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Ring Architecture and Switching SDH

Protection Switch Architecture (Basics)


Path protection switch (PPS) / Line protection switch (LPS) 1+1 protection switch / 1:N (1:1) protection switch

Stand-by Line Access (SLA)


Unidirectional switch / Bidirectional switch Unidirectional ring / Biderectional ring Revertive switch / Non-revertive switch Manual switch operation

Wait to restore (WTR) time

Path protection switch Line protection switch


Path (VC-n) Line (STM-n)

Working

Path SW

Path SW

Path SW

Path SW

Protection

Path Protection Switch (PPS)


Working

Protection equivalent

Line SW (equivalent)

Line Protection Switch (LPS)

1+1, 1:1 and 1:N Protection Switch


1+1 Protection Switch
1:1 Protection Switch TX TX TX TX
Working Protection

RX RX RX RX

Working Protection

TX
TX 1:N Protection Switch TX TX
Note : only one direction is shown.

Working 1 Working 2

RX
RX

Working N Protection

RX RX

Stand-by Line Access (SLA)


Normal Traffic

TX

Working

RX

TX
Extra Traffic

Protection

RX

Normal Traffic

TX

Working

RX

TX
Note : only one direction is shown. Extra Traffic

Protection Extra Traffic service is stopped.

RX

Unidirectional Switch and Bidirectional Switch


Unidirectional Switch
TX Working RX TX TX RX RX

Protection
RX TX

Bidirectional Switch
TX Working RX TX Protection TX RX RX

RX

TX

Unidirectional Ring and Bidirectional Ring

Unidirectional Ring

Bidirectional Ring

The drawing shows the traffic routing under normal (no failure) condition.

Revertive Switch and Non-reverteve Switch


Revertive Switch and Non-reverteve Switch
Reverteve Switch
Working Line normal failure normal

Protection Line

normal

failure

Non-reverteve Switch
Working Line normal failure normal

Protection Line

normal
Traffic flow

failure

Manual Switch Operation


1. MSW Manual Switch

2.
3. 4. 4.

(SF)
FSW LKOW LKOP

Signal Failure
Forced Switch Lock Out of Working Lock Out of Protection
Note: Larger number has higher priority.

Hold-Off & Wait to Restore (WTR) times

Working Line

normal

failure

normal

Protection Line
HOLD OFF time

normal

WTR time

Traffic flow

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Ring Architecture

East
Node C West

West

East

STM-N
Node B East Node A West

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Types of Ring System

PPS Unidirectional Ring / Switch LPS

2-fiber

Subnetwork Connection Protection Ring (SNCP-ring)


(2F-UPSR)

2-fiber

MS Dedicated Protection Ring


(2F-ULSR) (for further study, G.841)

Ring System
PPS Bidirectional Ring / Switch LPS 2-fiber 2F MS Shared Protection Ring (MS-SP ring)
(2F-BLSR)

2-fiber

Subnetwork Connection Protection Ring (SNCP-ring)


(2F-BPSR) (for further study, G.841)

4-fiber

4F MS Shared Protection Ring (MS-SP ring)


(4F-BLSR)

LPS:Line Protection Switch (MS protection) PPS:Path Protection Switch (VC trail protection)

MS:Multiplex Section

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Subnetwork Connection Protection (SNCP) Ring


(2 Fiber Uni-directional Path Switch Ring - UPSR)

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SNCP(Unidirectional Ring) / 2F-UPSR (1)

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SNCP(Unidirectional Ring) / 2F-UPSR (2)

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Subnetwork Connection Protection (SNCP)


Aggregate 1 Aggregate 2
Tributary

TCP PPS

Any Physical Structure (Mesh,Ring or Mixed)

TCP PPS

Aggregate - Aggregate PPS

Case 1
Path

Aggregate 1

Aggregate 2

Aggregate - Tributary PPS

TCP PPS

Any Physical Structure (Mesh,Ring or Mixed)


SNC-P

Tributary
CP PPS TCP

Case 2
Path SNC

Aggregate
Tributary 1 Tributary 2
CP TCP SNC

Trubutary - Tributary PPS

TCP

CP PPS

Any Physical Structure (Mesh,Ring or Mixed)


SNC-P

PPS

TCP : Termination Connection Point CP : Connection Point

Case 3
SNC Path

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4 Fiber Multiplex Section Shared Protection (MS-SP) Ring


(4 Fiber Bi-directional Line Switch Ring - BLSR)

- Terrestrial Application -

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4 Fiber MS-SPRing / 4F-BLSR (1)


- Terrestrial Application -

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4 Fiber MS-SPRing / 4F-BLSR (2)


- Terrestrial Application -

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4 Fiber MS-SPRing / 4F-BLSR (3)


- Terrestrial Application -

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2 Fiber Multiplex Section Shared Protection (MS-SP) Ring


(2 Fiber Bi-directional Line Switch Ring - BLSR)
- Terrestrial Application -

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2 Fiber MS-SPRing / 2F-BLSR (1)


- Terrestrial Application -

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2 Fiber MS-SPRing / 2F-BLSR (2)


- Terrestrial Application -

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Node ID Map of 4F/2F MS-SPRing

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MS-SPRing Misconnection and Squelch Control


C-F A-F with AIS E-F Squelch Control MS-SP switch

A- C

F A
on the same channel of the STM-N.

