi showed a silkworm disease was caused by a fungus.

Chapter 1 The Microbial World and You History of Microbiology The Germ Theory of Disease • 1860s: Joseph Lister used a chemical disinfectant to prevent surgical wound infections after looking at Pasteur’s work showing microbes are in the air. . and cause animal diseases. can spoil food.

Chapter 1 The Microbial World and You History of Microbiology The Germ Theory of Disease 1876: Robert Koch provided proof that a bacterium causes anthrax and provided the experimental steps. Koch was a physician and Pasteur’s young rival . used to prove that a specific microbe causes a specific disease. Koch’s postulates.

.Chapter 1 The Microbial World and You History of Microbiology Koch's Postulates are used to prove the cause of an infectious disease.

Chapter 1 The Microbial World and You History of Microbiology Koch's Postulates are a sequence of experimental steps to relate a specific microbe to a specific disease. .

The person was then protected from smallpox. 1796: Edward Jenner inoculated a person with cowpox virus. Called vaccination from vacca for cow The protection is called immunity .Chapter 1 The Microbial World and You History of Microbiology A young milkmaid informed the physician Edward Jenner that she could not get smallpox because she had already been sick from cowpox.

Chapter 1 The Microbial World and You History of Microbiology What can you say about the cowpox and smallpox viruses? .

Chapter 1 The Microbial World and You History of Microbiology Vaccinations produced from avirulent microbial strains produced from live viruses produced from viral particles .

Chapter 1 The Microbial World and You History of Microbiology Chemotherapy – treatment with chemicals • Chemotherapeutic agents used to treat infectious disease can be synthetic drugs or antibiotics. • Quinine from tree bark was long used to treat malaria. • Antibiotics are chemicals produced by bacteria and fungi that inhibit or kill other microbes. .

• 1930s: Sulfonamides were synthesized. . to treat syphilis.Chapter 1 The Microbial World and You History of Microbiology Chemotherapy – treatment with chemicals • 1910: Paul Ehrlich developed a synthetic arsenic drug. salvarsan.

that killed S. . 1940s: Penicillin was tested clinically and mass produced. aureus. He observed that Penicillium fungus made an antibiotic. penicillin.Chapter 1 The Microbial World and You History of Microbiology 1928: Alexander Fleming discovered the first antibiotic.

Chapter 1 The Microbial World and You Modern Developments • Bacteriology is the study of bacteria. • Recent advances in genomics. • Parasitology is the study of protozoa and parasitic worms. • Mycology is the study of fungi. have provided new tools for classifying microorganisms. . the study of an organism’s genes.

Chapter 1 The Microbial World and You Classification of Microbes Taxonomy • The science of classifying organisms • Provides universal names for organisms • Provides a reference for identifying organisms .

Chapter 1 The Microbial World and You Classification of Microbes Taxonomy • Systematics or phylogeny • The study of the evolutionary history of organisms • All Species Inventory (2001-2025) • To identify all species of life on Earth .

Chapter 1 The Microbial World and You Classification of Microbes Taxonomic Hierarchy Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Dumb Kings Play Chess On Funny Green Squares .

Class Order Family Genus Species .Chapter 1 The Microbial World and You Classification of Microbes Taxonomic Hierarchy Domain Kingdom Phylum Binomal Nomenclature uses the Genus and Species name to identify each creature.

Chapter 1 The Microbial World and You Classification of Microbes Taxonomic Hierarchy Each name is Latinized There is a specific way to write each name. sapiens . Homo sapiens The first word is capitalized Name is in italics Homo sapiens H.

Chapter 1 The Microbial World and You .

Chapter 1 The Microbial World and You .

Chapter 1 The Microbial World and You .

Chapter 1 The Microbial World and You Bacteria (or Eubacteria) Most abundant on earth They are nitrogen fixers and recycle carbon No membrane bound organelles .

Chapter 1 The Microbial World and You Archaea Methanogens Halophiles Hyperthermophiles .

Chapter 1 The Microbial World and You Classification of Microbes .

Chapter 1 The Microbial World and You Classification of Microbes •Eukaryotic species: •A group of closely related organisms that breed among themselves •Prokaryotic species: •A population of cells with similar characteristics •Clone: Population of cells derived from a single cell •Strain: Genetically different cells within a clone •Viral species: •Population of viruses with similar characteristics that occupies a particular ecological niche .

Chapter 1 The Microbial World and You Classification of Microbes .

Chapter 1 The Microbial World and You Classification of Microbes Let’s examine some microbes Paramecium caudatum Euglena acus Peridiniumis .a dinoflagellate .

. • Microbes normally present in and on the human body are called normal microbiota.Chapter 1 The Microbial World and You Microbes and Human Disease • Bacteria were once classified as plants which gave rise to use of the term flora for microbes. • This term has been replaced by microbiota.

• Resistance factors include skin. • Normal microbiota produce growth factors such as folic acid and vitamin K. and antimicrobial chemicals. • Resistance is the ability of the body to ward off disease. . stomach acid.Chapter 1 The Microbial World and You Microbes and Human Disease • Normal microbiota prevent growth of pathogens.

disease results. • Emerging Infectious Diseases (EID): New diseases and diseases increasing in incidence .Chapter 1 The Microbial World and You Microbes and Human Disease • When a pathogen overcomes the host’s resistance.

thinskinned Firmicutes – gram-positive cell walls. primitive procaryotes with unusual cell walls & nutritional habits . thick skinned Tenericutes – lack a cell wall & are soft Mendosicutes – archaea.Chapter 1 The Microbial World and You Major Taxonomic Groups of Bacteria per Bergey’s manual Gracilicutes – gram-negative cell walls.

susceptibility to bacterial viruses (phage type) and in pathogenicity (pathotype). morphovars) type – a subspecies that can show differences in antigenic makeup (serotype or serovar).species –a collection of bacterial cells which share an overall similar pattern of traits in contrast to other bacteria whose pattern differs significantly strain or variety – a culture derived from a single parent that differs in structure or metabolism from other cultures of that species (biovars. .

morphovars) type – a subspecies that can show differences in antigenic makeup (serotype or serovar).species –a collection of bacterial cells which share an overall similar pattern of traits in contrast to other bacteria whose pattern differs significantly strain or variety – a culture derived from a single parent that differs in structure or metabolism from other cultures of that species (biovars. . susceptibility to bacterial viruses (phage type) and in pathogenicity (pathotype).