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Words of Wisdom:

Opportunity is attracted to people with a dream. They are the first to be hired, first to be offered opportunity, and first to be promoted. The bigger the dream the faster the doors open. People without a dream are last to be hired, last to be promoted. For non-dreamers, doors remain closed. Dreamers develop an attitude that radiates energy, they have a sense of purpose and meaning in their lives and bosses like them to which they offer opportunity. This is how the impossible becomes possible.

P O S:
P preparation O opportunity S Success Preparation leads to opportunity and eventually to success. Continue dreaming big dreams & prepare yourselves. Soon you reap the fruit of success.

The only choice for an institution is between management and mismanagement Whether it is being done right or not will determine largely whether the enterprise will survive and prosper or decline and ultimately fail. - Peter Drucker

Administration & Management

Managing is one of the most important human activities. These two processes are distinct from, yet closely related and linked to, each other. In other words, the school administrator is both administrator and manager. By tradition, school administrator occupies a strategic position in the educational system, involving total functioning of the school.

Administration & Management

1. Management is the act or function of putting into practice the policies and plans decided upon by the administration.
2. Administration is a determinative function, while management is an executive function.

Administration & Management

3. Administration makes the important decisions of an enterprise in its entirety, whereas management makes the decisions within the confines of the framework, which is set up by the administration. 4. Administrators are mainly found in government, military, religious and educational organizations. Management, on the other hand, is used by business enterprises.

Administration vs Management
Administration is a higher level function Management is a generic team Management and administration are synonymous

Top Managemen

Middle Managem

Lower Managem

Organization & Management

Managing is one of the most important human activities. Organizations are important . They provide the means for individuals, groups & societies to meet their needs provide useful goods or services.

Management, Administration and Organization

Organization It helps division of labor and allotment of work to groups . It organizes the activities and sub-activities for the accomplishment of organizational objectives. It lays down line of authority and line of action. It delegates authority and fixes up responsibility for various activities.

Administration Management It is concerned about the It puts into action the policies determination of objectives and plans laid down by the and major policies of an administration. organization. It is an executive function. It is a determinative function. It takes decisions within the It takes major decisions of framework set by the an enterprise as a whole. administration. It is a top-level activity. It is a middle level activity. :Planning and organizing Motivating and controlling functions are involved in it. functions are involved in it. It needs administrative rather It requires technical activities than technical abilities.

External Governance & Internal Governance

External Governance relates to the management of the entire educational system. Internal Governance relates to the management of and by each of the systems component institutions, such as the educational department and its operating agencies, as well as various educational institutions and other government departments with educational functions.

Educational Administration & Educational Governance

Educational Administration is concerned with the process of administering the execution of public affairs in educational organizations, the performance of executive functions, the guiding, controlling, and directing of educational organizations, and the judicious use of means to accomplish educational ends.

Educational Administration & Educational Governance

Educational Governance On the other hand, is concerned with the political function of policy making in education; the organization and machinery thorough which political units such as federal agencies, state departments, and local school districts exercise authority and perform functions; and the complex political institutions, laws and customs that comprise the setting for the performance of administrative functions and responsibilities.

7 duties and responsibilities of school administrator (EA of 1982)

1. Perform his duties to the school by discharging his responsibilities in accordance with the philosophy, goals, and objectives of the school; 2. Be accountable for the efficient and effective administration and management of the school 3. Develop and maintain a school atmosphere conductive to the promotion and prevention of academic freedom and effective teaching and learning and to harmonious and progressive school personnel relationship.

7 duties and responsibilities of school administrator (EA of 1982)

4. Assume and maintain professional behavior in his work and in his dealings with students, teachers, academic and non-teaching personnel, administrative staff, and parents or guardians. 5. Renders adequate reports for teachers, academic non-teaching personnel, etc. on their school performance in relation to their expected performance and counsel on ways to improve it 6. Observe due process, fairness, promptness, privacy, constructiveness, and consistency in disciplining his teachers and other personnel.

7 duties and responsibilities of school administrator (EA of 1982)

7. Maintain adequate records and submit required reports to the department concern.

Importance of Management
Poor management is one of the major reasons so many organizations of various sizes fail. In our increasingly complex and rapidly changing world, the need for intelligent management is greater than before. A continuous learning and solid grounding in management to successfully guide school organizations is a challenge posed to us.

Management is the process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals, working together in group, efficiently accomplish selected aims (Koontz, 1990). Management is the process of achieving organizational goals by engaging in the four major functions of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling (Bartol and Martin, 1999).

Management is the task of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling the use of resources in order to achieve some performance objectives (Body, 2002). Management is the attainment of organizational goals in an effective and efficient manner through planning, organizing, leading, and controlling organizational resources (Draft, 2005).

Management is the process of working with people and resources to accomplish organizational goals (Bateman and Snell, 2007). Management is the planning, organizing, leading, and controlling of human and other resources to achieve organizational goals efficiently and effectively (Jones and George, 2008).

