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GPF 4054 KAEDAH MENGAJAR

DPLI 2012-2013

REFLEKSI KONSEP ASAS

PENGAJARAN PEMBELAJARAN PENGETAHUAN KEMAHIRAN

Sediakan peta minda menjelaskan konsep

1.
2. 3. 4.

Pengajaran
Pembelajaran Pengetahuan Kemahiran

Pengetahuan
Pengetahuan am /umum (general knowledge)

Maklumat yang dapat diaplikasi dalam pelbagai situasi


Maklumat yang berguna untuk tugasan (tasks) yang
pelbagai

Pengetahuan domain spesifik ( domain specific knowledge)

Maklumat yang hanya berguna/sesuai untuk sesuatu situasi


atau dapat diaplikasi pada sesuatu topik tertentu

Pengetahuan deklaratif (declarative knowledge)

Maklumat verbal berupa fakta, istilah, konsep, generalisasi, prinsip knowing what., knowing that
Pengetahuan prosedural (procedural knowledge)

Maklumat berkaitan cara / proses Langkah-langkah / tindakan yang perlu dilakukan knowing how
Pengetahuan kondisional (conditional knowledge)

Maklumat melibatkan penggunaan pengetahuan deklaratif dan


pengetahuan prosedural

Knowing when and why

Beri contoh pengetahuan

Pengetahuan domain spesifik Pengetahuan deklaratif Pengetahuan prosedural Pengetahuan kondisional

Kemahiran
Kebolehan semula jadi melakukan sesuatu

Keupayaan melakukan sesuatu secara fizikal dan hasil


berfikir

Kebolehan yang diperlukan untuk menggunakan


pengetahuan prosedural secara teratur dan dalam konteks yang sesuai

Menjadi lebih baik dengan latihan, pengukuhan dan


pengulangan

Apa yang guru perlu tahu


Content knowledge

Pengetahuan tentang isi pelajaran yang diajar


Pedagogical Knowledge

Pengetahuan berkaitan cara untuk mengajar


Pedagogical content knowledge

Pengetahuan tentang cara menjadikan isi pelajaran


mudah digarapi dan difahami pelajar

PCK
the most regularly taught topics in ones subject area,
the most useful forms of representation of those ideas, the most powerful analogies, illustrations, examples, explanations, and demonstrations in other words, the ways of representing the subject that make it comprehensible to others. It also includes an understanding of what makes the learning of specific topics easy or difficult: the conceptions and preconceptions that students of different ages and backgrounds bring with them to learning (Shulman 1987 p 9)

PCK
Grounded in the beliefs and practices of the teacher.
Includes

conceptual and procedural knowledge, a repertoire of varied techniques or activities ( which meet different
learning styles or preferences),

knowledge of techniques for assessing and evaluating

content knowledge, represents a class of knowledge that is central to teachers work and
that would not typically be held by nonteaching subject matter expert or by teachers who know little at that subject.
(Marks 1990)

Shulman defined pedagogical content knowledge as


teachers interpretations and transformations of subject-matter knowledge in the context of facilitating student learning...

To this conception of pedagogical content knowledge,


others have contributed valuable insights on the importance and relevance of the linguistic and cultural characteristics of a diverse student population.

Unsur utama PCK


(1) knowledge of representations of subject matter (content knowledge); (2) understanding of students conceptions of the subject and the learning and teaching implications that were associated with the specific subject matter; and (3) general pedagogical knowledge (or teaching strategies).

Unsur utama PCK


To complete what he called the knowledge base for teaching, he included other elements: (4) curriculum knowledge;

(5) knowledge of educational contexts; and


(6) knowledge of the purposes of education

(Shulman, 1987).

Pedagogical content knowledge is a special combination of


content and pedagogy that is uniquely constructed by teachers and thus is the "special" form of an educators professional knowing and understanding.

Pedagogical content knowledge also is known as craft


knowledge. It comprises integrated knowledge representing teachers accumulated wisdom with respect to their teaching practice: pedagogy, students, subject matter, and the curriculum.

Pedagogical content knowledge must be addressed within


the context of a diverse pedagogy.

Pedagogical content knowledge is deeply rooted in a

teachers everyday work. However, it is not opposite to theoretical knowledge. It encompasses both theory learned during teacher preparation as well as experiences gained from ongoing schooling activities.
influenced by factors related to the teachers personal background and by the context in which he or she works.

The development of pedagogical content knowledge is

Pedagogical content knowledge is deeply rooted in the


experiences and assets of students, their families and communities.

When teaching subject matter, teachers actions will be determined to a large extent by the depth of their pedagogical content knowledge, making this an essential component of their ongoing learning. Pedagogical content knowledge research links knowledge on teaching with knowledge about learning, a powerful knowledge base on which to build teaching expertise.

Latih Amal 1
Senaraikan teras pengetahuan yang
perlu dikuasai guru untuk melaksanakan penyampaian pengajaran pembelajaran dengan baik dan berkesan