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By: Srishti Kochar Roll no: 50 Year: IV/II
10/22/12

Introduction

Nutrition is an essential and continuing component in the complex process of maintaining optimal health throughout life.

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Diet
 Definition

:-

› It is defined as the types and amount of

food eaten daily by an individual (FDI, 1994)
 It  It

refers to local action of foods on oral tissues. is comprised of the food, its consistency and the pattern and frequency of eating.
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10/22/12 .Nutrition  Definition :- › It is defined as the sum of the processes by which an individual takes in and utilizes food.(FDI. 1994)  It deals with those parts or elements of food that are absorbed through intestinal tract and enters into metabolic process of the body in the formation and replacement of tissue.

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Malnutrition  Definition :- › A pathological state resulting from a relative or absolute deficiency or excess of one or more essential nutrients. 10/22/12 .

Classification of Foods 10/22/12 .

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Nutrients 10/22/12 .

Proteins 10/22/12 .

Major function 10/22/12 .

.Obtained from ICMR recommended 1 gram protein/kg body weight for an 10/22/12 indian adults.

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Major functions 10/22/12 .

Obtained from 10/22/12 .

Carbohydrates Carbohydrates reserved – 500 gms 10/22/12 .

Major functions 10/22/12 .

10/22/12 .  Part of enzyme system.Vitamins  They are not synthesized in human body.

Vitamin A Daily intake:600 micrograms. 10/22/12 .

Functions 10/22/12 .

sh 10/22/12 .

Vitamin D 10/22/12 .

Functions 10/22/12 .

8 miligrams/ essential fatty acids. › Vegetable oils › Egg yolk › Butter  Sources:-  Daily requirement:. 10/22/12 .Vitamin E (Tocopherol)  Naturally occurring fat soluble compounds.0.

It is stored in liver)  Role:- Stimulate production or release coagulation factors.synthesized by intestinal bacteria. cow’s milk ) › K2 ( Source:.fresh green leafy vegetables. Requirements:.03 mg/kg for 10/22/12  Daily .Vitamin K  Fat soluble occurs in two forms:- › K1 ( Source:.0.

The B-complex vitamins Click to edit Master subtitle style 10/22/12 .

Thiamine (Vitamin B1) 10/22/12 .

Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) 10/22/12 .

Niacin (Nicotinic Acid) 10/22/12 .

legumes and vegetables.Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6)  Widely distributed in foods. fish. milk. egg yolk. meat. Requirement is 2 mg is rare. 10/22/12  Daily  Deficiency . liver.

10/22/12 .Pantothenic acid  All food contributes to its dietary intake requirement is 10 mg  Daily  Plays a role in biosynthesis of corticosteroid.

Folate (folacin / folic acid) 10/22/12 .

cynocobalamine. 10/22/12 . Therapeutic preparation.Vitamin B12   Complex organo-metallic compound with a cobalt atom.

body does not store vitamin C 10/22/12  Influences  Human . formation of hemoglobin and aids in absorption of iron from intestinal wall.Vitamin C  Water soluble  Maintain the cementing material that holds the body cells together.

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Minerals  Classification of minerals 10/22/12 .

Calcium  Functions Ø Formation of bones Ø Coagulation of blood Ø Contraction of muscles Ø Milk production Ø Keeping the cell membrane intact Ø Metabolism of enzymes & hormones 10/22/12 .

 Daily intake at least equal to calcium 10/22/12 .Phosphorous  Widely distributed in foodstuffs for the formation of bones &  Essential teeth.

› Regulation of body temperature. › Muscle activity 10/22/12 .Iron  Required for:- › Formation of hemoglobin › Brain development & function.

Deficiency :Iron deficiency anemia Impaired cell-mediated immunity Reduced resistance to infection Increased morbidity and mortality Diminished work performance 10/22/12 .

Iodine 10/22/12 .

minerals. amino acids. vitamins. fats. vitality and general well being and also small provision for extra nutrients to withstand short duration of leanness. carbohydrate and other nutrients is adequately met for maintaining health.Balanced Diet  It contains variety of foods in such a quantities and proportions that the need for energy. 10/22/12 .

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Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)  Dietary should be 20-30% of total daily intake. carbohydrate  avoided and alcohol consumption  restricted 15-20% of daily intake ketchups.  reduced 10/22/12  Protein  Colas. etc…. .  Saturated  Refined  Fats fat not more than 10% of total energy intake.

