2.

8 KINETICS
Prepared by: Miss Norhafiza Roslan

What is Chemical Kinetics?
 The study of the speed or RATE at which a

chemical reaction occurs.
 Rate of Reaction is the speed with which

reactants disappear and products form for a particular reaction.
 Studying the rates of reactions gives us

information about how reactions usually take place.

Factors that Affect Reaction Rate
 Concentration
 Temperature  Pressure  Surface area  Catalysts

Concentration
 The greater the concentration of the species in a liquid or

gaseous mixture, the greater the number of species per unit volume and the greater the frequency with which they will collide.  Hence an increase in concentration causes the rate of reaction to increase by increasing the collision frequency.  An increase in concentration increases the rate of reaction because:  the number of particles per unit volume increases  so the collision frequency increases

PRESSURE
 The greater the pressure in a gaseous mixture, the

greater the number of species per unit volume and the greater the frequency with which they will collide.  Hence an increase in pressure causes the rate of reaction to increase by increasing the collision frequency. The pressure of a system is generally increased by reducing its volume.  An increase in pressure increases the rate of reaction because
 the number of particles per unit volume increases
 so the collision frequency increases

TEMPERATURE

An increase in temperature increases the rate of a reaction for two reasons:
collision theory: When two chemicals react, their molecules have to collide with each other with sufficient energy for the reaction to take place. ii) kinetic theory: Increasing temperature means the molecules move faster.
i)

Surface Area
 For any reaction to happen, the particles of the

reactants must be brought into contact with each other.  Increasing the surface area of a solid, increases the reaction rate. A smaller particle size means a larger surface area. This leads to a speedier reaction.

Catalyst
 A catalyst is a substance which changes the rate

of a chemical reaction without itself being chemically altered at the end of the reaction.
 Catalysts will speed up the rate of reaction.  Catalyst are widely used in industry because;
 Allow reaction to take place at low temperature
 Are often enzymes- can generate specific product at room

temperature  Can reduce pollutions

THE COLLISION THEORY OF REACTION RATES

Activation Energy
 In order to react, they must collide with a certain

minimum kinetic energy. This is known as the activation energy.

Maxwell-Boltzmann Distribution of Molecular Energies

If a catalyst is added, the activation energy is lowered- Ea will move to the left.

 Since catalysts reduce the activation energy of a

chemical reaction, the number of particles which have sufficient energy to react will therefore increase. This can be shown graphically by considering the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of molecular energies:

Without catalyst

With catalyst

 So, the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution is an

example of a mathematical model that allows you to understand and predict the effect of changing conditions on the rate of reaction.

Measuring Reaction Rates
 Rate is a measure of a change that happens

over a single unit time. That unit time is most often a second, a minute, or an hour.  How a reaction rate is measured depends on the nature of the reactants and products. Some measurable quantities are:
 Measuring the volume of gas  Measuring the change in mass of the reaction

mixture.  Monitoring a colour change.

Measuring The Volume of a Gas
Reaction between zinc and dilute hydrochloric acid  Consider this reaction: Zn(s) + 2HCl(aq) ZnCl2(aq) + H2(g)

Method:

To measure the hydrogen gas released in the above reaction we use apparatus as shown. As the bubbles of gas are given off, the plunger in syringe moves out as hydrogen gas fills it. After, say every 20 seconds read the volume of gas in the syringe. The reaction is complete when syringe no longer moves.

the the we the

A fast reaction will have a steeper slope than a slower reaction.

Past year questions:
 The diagram below shows the Maxwell–Boltzmann energy

distribution curve for a sample of gas at a fixed temperature. Ea is the activation energy for the decomposition of this gas.

1. On this diagram sketch the distribution curve for the same sample of gas at a higher temperature 2. What is the effect of an increase in temperature on the rate of a chemical reaction? Explain your answer with reference to the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution. 3. What is the effect of the addition of a catalyst on the rate of a chemical reaction? Explain your answer with reference to the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution.

Past Year Question: Jan09
1) The diagram below shows the distribution of molecular energies in the reaction at 750˚C. On the same diagram, draw a curve to show the distribution at 500 ˚C and explain what effect this change in temperature would have on the rate of the reaction.
 draw the curve with higher peak to the left of 750 ˚C

peak. (1)  smaller area under curve above the Ea (1)  reaction rate slower as fewer particles have E ≥ Ea, so fewer collisions per second. (1)

2) Explain how a catalyst speeds up the rate of reaction.
 Provides alternative mechanism/pathway (1)  Of lower activation energy (1)

Past Year Question: Jan08
1) The manufacturer of ammonia would like to achieve a high rate of reaction and a high equilibrium yield of product. State and explain, in terms of collision theory, TWO ways to increase the rate of reaction. An increase in pressure does not alter the rate in this process.
 Temperature increase therefore molecules have

greater energy (1)  More molecules/ collisions have E ≥ Ea, (1)  therefore a greater proportion of the collisions are successful. (1)  Another way is addition of catalyst (1)  It provides alternative route of lower activation energy

Past Year Question: Jan07
1) The 1st step in the manufacturer of nitric acid is the catalytuic oxidation of ammonia. The reaction is usually carried out at 900˚C. State and explain the effect on the rate of reaction of using a temperature lower than 900 ˚C.
 Lowered rate because particles have less energy (1)

 Fewer molecules have energy > Ea (1)
 Smaller proportion of collisions results in reaction are successful.

(1)

2) Explain in terms of the frequency and energy of collisions, why an increase in temperature increases the rate of reaction.
 Higher temperature gives molecules higher energy (1)  So increase in frequency of collisions (1)

 Area under curve to the right of Ea greater at higher temperature

Past Year Question: Jan06
 Draw an enthalpy level diagram to show the

reaction profiles of the unanalyzed and catalyzed reactions.  Explain how the catalyst increases the reaction rate.
 Provides alternative mechanism/pathway (1)
 Of lower activation energy (1)  Hence a greater proportion of molecules can react.

(1)

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful