Age of Religious Wars

Struggle for Power

Religion or Politics ?

Protestants vs. Catholics
• Reformation caused a series of wars. • Europe was trying to RE-Discovery itself. • Wars are both national and international conflicts.
– 1555: Peace of Augsberg -> cuius regio, eius religio – 1563: Council of Trent ended – 1564: Calvin dies in Geneva

Religion into Political Structure
• Catholics – stressed the episcopal church system where obedience to the person at the top was emphasized.
• Calvinists – adopted a presbyterian church system where local churches maintained individual control.

Cultural Developments
• Baroque Art: Three-dimensional display of life and energy. • Grandiose and elegant landscapes and portraits. • Differences in Catholic vs. Protestant
– Peter Paul Rubens: 1571-1640 – Rembrandt van Rijn: 1606-1669










but to kill a man” • Politiques: Rulers who urged tolerance and moderation for political unity. Relativism.Intellectual Developments • Skepticism. & Individualism – “To kill a man is not to defend a doctrine. .

France remained a staunch foe of Protestants.French Wars of Religion • • • • • 1562-1598 French Protestants.Huguenots Edict of Fontainebleu 1540 Edict of Chateaubriand 1551 For the most part. .

• Francis II becomes KING. • Families vie for power: .Internal Conflicts • Henry II accidentally dies and breaks Habsburg-Valois peace.Bourbons .Montmorency-Chatillons .Guises .

Francis II and then Charles IX • Guise sympathies • War with the Huguenots • Machiavellian .Catherine de Medicis • Ascends to power. as the regency of her son.

Factors of War • Peace of Saint-Germain-en-Laye . 1572 over 20. . • 1571 – Battle of Lepanto Spain crushes the Turks • Saint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre .August 24. Granted religious freedom to the Huguenots.000 Protestants were killed.In 1570.

Bartholomew’s Day Massacre .St.

a Huguenot Protestant. • A true politique • Edict of Nantes 1598: Granted the religious freedom of worship. Henry III was stabbed and Henry (IV) Navarre. . came to power.A Nominal Peace • In 1589.

Henry IV • 1589-1610 • Bourbon Dynasty • A true politique who ended the Wars of Religion in France • Treaty of Vervins • Assassinated in 1610 by a Catholic Monk .

Pillars of Spanish Power • Philip II: Ruler of the Eastern Habsburg Dynasty. a true Machiavellian ruler • Extremely Catholic • Wealth and Power come from the New World. • Wanted complete control over Europe .

Philip II: 1556-1598 • New World Riches – Silver and Gold • Increased Population – Subjugated Poor • Efficient Bureaucracy – Controlled Lesser Nobles • Supremacy in the Mediterranean .

The Netherlands • Philip’s first attempt to seize northern Europe was in the Netherlands • His efforts.Calvinism makes its way into the Netherlands . were to no avail • 1550s . however.

Calvinist who opposed Philip II. . • Compromise of 1564: pledge to resist the decrees of Trent and the Inquisition. • Philip sends the Duke Alba to the Netherlands.Protestant Opposition • William of Orange .

000 soldiers • Reign of Terror • “Tenth Penny” Sales Tax .Duke of Alba • Arrives in Rotterdam 1567 • 10.


Splits the Netherlands.South: Catholic . capture the city of Brill • Pacification of Ghent: 1576 .Resistance & Unification • William of Orange joined forces with “Sea Beggars” • In 1572. .North: Protestant .

Wm of Orange declares Independence from Spain • 1584 . • 1581 .Towards Independence • Union of Arras: supported the CounterReformation -> Trent • Union of Utrecht: supported Calvinism.He was assassinated! • Independence not recognized until 1648 .

England’s Religious Wars • Mary Tudor: reinstates Catholicism • Married to Philip II – her cousin • “Bloody Mary” killed thousands of Protestants • Died 1558 supposedly giving birth no heir so Elizabeth I became the Regent .

Thomas Cranmer’s Execution .

Elizabeth I: 1558-1603 • A true politique • Political unity in England • Re-established the Church of England • Never marries .

Internal Problems • Catholicism vs. • Elizabeth sought the middle road • Protestants split in England: .Presbyterians . Protestantism in England.Congregationalists .

executes Mary Scots .External Problems • Problems stem from Spain • Elizabeth I was the only support and hope for the Protestants in northern Europe • 1585 .Treaty of Nonsuch • 1587 .

Tilbury Speech .

Spanish Armada: 1588 .


Political or Religious ? • The Thirty Years’ War was the last and most destructive wars of religion. • BUT… was it a political struggle or a religious crusade? . • It established the map of Europe and brought the world into modernity.

Spain. and HRE. • Calvinist took over the Palatine under elector Frederick III .Religious Divisions • Lutherans were established in the north and protected by the Peace of Augsburg. • Catholics had established a stronghold in France.


Four Periods of War • • • • Bohemian .1625-1629 Swedish .1630-1635 Swedish-French .1618-1625 Danish .1635-1648 .

Bohemian Period • Ferdinand a Habsburg Catholic makes an entrance in 1618. . • May 1618 .Defenestration of Prague • Calvinists protest and elect Frederick V to the Palatine. • Ferdinand finds allies in Spain and the Catholic League.

• The Catholic League and Albrecht of Wallenstein.Danish Period • King of Denmark .Christian IV was a Lutheran with BIG goals. • Edict of Restitution 1629 . a Catholic mercenary.

Swedish Period • Gustavos Adolphus wanted to maximize his interests in the mainland. • Wallenstein assassinated by Ferdinand . • Backed by the French and the Dutch • Killed in 1632 by Wallenstein in the Battle of Lutzen.

• The mostly deadly phase of the war. with over a third of the German population being wiped out.Swedish-French Period • French moved directly into the war. . • Resulted in a politically fragmented and weak German region.

but what exactly does it establish? • How did it significantly bring about the entrance into the modern era? .Treaty of Westphalia • Clearly this peace treaty is a secular document.


Interpretations • What was the motivating factor behind the Thirty Years’ War? .Greed .Politics .Religion .

Next Week • Briefly trace the paths to power of England and France in 17th century and define what the differences were in the two distinct formations. .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful