WHAT IS ENVIRONMENT?
 Derived from French word ‘Environ’ meaning encircle
 It is one’s surroundings i.e., Biosphere  Biosphere encapsulates earth and includes:

1. Abiotic environment
2. Biotic environment

 Definition: In real world everything that affects an

organism during its life time is collectively known as ‘Environment’

INTERRELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PRINCIPLE COMPONENTS OF ENVIRONMENT

BIOSPHERE

It includes: 1. Lithosphere .Biosphere is the global sum of all ecosystems. It refers to our environmental surroundings which is the zone of life on earth. Hydrosphere 3. Atmosphere 2.

atmosphere .

HYDROSPHERE .

LITHOSPHERE .

ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES It is a field of study that systematically studies human interaction with the environment. It is understanding the functions of various components of environment. .

Thus. land.) . help us understand the scientific basis for establishing standards acceptably safe. soil & organisms which lead to pollution or environmental degradation. aquatic life. clean & healthy for man & natural ecosystem (animals. birds. etc. vegetation.It deals with the analysis of the processes in water. air.

MAJOR GOALS OF EVS To improve the quality of Environment To create an awareness among the people on environmental problems and conservation To create an atmosphere so that people participate in decision making and develop the capabilities to evaluate the developmental programmes .

to. Day. biotic and abiotic factors and their role in the .day interaction with the surroundings SCOPE OF EVS with which human being is closely associated  Related to many branches of science  Concerned with the importance of wild life & its protection  Explains the significant role of biodiversity in establishing ecological balance  Deals with the different types of ecosystems.

impact of population growth on the resource consumption and national economy  Explains the coexistence of both living and non living organisms and their contribution to the . food webs. growth and development.significance and sustenance of ecosystems  Concerned with different types of food chains. carrying capacity of ecosystems  Gives information relating to population explosion. biomass. productivity.

watershed management and the importance of water .nature for its sustenance  Deals in relation to ethos and the impact of ethical principles in the conservation of wild life. biodiversity and environment  Explains the significance of forests and their products in the human routine and to country’s economy  Gives information about water conservation.

IMPORTANCE OF EVS Environment issues being of international importance Problems cropped in the wake of development Explosively increase in population Need for an alternative solution Need to save humanity from extinction Need for wise planning of development .

NATURAL RESOURCES Natural resources are the component of environment that can be utilized by man to promote his well being. These are the component of environment which are inherently created by environment for supporting life .

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herbs. shrubs. Forest is a biotic community comprising vegetation of trees. etc.Forest is an area with a high density of trees . forests vary a great deal in composition & density FOREST RESOURCES .

Functions of forests 1. Protective functions 3. Productive functions 2. Regulative functions .

cardboard etc. gums. paper.)  Minor forest products (canes. mats. dyes. resins.. rayon. temporary structure for tents. oils. baskets. floorings etc. . Wood (for cooking & heating) USES/IMPORTANCE  Timber (for furniture etc. spices.)  Bamboo (for scaffoldings in buildings.

Honey. medicinal plants. wax. silk.fruits. lac from insects) Vital role in the life & economy of tribal people & forest dwellers Ecological significance Aesthetic & other values .

Bad effects on dwellers economy 4. Loss of cultural values . Lack of aesthetic look 5. Ecological imbalance 2.Over.exploitation of forests  Effects : 1. Endangered tribal life 3.

DEFORESTATION .

The reckless demolition of plants and trees. . It is the cutting down of forests for commercial use without planting new one in lieu their of.

ENERGY RESOURCES
Energy is a key input for domestic

needs, industrial & economic development. It is also a pre-requisite for sustaining industrial growth. With industrialization & urbanization, the need for energy has continuously grown,

In power plants

USES/ IMPORTANCE

In transportation sector
In space technology

In military uses
In industrial sector

For domestic purposes

TIMBER EXTRACTION

Timber extraction is obtaining logs from the forests. It becomes undesirable when it falls in the category of deforestation .

MINING .

coal. etc. fossil fuels.Mining refers to the process of digging the earth to extract minerals. .

DAMS .

The water thus stored is utilized for multipurpose services.Dams are huge and giant structures constructed across a river to obstruct its natural flow. . Consequently an enormously large artificial lake is created to store water.

WATER RESOURCES .

