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Linear data structures Stacks, queues, and heaps Graphs Trees Sets Dictionaries

Arrays

A sequence of n items of the same data type that are stored contiguously in computer memory and made accessible by specifying a value of the arrays index.

Linked List

A sequence of zero or more nodes each containing two kinds of information: some data and one or more links called pointers to other nodes of the linked list. Singly linked list (next pointer) Doubly linked list (next + previous pointers)

Arrays fixed length (need preliminary reservation of memory) contiguous memory locations direct access Insert/delete Linked Lists dynamic length arbitrary memory locations access by following links Insert/delete

Stacks

A stack of plates

insertion/deletion can be done only at the top. LIFO

Queues

A queue of customers waiting for services

Insertion/enqueue from the rear and deletion/dequeue from the front. FIFO

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A data structure for maintaining a set of elements, each associated with a key/priority, with the following operations

Finding the element with the highest priority Deleting the element with the highest priority Inserting a new element

Graphs

Formal definition

A graph G = <V, E> is defined by a pair of two sets: a finite set V of items called vertices and a set E of vertex pairs called edges.

Undirected and directed graphs (digraph). Complete, dense, and sparse graph

A graph with every pair of its vertices connected by an edge is called complete. K|V| A graph with relatively few possible edges missing is called dense. A graph with few edges relative to the number of its vertices is called sparse.

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Graph Representation

Adjacency matrix

n x n boolean matrix if |V| is n. The element on the ith row and jth column is 1 if theres an edge from ith vertex to the jth vertex; otherwise 0. The adjacency matrix of an undirected graph is symmetric.

A collection of linked lists, one for each vertex, that contain all the vertices adjacent to the lists vertex.

Weighted Graphs

Weighted graphs

Graphs or digraphs with numbers assigned to the edges.

Paths

A path from vertex u to v of a graph G is defined as a sequence of adjacent (connected by an edge) vertices that starts with u and ends with v. Simple paths: All edges of a path are distinct. Path lengths: the number of edges, or the number of vertices 1.

Connected graphs

A graph is said to be connected if for every pair of its vertices u and v there is a path from u to v.

Connected component

The maximum connected subgraph of a given graph.

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Cycle

A simple path of a positive length that starts and ends a the same vertex.

Acyclic graph

A graph without cycles DAG (Directed Acyclic Graph)

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Trees (I)

Trees

A tree (or free tree) is a connected acyclic graph. Forests: a graph that has no cycles but is not necessarily connected.

Properties of trees

|E| = |V| - 1

For every two vertices in a tree there always exists exactly one simple path from one of these vertices to the other. Why?

Rooted trees: The above property makes it possible to select an arbitrary vertex in a free tree and consider it as the root of the socalled rooted tree. Levels of rooted tree.

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Trees (II)

ancestors

For any vertex v in a tree T, all the vertices on the simple path from the root to that vertex are called ancestors.

descendants

All the vertices for which a vertex v is an ancestor are said to be descendants of v.

If (u, v) is the last edge of the simple path from the root to vertex v (and u v), u is said to be the parent of v and v is called a child of u. Vertices that have the same parent are called siblings.

Leaves

A vertex without children is called a leaf.

Subtree

A vertex v with all its descendants is called the subtree of T rooted at v.

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Trees (III)

Depth of a vertex The length of the simple path from the root to the vertex. Height of a tree The length of the longest simple path from the root to a leaf.

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Ordered Trees

Ordered trees

An ordered tree is a rooted tree in which all the children of each vertex are ordered.

Binary trees

A binary tree is an ordered tree in which every vertex has no more than two children and each children is designated s either a left child or a right child of its parent.

Each vertex is assigned a number. A number assigned to each parental vertex is larger than all the numbers in its left subtree and smaller than all the numbers in its right subtree.

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Conclusion

Data structures are just another set of tools that should be in the kit of a seasoned programmer.

Comprehensive libraries and frameworks available with most languages nowadays preempt the need for a full understanding of how to implement each of these tools. The result is that developers are able to quickly produce quality solutions that take advantage of powerful ideas. The challenge lies in knowing which one to select. Nonetheless, knowing a little about how these tools work should help to make the choices easier. And, when the need arises, perhaps leave the programmer better equipped to think up a new solution to a new problem; if not while on the job doing work for a client, then perhaps while contemplating the 1000 point problem 45 minutes into the coding phase of the next SRM (single round matches, used in TopCoder competition).

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