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Negros Oriental Environment:

Status,Trends, Threats, and Opportunities

Apple Kristine S. Amor

Provincial Profile
Located at the eastern side of Negros Island Separated by chain of mountains from the Province of Negros Occidental and a narrow body of water (Taon Strait) from the Province of Cebu Part of the Central Visayas Region Total land area is 540,230 has or 5,402.3 km2 1st class province

Provincial Profile
Consists of
6 component cities 19 municipalities 557 barangays 3 congressional districts Of which 21 LGUs are coastal

Capital: Dumaguete City Languages/Dialects:

Cebuano (94.75%) Hiligaynon or Illongo (4.80%) 67 other dialects

Literracy Rate is 93.9% Religious Sector

Roman Catholic (79.16%)

Provincial Profile
Eastern part
3rd Type. No pronounced maximum rainfall with short dry season from 1 to 3 months Exposed to the Northeast Monsoon (November-Februar)

Southwestern part
1st Type. Has a distinct wet and dry season. Exposed to the Southwest Monsoon (June-September)

Biodiversity and Natural Resources

Forest Ecosystem
Forest cover of Negros Oriental was estimated at 38,030 hectares in 2003
Includes mangrove cover and plantations
Table 1. Forest Cover of Region VII, by Province in 2003 (in hectare) Region/ Province Total Forest Cover 19,961 16,762 38,030 Forest Closed Canopy 919 Open Canopy 13,407 6,785 22,834 Mangrove 6,463 3,402 1,789 Plantation* 91 5,656 12,095 Total Land Area 41,1726 509,237 540,227 Percent Covered (%) 4.85 3.29 7.04

Bohol Cebu Negros Oriental

Region 7








Source:Philippine Forestry Statistics, DENR-FMB, 2009 * - Data incomplete

Biodiversity and Natural Resources

Forestlands covers 287,803 hectares or 53.27% of the total land area. The rest are alienable and disposable lands (A&D). Forest resources include dipterocarp and planted mahogany and Yemane Forest fauna include:
Philippine Spotted Deer (endemic in PanayNegros Faunal Region and endangered C2 of the IUCN 2011 Red list) Philippine bare-backed fruit bat (found in Negros and Cebu; critically endangered DENR AO No 2004-15) Birds such as the Negros bleeding-heart and Negros fruit dove (both endemic and critically endangered - DENR AO No 200415) and the Negros Striped-babbler (endemic and endangered) Negros limestone frog (endemic and endangered)
(Source: 2004 Statistics on Philippine Protected Areas and Wildlife Resources)

Biodiversity and Natural Resources

Coastal Ecosystems
Mangrove areas cover 5,030 ha (PPDO 1999)
Includes mangrove areas mixed with cropland, fishponds derived from mangrove areas, and mangrove areas in combination with built-up areas or settlements In 2003, forested area covers 1,789 ha (based on DENRFMB data) Bais Bay had 811.6 hectares of mangroves in 1979 and was reduced to 250 hectares in 1994. In recent data (2010), mangrove area increased to 503 has. Around 25 species have been recorded (Calumpong et al. 1997)

Biodiversity and Natural Resources

Coastal and Marine Ecosystems
Seagrass and algal beds 8 species of seagrasses belonging to 6 genera that were identified 103 algal species belonging to 65 genera were recorded. These algal species are grouped into 4 divisions with the red algae group dominating (Calumpong et al. 1997)
Rhodophyta (red algae) - 53 species Chlorophyta (green algae) - 33 species Phaeophyta (brown algae) -16 species Cyanophyta (blue green algae) -1 species

Biodiversity and Natural Resources

Coastal and Marine Ecosystems
Coral reefs estimated to cover an area of 26.5 km2 and are distributed non-continuously along 186 km of coastline with an average width of 143 m (Montebon 1995) A total of 121 scleractinian species and genera of corals belonging to 14 families and 4 species of nonscleractinian corals (SUML 1997) Fishes Recorded fishes (Calumpong et al. 1997) Bais Bay - 99 fish species belonging to 22 families Dumaguete City - 112 species belonging to 23 families Apo Island - 146 species belonging to 27 families Marine mammals 14 of the 28 cetaceans were recorded in Taon Strait

Biodiversity and Natural Resources

Watersheds Rivers There are 25 rivers recorded mostly found in the southern portion (PPDO 2008) and also where most of the floodprone areas found Springs 47 recorded springs uses as sources of water for domestic use Swamp covers a total area of 18 km2 Tanjay City has the largest swamp area in the province of 12 km2 Lakes With 4 major lakes Balinsasayao-Danao Twin Lakes (protected area) Balanan Lake Lake Yagumyum Lake Nailig

Biodiversity and Natural Resources

Groundwater resources
The province had identified 14 hydrogeolofic units with available groundwater that ranges from very restricted yield to 15 million cubic meters