5 % is in the oceans 2 % is locked up in glaciers & ice caps Only about 1% is available as fresh surface water.97. lakes streams. and ground water fit to be used for human consumption and other uses .rivers.

USABLE CATEGORIES OF WATER Consumptive nature Non.consumptive nature Partially.consumptive nature .

USES/ IMPORTANCE For domestic use For industrial use For other purposes .

VARIOUS FORMS OF WATER .

MINERAL RESOURCES .

Classification of minerals Metallic Minerals (a) ferrous & (b) non-ferrous Non Metallic Minerals (a) Ceramic & (b) refractory Energy producing Minerals (a) Nuclear & (b) thermal .

. aviation. industries. defence. They are used in agriculture. transport.Uses of Minerals Minerals are used for vivid purposes. medicines etc.

 Mal-nourishment-due to lack of specific ingredients. World Food Problem  Under nourishment-due to lack of food.FOOD RESOURCES For survival of all living beings on the Earth food is a necessity. Hence the food resources are very much important. .

Causes of World Food Problem Over population Geographical conditions Natural disaster Dependence on monsoons for irrigation in many countries.soil erosion & inadequate water resources Inadequate food storage facilities. Environmental degradation. .

pesticide etc .Changes caused by Agriculture on Environment Deforestation Soil erosion Pollution caused due to increased use of fertilizers.

Changes caused by Overgrazing on Environment Soil erosion Loss of useful plant species Desertification Reduction in growth of vegetation .

Effect of Modern Agriculture Positive effects Increased food production  High economic profit Negative Effects Fertilizer-pesticide problems  Reduction in fertility of land/soil  Water become unfit for drinking purpose .

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it is the top surface layer of land.is a major constituent of Lithosphere. It is the most vital pert where vegetation grows. . It is the source of many minerals. materials & water. SOIL.LAND.

LAND DEGRADATION It refers to deterioration or loss of fertility or productivity of soil. Various factors responsible for it are Soil erosion  Soil pollution  Landslides  Water logging  Salination  Desertification  Shifting cultivation  Urbanization .

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Desertification LANDSLIDE .

WATERLOGGING SALINATION .

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Organisms + their environment Biotic components Abiotic components .

TYPES OF ECOSYSTEM .

STRUCTURE OF ECOSYSTEM .

THE LIVING AND NON.LIVING COMPONENTS OF NATURE INTERACTING WITH EACH OTHER TO FORM INTEGRATED ECOSYSTEM .

MOVEMENT OF MATERIALS IN CYCLIC MANNER. AND THAT OF ENERGY IN NONCYCLIC MANNER IN AN ECOSYSTEM .

ENERGY FLOW IN THE ECOSYSTEM .

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Hydrarch .  It is of two types: -primary -secondary  There are two kinds: .Xerarch . The process of ecological development which involves gradual and successive replacement of one population (community) by the other.

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STAGES  Pioneer  Seral  Climax .

CAUSES  Stabilising causes  Initial or initiating causes  Ecesis or continuing causes .

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FOOD CHAIN The sequence in which one organism consumes another to transfer food energy is called food chain .

Grazing food chain(starts from TYPES OF FOOD CHAIN green plants) Saprophytic food chain(starts from dead organic matter) .

is called a food web .FOOD WEB The inter-connected food chains operating in an ecosystem which establish a network of relationships between various species.

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SIMPLE GRASSLAND FOOD WEB .

COMPLEX POND FOOD WEB .

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The various links or steps in a food chain at which the transfer of food or energy takes place are called trophic levels In a food chain. each link representing an organism is a trophic level .

FIRST TROPHIC LEVEL plants which are producers SECOND TROPHIC LEVEL herbivores THIRD TROPHIC LEVEL carnivores FOURTH TROPHIC LEVEL Large or top carnivores .

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 Ecological pyramids are the diagrammatic representation of trophic structures in which the trophic levels are depicted in successive stages  Different stages are: 1 Base depicts producer which is 1st trophic level 2 Lower tier depicts primary consumer 2nd level 3 Higher tier depicts secondary consumer 3 rd level 4 Apex depicts tertiary consumer which is 4th trophic level .

TYPES OF PYRAMIDS PYRAMID OF NUMBERS .

PYRAMID OF BIOMASS .

PYRAMID OF ENERGY .

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