Effects of nutrition on Oral Tissues
 Nutrition

and dental caries:-

› Pre- eruptive effects › Post- eruptive effects

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Pre-eruptive effects: Enamel

maturation, physical and chemical composition, time of eruption, tooth morphology and size are all affected. dysplasias associated with malnutrition are:› Odontoclasia in deciduous dentition. › “yellow teeth” condition seen in

 Dental

permanent teeth.
10/22/12 › “infantile melanodontia” observed in

Post-eruptive effects: Decreased  Reduce  Due

salivary lysozyme and secretory IgA levels. the host defence mechanism to cariogenic organisms. to above all factors there is increasing caries susceptibility.

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in:› Class I malocclusions › Poor teeth alignment 10/22/12  But  Results .Nutrition and Malocclusion  Teeth size and jaw size is determined genetically during the early developmental process. jaw size determination takes longer. a chronic malnutrition would result in a stunted jaw growth.

inflammatory response. periodontal ligament. 10/22/12 . cellular and humoral immune mechanisms. alveolar bone. gingival connective tissue.Nutrition and Periodontal Disease  The main targets in nutritional deficiency are the epithelial barrier and attachment.

Various element deficiencies  Iron:- › Impaired neutrophils bacterial activity. reduced size of progenitor cells and delayed maturation of the epithelial barrier. reduced lymphocyte proliferation and response to antigens. thus increasing risk and severity of infrction. 10/22/12 . › Reduced thickness of oral epithelium.

 Vitamin C:- › Gingivitis with hemorrhagic. enlarged bluish-red gingivae classic sign of scurvy. Protein:- › Increased susceptibility to periodontal infection. teeth to exfoliate. › Severe deficiency of ascorbic acid causes 10/22/12 .

hyperkeratosis ans gingival hyperplasia. Vitamin A:- › Decreased salivary flow. 10/22/12 .  Vitamin B complex:- › Niacin deficiency predisposes gingivae to Vincent’s infection or ANUG.

 Vitamin K:- › Gingival bleeding and post-extraction bleeding.  Calcium and phosphorous:- loss following › Severe alveolar bone 10/22/12 .  Deficiency of Vitamin E causes no major affect.

› Arginine deficiency  cellular immune mechanisms is compromised. Amino Acids:- › Linoleic acid deficiency causes dermatitis and impaired wound healing. › Omega-3 fatty acid deficiency causes 10/22/12 . neurological changes.

Nutrition and Oral Cancer  Important  Foods role in the etiology of oral and pharyngeal cancers. contains both initiators and modifiers of carcinogenesis. factors protect against tumors by:› Acting as blocking agents › Altering metabolism of carcinogen › Increased detoxification 10/22/12  Nutritional .

› Treatment of Leukoplakia 10/22/12 . Vitamin A and retinoids:- › Inhibits chemically induced tumors › Lowers the risks of cancer › Minimizes the risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer › Preventing carcinogenesis › Retards the growth of tumors.

› Treatment of Leukoplakia 10/22/12 . › Acts as an antioxidant and free radical › Better than retinoids › Micronuclei formation in buccal cells is reversed. β- carotene scavenger.

 Vitamin C:- › Antioxidant › Inhibits the formation of carcinogenic cells › Enhancer of immune responses › Detoxification of carcinogens  Vitamin E:10/22/12 › Antioxidant .

10/22/12 . Vitamin B complex:- › Lesions in oral cavity display signs of deficiency of vitamin B.

and dental infirmities leads to poor nutritional status.g.Nutrition in the Elderly  Inability to chew food due to poorly functioning dentition. is diminished and appreciation of flavorful tastes is lacking. obesity. cardiovascular diseases. diabetes. osteoporosis and cancer OSTEOPOROSIS 10/22/12  Appetite  Medical  E.  ALVEOLAR .

› Promotion of breast feeding › Promotion of kitchen garden or keeping poultry.Preventive and Social Measures  Action at the family level:- › Nutritional education about correct selection of foodstuffs and balanced diet. › Correction of harmful food taboos 10/22/12 .

 Action at the community level:- › Analysis of extent. › Feeding programs. dietary and non-dietary factors. distribution and types of nutritional deficiencies. midday school meals 10/22/12 . population groups at risk. › Conduct of diet and nutrition surveys › Planning realistic and feasible approaches.

10/22/12 . iron and folic acids tablets for anaemia. Action at the national level:- › By rural development › Increasing agricultural production › Stabilization of population › Nutritional intervention programs ( iodized salt. vitamin A blindness) › Nutrition related health activities.

UNICEF. WHO. 10/22/12 . World Bank. Action at international level:- › FAO. UNDP and CARE are some health agencies helping national governments.

Conclusion  Nutrition is a vital to human development. 10/22/12 . growth and health maintenance.

References  Textbook of Preventive and Community Dentistry › By :.Soben Peter 10/22/12 .

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