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Attitudes: Putting theory into practice

ATTITUDES TOWARDS PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES
Deviance Amplification Physical differences

Isolation of groups
More differences evolve Increasing levels of misconceptions

Attitudes
Thoughts
(intellect)

(emotions)

Feelings

+ +

(behavior)

Actions

Concept of “spread”

THOUGHTS Devices for Overcoming Stereotypes Indexing: Actively remembering differences within a category. Dating: Actively remembering things and people constantly change.

Etcetera: Actively remembering no description is ever complete.

FEELINGS SOURCES OF NEGATIVE FEELINGS

need to see a just world cultural and parental training

isolation uncertainty and anxiety
reaction to own anxiety

Attribution of Causality or “Blame”
        

Leprosy (“the unclean”) in the past? Obesity HIV/AIDS Lung Cancer Diabetes Heart Disease psychological conditions e.g. depression/anxiety, Psychosomatic illnesses Etc.

Genetic and physiological dispositions  Behaviour  Social factors  Cultural factors  Economic factors  Environmental factors  Etc. (e.g. in HIV/AIDS among very young females in Saskatchewan or in poor 3rd world countries.)

Epidemiology Pathway/Cause of disease usually involves may factors

HOW TO IMPROVING NEGATIVE FEELINGS

understanding of feelings exposure to individuals with disabilities

ACTIONS

Rejection
Social Interaction
(casual, jigsaw technique, small mixed groups, etc.)

Acceptance Stage 1: Fictional acceptance Stage 2: Breaking though Stage 3: Normalization of Relationship

Changing Behaviour
The modern multifaceted approach.

Traditional Approaches
Laws and Organizational Rules (They do work)
Educational Motivational Appeals (can result in new awareness and new skills)

Traditional Approaches
BUT  BOTH TRADITIONAL APPROACHES “TELL” WHAT TO DO.  THEREFORE GET REACTANCE (i.e.) THE BEHAVIOR SEEN AS BEING RAMMED DOWN THROATS)

NOW ACCEPTED THAT:
Law based strategies

need to reflect community consensus require surveillance and control
(e.g. traffic control)

don’t allow freedom of choice

Educational/Motivational Appeals

yield only short term results, if any
compete with other factors in life (e.g. workplace, highway)

requires other components to have strong or lasting impact

PRESENT STRATEGIES:
LAW BASED

attention to social consensus done in conjunction to strategies below used as a component of larger programs use “multifaceted” approach (more than mass media) i.e. includes schools, workplace community organizations, etc. linking target behaviour (e.g. safety behaviour) to existing needs, interests, etc. linking onto what the target group is willing to do

EDUCATIONAL/MOTIVATIONAL APPEALS

SOCIAL MARKETING

PERSONAL PARTICIPATION

LOCAL GROUP/COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION
 

workplace and community groups and organizations used to deliver and institutionalize programs need to design programs to help the organizations/agents achieve their mandate need to assist in development of community groups (e.g. spouses of miners, MADD, SADD, etc.

SOCIAL MARKETING
1) STUDY THE TARGET GROUP  social demographic factors (e.g. age marital status)  needs, interests, goals values etc.  lifestyle, friends, how they spend their time etc.  specific perceptions of (e.g. risk, accidents safety programs, safety organizations, using personal protective equipment)  global perceptions of the organization, their role in the organization, safety policy, J.H.S.C. etc.  style of speech (how they describe their environment, organization, themselves etc.)

SOCIAL MARKETING
2) SEGMENT AND DEFINE THE TARGET GROUP 3) DEVELOP PROGRAMS WHICH LINK TO ABOVE 4) PRESENT PROGRAMS AS LINKED TO ABOVE (e.g. Safety behaviour presented as a means to their existing goals, interests, values etc.)

PERSONAL PARTICIPATION
Requires:
 

free choice minimal external justification knowledge of what persons will do. discussion over lecture foot-in-door (e.g. small favours) public commitment (e.g. lip service, buttons, public support) labelling reverse modelling (e.g. teaching safety to the new workers) legitimizing small contributions (e.g. helping behaviours) social comparisons (e.g. utility companies)

Techniques:


    

LOCAL GROUP/COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION
GOALS  involve lots of people to get “critical mass” to change culture (i.e. norms, expectancies)

establish locally driven programs which become institutionalized so influence is perpetual without external help.