A-E

E-F

F A
on the same channel of the STM-N. A-E

VC-4 path ? yes

no

A-F with AIS

no

A/D at C ? yes

A/D at C ? yes

no

B C

B C
working channel protection channel

no AU AIS
for individual AU at B and D

no TU AIS
for individual TU at A, E and F

AU AIS

TU AIS

A- C

C-F

misconnection

no misconnection

The ring-switch is applied after AU AIS insertion at B and D. For VC-12/3, AU AIS is inserted at B and D first, then it is stopped after TU AIS completion, in order to avoid short term misconnections.

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Squelch Table of MS-SPRing


MS-SP Ring
STM-N West Node ID No. STM-N East West Node ID No. STM-N East West Node ID No.

East

VC-4 (VC organized AU) through (at intermediate nodes)

AU-4 #m

AU-4

VC-3/VC-12 in AU-4

VC-4 (VC organized AU) through

AU-4 #n
VC-3/VC-12 Add/Drop VC-3/VC-12 all through

AU-4 #m

AU-4 #m ( ) j

AU-4 #m (k)

AU-4 Path
AU-4 #n

( ) i AU-4 #n West ?1 ?2 East k j

AU-4 #n West -* i East -* k West i j

AU-4 #n East ?3 ?4

Squelch Table

AU-4 #m AU-4 #n

AU-4 #m AU-4 #n

AU-4 #m AU-4 #n

* VC-4 cross connect level requires no squelch table.

AU-4 through node : The node where VC-4 cross connect level is applied to the AU-4. AU-4 termination node :The node where VC-3/VC-12 cross connect level is applied to the AU-4 in question, regardless cross connections, either all through or several add/drop connections.

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4/2 Fiber Multiplex Section Shared Protection (MS-SP) Ring


(4/2 Fiber Bi-directional Line Switch Ring - BLSR)

- Transoceanic Application -

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4/2 Fiber MS-SPRing / 4/2F-BLSR


- Transoceanic Application -

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Inter Locked Ring (ILR)

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Inter Locked Ring (ILR)

Secondary node

Secondary node

No. 1 Ring
Primary node Primary node

No. 2 Ring

ring failure link failure

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Inter Locked MS-SPRing (1)


(P-S Connection: on working channel)
MS-SP Ring No.2 MS-SP Ring No.1 MS-SP Ring No.2 MS-SP Ring No.1 F B Secondary node working G
SS SS protection

B Secondary node working

A Primary node

G
SS SS

protection

A Primary node

normal ring failure


E

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Inter Locked MS-SPRing (2)


(P-S Connection: on working channel)
MS-SP Ring No.2 MS-SP Ring No.1 F B Secondary node
working protection

G
SS SS

A Primary node

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Inter Locked MS-SPRing (3)


(P-S Connection: on protection channel)
MS-SP Ring No.2 MS-SP Ring No.1 MS-SP Ring No.2 MS-SP Ring No.1 B Secondary node
SS protection

B Secondary node
protection

G
SS

working

A
SS

G
SS

working

SS transfer

A Primary node

Primary node

normal ring failure


E

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Inter Locked MS-SPRing (4)


(P-S Connection: on protection channel)
MS-SP Ring No.2 MS-SP Ring No.1 B Secondary node
SS protection

G
SS

working

SS transfer

A Primary node

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Inter Locked MS-SPRing


(SNCP Ring - SNCP Ring)
SN-CP Ring No.1 SN-CP Ring No.2

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Double Failure on Link and Ring (SNCP/ILR)


unprotected bouble failure Secondary node

Secondary node

SNCP ring or MS-SP ring


Primary node

SNCP ring

PPS

Primary node protected bouble failure

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Inter Locked Ring


(SNCP - MS-SP)
SN-CP Ring MS-SP Ring

SS

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Review Questions
Fill up the space enclosed in parentheses in the following sentence with correct words. 1. For the 1+1 line system, only the failure line is transferred to the protection line, this transfer is called ( a ). Even if failure is only on one direction, both lines are transferred to the protection lines. This transfer is called ( b ). 2. For the 1+1 linear system, the protection line can be used to transport an ( a ) traffic. This system is called ( b ) ( c ) access system. 3. For the APS of the ring, the maximum number of nodes on a ring is ( a ). The node number start from ( b ) to ( c ). The number assignment is not necessarily in ( d ). 4. For linear APS, there are various switching priority, the top of the list of switch preemption priority is ( a ). 5. Both line and path switched rings can be implemented by either as a ( a )directional ring, or as a ( b )-directional ring. 6. What stands for ILR( a ) ( b )( c )?

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