Is the School Administrator mandated by the Education Act of 1982 to perform both administrative and management functions?
YES. Under EA of 1982 provides that every school
administrator shall be accountable for the efficient and effective administration and management of the school. It was also pointed out that management is a vital aspect of administration. That management is, from one point of view, considered as one of the four factors of production together with land, labor, and capital.

The Key element in the Administrative process is people * This holds true, because the administrator has: 1. to see to it that he has the people for the task of the organization; 2. that they know what they are to do; 3. that they know how to go about the task together; 4. that they get it done; 5. and that they are rewarded for doing it. Meaning, it involves people directly or indirectly. It is the people who works for the organization, without them organization is not complete

Why is the administrative process a social process? It is because it involves people directly or indirectly. It is a social process in terms of objectives, content and methods. * Objectives, because Its desired end as a whole is human and social development; * In terms of content, it is a social process because the substance or subject matter of its decisionmaking function involves or affects people directly or indirectly; * In Methods, it is a social process since it utilizes procedures, strategies, process, and techniques which involves or affect human beings directly or indirectly.

Two Contemporary Views of School Administration: The Foundational View and The Functional View. * The Foundational View poses the issue of Why one behaves as he does, and it utilizes established and emerging theoretical frameworks for analyzing the antecedents, predictors, correlates or outcomes of administrative behavior. * The Functional View, on the other hand, poses the issue of what one does or should do as a school administrator, and it focuses on the tasks and activities in which one must be competent if he is to be both efficient and effective in the administration and management of the school.

Two Vital Aspect of Administration and these are: 1. Organization

2. Management

Threefold Concept of Management

1. As viewed by the ECONOMISTS: Management is one of the factors of production together with land, labor, and capital. As the industrialization of the nation increases, the need for management becomes greater as it is substituted for capital and labor that determines the productivity and profitability. If the industry is experiencing innovations, then management must be used intensively.

Threefold Concept of Management

2. As viewed by a SPECIALISTS in administration and organization: Management is a system of Authority. Management was developed as: a. Authoritarian Philosophy, with a small number of top individuals determining all the actions of the rank and file. And later, b. Humanitarian Concepts, caused to develop paternalistic approaches

Threefold Concept of Management

c. Still later, The Constitutional Management emerged, characterized by a concern for definite and consistent policies and procedures for dealing with the working group. d. Modern management, tends employees to receive higher education toward a democratic and participative approach.

Threefold Concept of Management

3. As viewed by a SOCIOLOGISTS, management is a Class and Status System. The increase in the complexity of relationships in modern society demands that managers become an elite of brains and education. Entrance of this class is more education and knowledge instead of on a family or political connections.


(Daft, 2005)

RESOURCES Human Financial Raw materials Technological information

PLANNING .Decision making



LEADING .Communicating Motivating

PERFORMANCE Attain goals Products Services Efficiency Effectiveness


Process- series of actions or operations conducing to an end. Goal the end toward which effort is directed

Effectiveness the degree to which an organization achieves a stated goal Efficiency the least use of resources in the process of achieving goals
Resources available means in the process of achieving goals. Examples: man, money, machines, materials, moment, method (others: values, information, space)

A good definition of management contains: 1. Managerial process 2. Incorporation of the human element 3. Statement of the goal/objective 4. Resources of the organization 5. Environment changing and dynamic 6. Efficiency and effectiveness

Elements of administration -Management Functions Decision Making Organizing Staffing Planning Controlling Communicating Directing (Leading) Budgeting Innovating

Decision-making the process by which a course of action is consciously chosen from available alternatives for the purpose of achieving a desired result. Planning is defining goals for future organizational performance and deciding on the tasks and use of resources needed to attain them. Organizing involves the assignment of tasks, the grouping of tasks into departments, and the assignment of authority and allocation of resources across the organization.

Leading involves the use of influence to motivate employees to achieve organizational goals. (It includes communicating with others and motivating organizational members.) Staffing the process by which the managers select, train, promote, and retire subordinates. Controlling is concerned with monitoring employees activities, keeping the organization on track toward its goals, and making corrections as needed.

Communicating the process by which the ideas are transmitted to others for the purpose of effecting a desired result. Innovating the process of making or introducing changes in the organization, such as a new method, a new procedure, a new technique, a new approach, etc.

Levels of the Management Hierarchy

(Daft, 2005)

Operational Level is concerned with day to day supervision of specific production processes. (supervisory or first line mgt.) Coordinative Level is responsible for implementing the overall strategies and policies defined by top managers (middle mgt.) Strategic Level is concerned with long-term strategic considerations, with setting long-term organizational goals and determining how resources and activities will be controlled. (top mgt.)

