OPTICAL NETWORKS

• FDDI • SONET/SDH • DWDM Networks

Fiber Distributed-Data Interface (FDDI)

• a standard for data transmission on fiber optic lines in that can extend in range up to 200 km (124 miles) • protocol is based on the token ring protocol • An FDDI network contains two token rings, one for possible backup in case the primary ring fails. The primary ring offers up to 100 Mbps capacity. If the secondary ring is not needed for backup, it can also carry data, extending capacity to 200 Mbps. The single ring can extend the maximum distance; a dual ring can extend 100 km (62 miles)

functions
• 100-Mbps token-passing, dual-ring LAN using fiber-optic cable. • CDDI is the implementation of FDDI protocols over twistedpair copper wire • FDDI uses a dual-ring architecture with traffic on each ring flowing in opposite directions (called counter-rotating)

Specifications
FDDI's four specifications are : • the Media Access Control (MAC), • Physical Layer Protocol (PHY), • Physical-Medium Dependent (PMD), • Station Management (SMT)

• The MAC specification defines how the medium is accessed, including frame format, token handling, addressing, algorithms for calculating cyclic redundancy check (CRC) value, and error-recovery mechanisms • The PHY specification defines data encoding/decoding procedures, clocking requirements, and framing, among other functions • The PMD specification defines the characteristics of the transmission medium, including fiber-optic links, power levels, bit-error rates, optical components, and connectors • The SMT specification defines FDDI station configuration, ring configuration, and ring control features, including station insertion and removal, initialization, fault isolation and recovery, scheduling, and statistics collection.

FDDI Station-Attachment Types
• One of the unique characteristics of FDDI is that multiple ways actually exist by which to connect FDDI devices. FDDI defines three types of devices: single-attachment station (SAS), dual-attachment station (DAS), and a concentrator. • An SAS attaches to only one ring (the primary) through a concentrator. One of the primary advantages of connecting devices with SAS attachments is that the devices will not have any effect on the FDDI ring if they are disconnected or powered off. Concentrators will be discussed in more detail in the following discussion.

• Each FDDI DAS has two ports, designated A and B. These ports connect the DAS to the dual FDDI ring. Therefore, each port provides a connection for both the primary and the secondary ring. As you will see in the next section, devices using DAS connections will affect the ring if they are disconnected or powered off.. • An FDDI concentrator (also called a dualattachment concentrator [DAC]) is the building block of an FDDI network. It attaches directly to both the primary and secondary rings and ensures that the failure or power-down of any SAS does not bring down the ring. This is particularly useful when PCs, or similar devices that are frequently powered on and off, connect to the ring

FDDI Frame Format
• Preamble - Gives a unique sequence that prepares each station for an upcoming frame. • Start delimiter - Indicates the beginning of a frame. • Frame control - Indicates the size of the address. • Destination address - Origin and destination address • Source address - Identifies the single station that sent the frame. • Frame check sequence (FCS) - CRC error - checking • End delimiter - End of the frame. • Frame status - Identifies whether the frame was recognized and copied by a receiving station.

Dual Ring

APPLICATION

SONET/SDH

• SONET is synchronous optical network and was developed by the North American carriers using ANSI as the standards body • SDH is synchronous digital hierarchy and uses the ITU-T standard for the rest of the world

Reason for development?
The standard defines a hierarchy of interface rates that allow data streams at different rates to be MULTIPLEXED.

Scalable digital heirarchy by Public switched network (PSN) providers

STM 8

STS(Synchronous Transport Signal) is the basic SONET building block

STM (Synchronous Transport Module) is the basic SDH building block

Architecture

SONET LAYERS

• • • •

photonic layer section layer line layer path layer

SONET FRAME
• The basic SONET frame is set up as shown below, as 9 rows of 90 octets. It is transmitted from left to right and top to bottom. That is, the octet in the upper left corner is transmitted first followed by the second octet, first row, etc

• STS-1 (Synchronous Transport Signal) is the basic SONET building block. It can be considered as in fig above with the first 3 columns being reserved for section and line overhead. This leaves 87 columns for the STS-1 synchronous payload envelope. • Basic SONET rate = 9 rows X 90 columns X 64 kbit/sec = 53.84 Mbit/sec • Overhead = 9 rows X 3 columns = 27 bytes/125 ms = 3.728 Mbit/sec • SPE = 9 rows X 87 columns = 783 bytes/125 ms = 50.112 Mbit/sec • Information capacity = 9 rows X 86 columns = 774 bytes/125 ms = 49.536 Mbit/sec

• STM-1 (Synchronous Transport Module) is the basic SDH building block. It can be considered as in fig 3.3 but has a width of 270 columns, with the first 9 columns being reserved for regenerator section and multiplexer section overhead. • Basic SDH rate = 9 rows X 270 columns X 8 bits X 8000 = 155.520 Mbit/sec • Overhead = 9 rows X 9 columns = 5.184 Mbit/sec • SPE = 9 rows X 261 columns = 150.336 Mbit/sec • Information capacity = 9 rows X 260 columns = 149.760 Mbit/sec

Comparison of SONET and SDH

Transport overhead is composed of section overhead and line overhead. Section overhead is used for communications between adjacent network elements. Line overhead is for the STS-N signal between the STS-N multiplexers. In addition to the transport overhead. Path-level overhead that is part of the SPE. Path-level overhead is carried from end-to-end

DWDM

BLOCK DIAGRAM

Components of any DWDMsystem:
Transmitters, Receivers, EDFA DWDM multiplexors DWDM demultiplexors

Optical Transmission Principles
• The DWDM system has an important photonic layer, which is responsible for transmission of the optical data through the network. Some basic principles, concerning the optical transmission, are explained in this section. These are necessary for the proper operation of the system. • Channel Spacing • Direction • Signal Trace

• Channel Spacing: The minimum frequency separation between two different signals multiplexed in known as the Channel spacing • Direction: An optical fiber helps transmit signal in both directions.
o Unidirectional o Bi-directional

• Signal Trace:The procedure of detecting if a signal reaches the correct destination at the other end
The international bodies have established a spacing of 100GHz to be the worldwide standard for DWDM. The frequency of each signal is less than the rest by atleast 0.1THz

DWDM TOPOLOGY
• POINT-TO-POINT TOPOLOGY • fully connected mesh network • star network • DWDM ring network with OADM nodes and a hub In addition, there are hybrid network topologies that may consist of stars and/or rings that are interconnected with point-topoint links • Metropolitan Optical Network project (MONET)

POINT-TO-POINT TOPOLOGY

RING-CONFIGURED MESH AND STAR NETWORKS

DWDM HUB
Transmit Direction

Receive Direction

FAULTS

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