Equal Employment Opportunity

Introduction

Almost every organization, public and private, must abide by
 the Civil Rights Act  its amendment  Labor Laws  Labor Regulations

 other federal laws regulating employment

Laws Affecting Discriminatory Practices The Pregnancy Discrimination Act Companies may not  fire a female employee for being pregnant  refuse positive treatment based on pregnancy  deny insurance coverage to women Companies must  offer pregnancy leave (typically 6-10 weeks)  offer returning employee a similar job should the exact one be unavailable upon return .

is perceived by others as having such impairment Covers not only those with mobility and communication disabilities. has a history or record of such impairment 3. has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more life activities 2. . but those with HIV/AIDS and intellectual disabilities.Laws Affecting Discriminatory Practices Disabilities Act  extends protection and reasonable accommodations to those with a disability  defines disabled as a person who: 1.

annual leave. maternity leave.Laws Affecting Discriminatory Practices Medical Leave Act . to be enjoyed by the workers and employees of each enterprise shall be as prescribed. Leave: The public holidays. special leave. sick leave. 6*4o . leave with or without remuneration etc.

and HRM must be able to defend its practices.Relevant Supreme Court Cases HRM practices can be challenged by anyone. .

or hostile environment  unreasonably interferes with an individual’s work  adversely affects an employee’s employment opportunities Glass ceiling .Issues in Employment Law EEOC: Instances where verbal or physical conduct creates: sexual harassment  an intimidating.lack of women and minority representation at the top levels of organizations comparable worth OFCCP has glass ceiling initiative promotes career development for women and minorities looks for such in its audits . offensive.

China’s recent labor laws seek to protect employees from such practices Canadian laws closely parallel those in the U. employees more likely to be unionized Australia Australia’s discrimination laws not enacted until the 1980s Representative participation (work councils and board representatives) put labor on par with management and stockholders Germany .S.HRM in a Global Environment Laws affecting HRM vary greatly by country. China 60/100-hour work-weeks not uncommon. Canada Mexico In Mexico.

Employee Rights and Discipline 9 .

and Supreme Court rulings have increasingly constrained employer actions Nepal: Rare case where employer has won a case against employee . laws.S.Introduction  employee rights have become one of the more important human resource issues  the U. Constitution.

Current Issues in Employee Rights Employee Monitoring and Workplace Security Company interests are protected against  theft  revealing of trade secrets to competitors  using the customer database for personal gain  lost productivity HRM policies must be clear on monitoring  e-mail  the Internet  phone How to balance security with employees’ rights? That is the question! .

.org/hrdisciplines/technolo gy/Articles/Pages/TwitterCarefully.aspx Technology has blurred the line between public and private.shrm.Current Issues in Employee Rights Employee Monitoring and Workplace Security Monitoring could extend to cyber places such as: See “Twitter with Care” from SHRM http://www.

Current Issues in Employee Rights Workplace Romance Companies  try to prevent employee romance because of potential discrimination or sexual harassment issues  can issue fraternization policies and guidelines on how relationships at work may exist  may ask parties to sign a consensual contract HRM concerns: favoritism charges. low productivity. even workplace violence . ethics breeches.

age. or disability. national origin.The Employment-at-Will Doctrine Employment-at-Will Doctrine Allows dismissal of employees at any time for any reason except race. sex. contractual relationship: a legal agreement exists defining how employee issues are handled 2. religion. Exceptions to the doctrine: 1. statutory considerations: federal and/or state laws can create exceptions .

verbal or written.The Employment-at-Will Doctrine Employment-at-Will Doctrine Exceptions to the doctrine: 3. . 5. Breach of good faith: An employer breaches a promise or abuses its managerial powers. Public policy violation: Employees cannot be fired for disobeying an illegal order from the employer 4. Implied employment contract: any promise or guarantee about job security.

HR managers should first consider:  seriousness of the problem  duration of the problem  frequency and nature of the problem  extenuating factors  degree of socialization  history of organization’s discipline practices  management backing .Discipline and Employee Rights Discipline A condition where employees conduct themselves in accordance with the organization’s rules and standards of acceptable behavior.