NEED TO:  ID. groups/agents that influence target group  ID. the mandate, needs, interest etc, of influence groups/agents  design programs which promote these interests and help them achieve their mandate  help evaluate and develop programs into valued independent institutions  help formulate key groups (e.g. spouses of miners, MADD, SADD)

LOCAL GROUP/COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION

LOCAL GROUP/COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION
GROUPS/AGENTS TO INCLUDE workplace (e.g. naturally occurring groups, top, middle, lower management, JHSC, union) Community (e.g. social service clubs, recreational, religious organizations) Family (e.g. spouses, children) Create new groups (e.g. MADD or SADD)

PLANS
STEP 1: GET SOCIAL DEMOGRAPHIC DATA
(e.g. age, marital status, group memberships) USE INFORMATION FROM:  human resources  organizational chart  census  health and safety people  Systematic observations from various locations  Interviews with people

PLANS
STEP 2: CONDUCT FOCUS GROUPS TO:

rub shoulders, talk to workers learn their language, style of speech

hear how they talk among peers
get discussion on topic (e.g. safety) global perceptions of the organization such as labour relations, morale, safety policy, role in organization, JHSC)

Plans
STEP 2 continued:

specific perceptions of target behaviour (e.g. safety) such as risks, accidents, existing programs, incentive systems, what stimulates safety, what competes with safety, what would influence them regarding safety values goals such as what are valued activities on and off the job and what are valued consequences

Needs
lifestyle such as how do they spend time what groups do they join

PLANS
STEP 3: DEVELOPS SURVEY:

to verify focus group information to place ideas in broader perspective

STEP 4: SELECT, DEVELOP AND TAILOR PROGRAMS

to link up with key groups/organizations/agents and work with them.

PLANS
STEP 5: REGULAR EVALUATIONS  e.g. every 6 months for 3 years  use appropriate indices of success (e.g. accident rates, perceptions, attitudes, safety awareness, skills, reporting of incidences. STEP 6: INSTITUTIONALIZATION OF PROGRAMS

BEHAVIOUR MODIFICATION in the workplace
AKA PEER EVALUATION PROGRAM OR CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM

Operant conditioning: the ABC’s of b.mod.
“A”
Antecedents (prompts) e.g. pizza deliverer rings the doorbell

“B”
Behaviour (actions)

“C”
Consequences (rewards/punishments) e.g. you get and eat the pizza

Overview of steps

1. Introduce the plan to key people
2. Form a joint labor-management committee (involving participation of key employees) 3. Review history of problems 4. Identify and specify CRITICAL BEHAVIOURS 5. Identify and manage environmental influences on critical behaviours including antecedents and consequences

6. Create a written list of critical behaviours (clear and concise)
7. Train co-workers to be PEER EVALUATORS 8. MEASURE COMPLIANCE BY SAMPLING BEHAVIOUR (peer evaluators observe, record, discuss and forward anonymous data) 9. PROVIDE FEEDBACK (verbally, via charts) AND OTHER REWARDS 10. USE INFORMATION TO IDENTIFY AND MANAGE ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES

FOUR ENVIRONMENTS:
PHYSICAL
TASK ORGANIZATIONAL SOCIAL-CULTURAL

Behavior Modification and Achieving Self-Control
From Weiten (2003) based upon Watson and Tharp (1997)

Achieving Self-Control through Behavior Modification

1. Specifying your target behavior

Clearly define overt behaviors (not personality traits) by pondering the past or closely observing future behavior (specific examples)

Specifying your “target behavior”

Focus on clearly defined overt behavior--Not personality traits (“I don’t have the strength.”) Vague statements about traits need be translated into precise descriptions of specific target behaviors. To identify target behaviors need to ponder past behavior or closely observe future behavior and list specific examples or responses that lead to the trait description (e.g. “I don’t have the strength” refers to—not resisting rich deserts after big meal, not holding back from having the second helping of spaghetti.)

Achieving Self-Control through Behavior Modification

3.

Gather baseline data
Determine initial level of response. Identify and monitor possible controlling antecedents. Identify and monitor possible controlling consequences

Remember four Environments Physical TASK ORGANIZATIONAL SOCIAL-CULTURAL

Achieving Self-Control through Behavior Modification

3.

Design your program

Select strategies to increase response strength  selecting effective reinforcers  arranging the contingencies Select strategies to decrease response strength  reinforcement  control of antecedents  punishment

Achieving Self-Control through Behavior Modification

4. Execute and evaluate your program

Enforce contingencies that you have carefully planned Accurately record the frequency of your target behavior Can make up a behavioral contract or have others hand out reinforcers or punishments

5. Ending your program

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