Mineral resources
Copper (estimated deposit of 184,342,000 metric tons) Iron (estimated reserve deposit of 890, 221,057 metric tons) Sulfur (Negros Oriental reportedly has the largest deposit) Coal deposits like lignite Lime White and yellow clay Gypsum Silica

People and Urbanization

Has 1,231,904 persons as of August 1, 2007 Marks a 9% increase from the 2000 data and 33% over the 1990 data Has 227,160 households in 2007 Dumaguete City has the largest inhabitants, while San Jose has the least inhabitants Solidwaste generation per capita/person is 0.35 to 0.57 kg of wastes per day (EcoGov2)
Source:NSO 2000 and 2007 Census

Table 2. Population and Density, Negros Oriental, by City/Municipality, 1990, 2000, 2007

Source:PDPF, Negros Oriental, 2008-2013 based on NSO data

Sex Ratio
2007 - there were more males (627,657) than females (601,683) a sex ratio of 104, which means that there were 104 males per 100 females 1990-2000- the sex ratio was recorded at 102.

Source:NSO 2000 and 2007 Census

Age-Sex Population Pyramid


Source:NSO 2000 and 2007 Census

The province has 6 component cities
Dumaguete City (1948) - urban Bais City (1968) Canlaon City (1967) Bayawan City (2000) Tanjay City (2001) Guihulngan City (2008)
Source: NSCB 2007

Population Density

Source:PDPF, Negros Oriental, 2008-2013 based on NSO data

Annual Population Growth Rate

Source:PDPF, Negros Oriental, 2008-2013 based on NSO data

Health Statistics
Table 3. Morbility, Leading Causes and Rate per 1,000 Population on a 5-year average (2003-2007) and 2008

People and the Environment (Uses)

Major economic activities
Marginal and Commercial Fishing

Sugarcane is the main industrial/commercial crop
With 2 sugar mills located in Bais City

Other crops include coconut, rice, corn, abaca, cotton

Service-related industries
Restaurants, hotels, beauty parlors,

Mainly occurs in MPAs, particularly in the MPAs of Dauin, which includes Apo Island

Table 4. Number and Area of Farms by Province, Central Visayas, 1991 and 2002

Table 3. Total Family Income by Household Head, Kind of Business/Industry, by Province, Region 7

Labor and Employment

Table 5. Labor Force Status, Negros Oriental, 2001 and 2002 (PDFP)

For 2009: Employment rate is 94.3% (NSO)

Growing human population Negros is still among the provinces with a number of poor families Traditional/common agricultural practices Sedimentation Most LGUs lack appropriate and functional facilities for wastes No regular monitoring and evaluation Lack of strategies or mechanisms that would ensure the implementation of plans and enforcement of policies Lack of technical capacity or the lack of knowledge transfer (threat to sustainability)

Threat Management
Existence of an Environment and Natural Resources Division under the Governors Office
With a Forest, Coastal, Urban Environment Management sections Has assigned personnel for each city and municipality Regularly conduct and attend capability trainings for its staff together with LGU counterparts

Threat Management
Coastal Resource Management
Started in 1978, when Apo Island was declared a marine sanctuary Assisted by the the Central Visayas Regional Project in 1988 until 1992 with assistance from World Bank
Community-based Resource Management

Establishment of Marine Reserves in Negros Oriental (EMRINO) in 1994 with assistance from EU and GDS Coastal Resource Management assistance from USAID in 1996-2004 Philippine Environmental Governance Project (EcoGov 1 and 2) from 2001-2011 With 46 existing marine protected areas of varying management levels

Threat Management
Forest Management
Reforestation activities and programs ongoing Assistance from Philippine Environmental Governance Project (EcoGov 1 and 2) from 2001-2011 in Forestand Forestland Management

Urban Environmental Management

Assistance from Philippine Environmental Governance Project (EcoGov 1 and 2) from 2001-2011 on Solidwaste management and wastewater management Bayawan City and Bais City both have Category 2 SLFs All LGUs have Material Recovery Facilities 3 populated cities (Dumaguete, Bais, and Bayawan) have wastewater treatment faciities (at point sources)

Family Planning Program

ENRD personnel are also coach their respective LGUs on family planning Dauin LGU make contraceptive available to the community through sari-sari stores

Water and Sanitation Facilities

Solidwaste Mangement Facilities

Source:PDPF, Negros Oriental, 2008-2013

Threat Management
Health Care Facilties
Primary hospitals were established in upland areas or the hinterlands Rural and Barangay Health Centers

Passage of Policies
Implementation, however, is weak

Threat Management
Each LGU has a school district but bigger LGUs (in terms of land area) have 2 school districts Marine ecology was incorporated in the teachers lesson plans of public schools with assistance from ENRD

Opportunities among others

Continuing technical and financial assistance from foreign and local groups Various assistance have (or may have) transferred their expertise or tools effectively to the LGU Relatively high awareness in environmental protection and conservation Presence of academes to help in research and provide scientific advice to LGUs for sound management of resources Presence of private groups that the government can collaborate with (PPP)

Thank You!