GEE 514 Solar Energy Institute

,
Dr.Mutlu BOZTEPE 1
Introduction to Control
Systems
G(s)
+
_
Course Objectives
 To provide a general understanding of the
characteristics of dynamic systems and feedback
control.
 To teach classical methods for analysing control
system accuracy, stability and dynamic
performance.
 To teach classical control system design
methods.

Course Contents
 Introduction to control systems
 Modelling of the physical systems
 Time domain analysis, Laplace transforms, Transfer
functions, System Responses
 Closed loop control systems
 Classical design in the s-domain
 Classical design in the frequency domain
 Digital control systems
 Nonlineer control systems, on/off control
 Design examples

Course Book
Advanced Control Engineering
Roland S. Burns
Butterworth-Heineman
Paperback, 464 pages, publication date: OCT-2001
ISBN-13: 978-0-7506-5100-4
ISBN-10: 0-7506-5100-8
http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/bookdescription.cws_home/677158/description#description
Introduction to Control
Systems
Control System Concepts
 A system is a collection of components which
are co-ordinated together to perform a function.
 Systems interact with their environment across a
separating boundary.
 The interaction is defined in terms of variables.
 system inputs
 system outputs
 environmental disturbances

Systems
Disturbance Inputs
Control Inputs
System Outputs
Engineering systems
Biological systems
Information systems
Subsystem
System Variables
 The system’s boundary depends upon the
defined objective function of the system.
 The system’s function is expressed in terms of
measured output variables.
 The system’s operation is manipulated through
the control input variables.
 The system’s operation is also affected in an
uncontrolled manner through the disturbance
input variables.

Car and Driver Example
 Objective function: to control the direction and
speed of the car.
 Outputs: actual direction and speed of the car
 Control inputs: road markings and speed signs
 Disturbances: road surface and grade, wind,
obstacles.
 Possible subsystems: the car alone, power
steering system, braking system, . . .

Antenna Positioning Control System
 Original system: the antenna with
electric motor drive systems.
 Control objective: to point the
antenna in a desired reference direction.
 Control inputs: drive motor voltages.
 Outputs: the elevation and azimuth of the
antenna.
 Disturbances: wind, rain, snow.


Antenna Control System
Functional Block Diagram
Physical Variables Information Variables
Antenna Motor
Power
amp
Diff.
amp
Ref.
input
Angle
sensor
volts
volts
volts
+
_
power
torque
Angular
position
Antenna System
Wind force
Feedback Path
Error
Control System Components
 System or process (to be controlled)
 Actuators (converts the control signal to a power
signal)
 Sensors (provides measurement of the system
output)
 Reference input (represents the desired output)
 Error detection (forms the control error)
 Controller (operates on the control error to form the
control signal, sometimes called compensators)

Feedback System Characteristics
 Consider the following speed control system
Load
K
l

Motor
K
m

Amp
K
a

Speed sensor
K
s

Reference
speed
u
+

_
Disturbance
torque
e
o

Open loop system
Feedback Path
e
r

+
+
T
d

T
m

Open Loop System Characteristics
The accuracy of the open loop system depends upon the calibration
of the gains and prior knowledge of the disturbance (choose the
control u to give the desired e
o
).
Problems:
 nonlinear or time varying gains
 unknown and varying disturbances
Load
K
l

Motor
K
m

Amp
K
a

u
Disturbance
torque
e
o

Open loop system
+
+
T
d

T
m

d l l m a
d m l o
T K u K K K
T T K
+ =
+ = ) ( e
Closed Loop Characteristics
Now consider the case with feedback
d
s l m a
l
r
s l m a
l m a
o
d l o s r l m a
d m l o
T
K K K K
K
K K K K
K K K
or
T K K K K K
T T K
+
+
+
=
+ ÷ =
+ =
1 1
) (
) (
e e
e e
e
Load
K
l

Motor
K
m

Amp
K
a

Speed sensor
K
s

Reference
speed
u
+

_
Disturbance
torque
e
o

Open loop system
Feedback Path
e
r

+
+
T
d

T
m

Closed Loop Characteristics
If K
a
is very large such that,


then,



K
s
is the sensor gain in units of volts per rad/s.
The input/output relationship is not very sensitive to
disturbances or changes in the system gains

s l m a s l m a
K K K K K K K K ~ + 1
d
s m a
r
s
o
T
K K K K
1 1
+ ~ e e
rad/s volts ~ 0
Closed Loop Characteristics
System Error
The control error is






Again, if the loop gain, K
a
K
m
K
l
K
s
is large, then the
error is small.
d
s l m a
s l
r
s l m a
d
s l m a
s l
r
s l m a
s l m a
o s r
T
K K K K
K K
K K K K
T
K K K K
K K
K K K K
K K K K
K e
+
÷
+
=
+
÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
÷ =
÷ =
1 1
1
1 1
1
) (
e
e
e e
Note: Gain Definitions

forward gain: K
a
K
m
K
l
feedback gain: K
s

loop gain: K
a
K
m
K
l
K
s

closed loop gain: forward gain
1 + loop gain

System Dynamics
 Consider a sudden change in the speed reference,
e
r
.
 The output speed, e
o
will not respond
instantaneously due to the inertial characteristics of
the motor and load, i.e. their dynamic
characteristics.
 The motor and load need to be represented by
dynamic equations rather than simple gains.
 The output response will generally lag the input and
may be oscillatory.

System Dynamics
Step Responses
0 2 4 6 8 10
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
Step Response, Ka=2
0 2 4 6 8 10
-0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
Step Response, Ka=20
e
o

e
o

e
r

e
r

T
m

T
m

K
a
= 2
K
a
= 20
Assume K
s
= 1.0
Control System Design Objectives
 Primary Objectives:
1. Dynamic stability
2. Accuracy
3. Speed of response
 Addition Considerations:
4. Robustness (insensitivity to parameter variation)
5. Cost of control
6. System reliability

Control System Design Steps
 Define the control system objectives.
 Identify the system boundaries.
 define the input, output and disturbance variables
 Determine a mathematical model for the
components and subsystems.
 Combine the subsystems to form a model for
the whole system.

Control System Design Steps
 Apply analysis and design techniques to
determine the control system structure and
parameter values of the control components, to
meet the design objectives.
 Test the control design on a computer
simulation of the system.
 Implement and test the design on the actual
process or plant.

Control System Design Steps
Examples of Control Systems
Room Temperature Control System
 Proportional
mode: Better
accuracy,
complex

 On/Off control
mode:
Thermostatic
control, simple,
low accuracy
Examples of Control Systems
Aircraft Elevator Control System
 Hydraulic
servomechanisms
have a good
power/weight
ratio, and are ideal
for applications
that require large
forces to be
produced by small
and light devices.
Examples of Control Systems
Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC) Machine
 The purpose of
this latter device,
which produces an
analog signal
proportional to
velocity, is to form
an inner, or minor
control loop in
order to dampen,
or stabilize the
response of the
system.
Examples of Control Systems
Ship Autopilot Control System
 Actual heading is
measured by a gyro-
compass (or magnetic
compass), compared
with desired value.
Error are send to
autopilot (Course-
keeping system)
 Actual rudder angle is
sensed, and autopilot
controls the ship
course by steering-gear.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.