Discipline and Employee Rights The most frequent violations requiring disciplinary action attendance dishonesty outside activities Job behaviors .

or the bye-laws made by the enterprise. (c) in case of stealing any property of the Enterprises – (c1) in case the business transaction of the enterprise is misappropriated. (f) in case of participating or compelling others to participate in any strike declared as illegal or irregular. * (k) in case it is provided by the doctor of the fact of coming to the duty ********* (l) in case of doing any activity to breach secrecy relating to special technology or production formula of the enterprise with a motive of causing damage to the enterprise whereon himself/herself is working • • • • • • • • • • • . (b) in case of creating or causing to create any stir within the enterprise affecting the production process or service works of the enterprise. (i) in case of frequently violating knowingly the orders or directives issued under this Act or the rules made hereunder. Manager or employee with or without use of arms or causing any turbulence or destruction or assault within the enterprise in connection with the labour dispute or on any other matter. or obstructing movement within the enterprise. or causing damage thereto or taking and using it outside the enterprise or giving for use to unauthorized person without permission of the competent authority. or misbehaves with the customers of the enterprise. (j) in ease of frequently remaining absent from the work without obtaining permission or coming late after the regular time. detaining to the Establishment. – (c2) in case for more than thirty consecutive days is being absented (d) in case bribe is offered or accepted. or disconnecting the line of telephone and electricity. (g) in case of participating in strikes without fulfilling the legal requirements or knowingly going slow in works against interests of the enterprise. (e) in case of being imprisoned on being convicted on a criminal offence involving moral turpitude. (h) in ease of destroying any property of the enterprise.51. or obstructing the supply of food and water. Misconduct: • (a) in case of causing any bodily injury or keeping in fetters.

Punishments: (1) Any worker or employee. the punishment awarded under sub-section (1) shall not be counted after expiring of three years from the date of awarding the punishment. (e) or (l) of Section 51 may be dismissed from service. • (3) One who does any act of misconduct as mentioned in clause (b). • (5) In case any worker or employee having been punished twice for any act of misconduct under sub-sections (1). (2) or (3) again does the same act of misconduct he may be dismissed from service. (c2). may be punished by withholding the annual increment. (g) or (h) of Section 51. . • # (6) It shall not be deemed to have impediment made by the provision of this Section to the Establishment to award lighter punishment than the prescribed punishment. (d) or (k) of Section 51. (j) or (m) of Section 51 may be punished by reprimanding. (f). who does any act of misconduct as mentioned in clauses (i). • (2) One who does any act of misconduct as mentioned in clauses (c1). • (4) One who does any act of misconduct as mentioned in clauses (a). may be suspended for up to three months. • # Provided that. (c).

Provided that.53. * (2) In case the worker or employee does not submit his explanation within the period as specified under sub-section (1) or if the explanation submitted by him is not found satisfactory. the notice shall be sent by registered post at his address and a copy of such notice shall be displayed in the public notice board of the enterprise. it should be done within two months from the date of service of notice demanding explanation. • • • . (3) In case the concerned worker or employee refuses to take the notice served pursuant to sub-section (1) or remains absent. Provided that. any action shall not be taken regarding such misconduct after expiry of two months from the date of commitment of such misconduct. while making decision regarding such punishment. together with an opportunity to submit his explanation within seven days. and a recognizance regarding service of notice by displaying in the notice board shall be executed in witnesses of at least three persons and a copy of such notice shall also be sent to the concerned Labour Office and thereafter. Procedures: • * (1) Before awarding any punishment under Section 52. any permanent worker or employee shall be served a notice mentioning the facts of the misconduct committed by him and the type of punishment that may be awarded to him if proven. he may be punished according to Section 52 for the offense of misconduct. it shall be deemed that such notice was duly served to the concerned worker or employee.

Real people’s “real” reasons for being late to work: “My heat was shut off so I had to stay home to keep my snake warm.“ “A gurney fell out of an ambulance and delayed traffic.” “I feel as if I’m in everyone’s way if I show up on time.shrm.“ http://www.org/Publications/HRNews/Pages/TardinessTermination.” “My bike tire went flat after a groundhog bit it.aspx .Discipline and Employee Rights Even tardiness can lead to disciplinary action.“ “My father didn’t wake me up.” “My husband thinks it’s funny to hide my car keys before he goes to work.

dismissal)  follow the Hot-Stove rule: give an immediate response give ample warning be consistent be impersonal Allow employees to have a representative present for disciplinary meetings.Discipline and Employee Rights Disciplinary Guidelines  make disciplinary action corrective rather than punitive  use a progressive approach (verbal warning. written warning. . suspension.

Discipline and Employee Rights Disciplinary Actions written/verbal warning written warning suspension dismissal .

give severance pay 7. have person leave that day 10. pay for earned time 9. etc. inform person of benefits 11.) 12. be very clear 4. allow a little dignity 5. set the stage 3. inform staff of firing . sign waiver of right to sue 8. let the employee talk 6. review all facts 2. take protective steps (change passwords.Discipline and Employee Rights When firing an employee: 1.

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