Types of Managers (Schermerhorn,2006)

1. By level in the organization: a. first line managers direct operating employees. Ex. Foreman, supervisors
b. Middle managers direct and coordinate the activities of other managers ex. Department manager, Regional Director c. Top manager responsible for the over all management of the organization. Ex. President,CEO, EVP, VP

2. By the range of organizational activities for which they are responsible: a. functional manager responsible for only one organizational activity, such as marketing, accounting, personnel.
b. General manager oversees a complex unit and he is responsible for all the activities of that unit/organization.

Skills of the Manager (Dubrin, 2003)

Technical skill involves an understanding of and proficiency in a specific activity that involves methods, processes, procedures or techniques.
Human relations skill ability to work effectively as a team member and to build cooperative effort in the unit. It includes the ability to motivate, facilitate, coordinate, lead, communicate and resolve conflicts.

Conceptual skill ability to see the organization as a whole and the relationship among its parts.
Diagnostic skill ability to investigate and then to decide on and implement a solution. Political skill ability to build a power base and enhance ones position. It includes establishing the right connections and impressing the right people.

Roles of the Manager (Schermerhorn, 2006)

A. Interpersonal roles how a manager interacts with other people. 1. Figure head as a symbol of legal authority, performing ceremonial duties (e.g. signing documents and receiving visitors) 2. Leader motivating subordinates to get the job done properly. 3. Liaison serving as a link in a horizontal and vertical chain of communication.

B. Informational Roles-how a manager exchanges and manages information. 4. Nerve Center serving as a focal point for information. Seeking/receiving information to develop thorough understanding of the org.

5. Disseminator transmitting selected information to subordinates

6. Spokesperson transmitting selected information to outsiders. Speaking on behalf of the org. about plans, policies, actions.

C. Decisional Roles-How a manager uses information in decision making. 7. Entrepreneur designing and initiating changes within the organization 8. Disturbance Handler taking corrective action in nonroutine situations 9. Resource Allocator deciding exactly who should get resources

10. Negotiator participating in negotiating sessions with other parties to make sure the organization's interests are adequately represented

Approaches to the Study of Management (Martinez, 1983)

Traditional/Process analyzes the management process, establishes its conceptual framework, identifies its principles and builds a theory of management from them Empirical analyzes management by a study of experience from which generalizations are drawn. It is case method of teaching.

Behavior concentrates on the human aspect of management and the principle that when people work together to accomplish group objectives, people should understand people.

Social System looks upon management as a system of cultural interrelationships. Operations Research looks at management as a system of mathematical model and processes.

Recent Changes in Mgt Practices (Jones and George, 2008)

To increase efficiency and effectiveness: 1.Restructuring organizations and outsourcing specific organizational activities to reduce the number of employees on the payroll and make more productive use of the remaining workforce.

Restructuring and Outsourcing

Restructuring involves simplifying, shrinking, or downsizing an organizations operations to lower operating costs. Outsourcing involves contracting with another company, usually in cost country abroad, to have it perform a work activity the organization previously performed itself.

Some Changes in Mgt Practices

2. Empowering lower-level employees and moving to self-managed teams. Empowerment involves giving employees more authority and responsibility over the way they perform their work activities.

Empowerment and Self-managed Teams

Self-managed team a group of employees who assume responsibility for organizing, controlling, and supervising their own activities and monitoring the quality of the goods and services rhey provide.

Challenges for Management in a Global Environment (Jones and George, 2008)

1. Building competitive advantage Competitive advantage / core competence is the ability of one organization to outperform other organizations because it produces desired goods or services more efficiently and effectively than its competitors.

Core Competence
Core competence is something a firm does especially well relative to its competitors. It is the unique skills/knowledge a firm posses that give it an edge over competitors. Honda small engine design and manufacturing Sony miniaturization FedEx logistics and customer service

Competitive advantage
Building blocks of competitive advantage: a. Efficiency outsourcing, cross training b. QualityTQM, QC c. Innovationspeed, flexibility d. Responsiveness to customers, empower

Challenges for Management

2. Maintaining ethical and socially responsible standards. Social responsibility obligations a company has toward the people and groups affected by its activities such as employees, customers, or the communities in which it operates.

Challenges for Management

3. Managing a diverse workforce Today, the age, gender, race, ethnicity, religion, sexual preference, and socioeconomic makeup of the workforce present new challenges for managers treat human resources in a fair and equitable manner.

Challenges for Management

4. Utilizing IT and E-commerce -efficient utilization of new information technology like computer-controlled manufacturing and Web-based IT etc. that can held the firm build a competitive advantage

Challenges for Management

5. Practicing global crisis management a. Natural causes tsunamis, hurricanes b. Man-made global warming, pollution c. Geopolitical tensions regions protect their own economic and political interests

Management Paradox:
(1) Managers keep everything running efficiently and profitably, while at the same time, (2) change everything. It is no longer enough just to learn how to measure and control things. Success accrues to those who learn how to initiate change and create organizations that can change quickly. (Daft, 2005)

Managers mindset:
To see change as the nature of things To create vision and cultural values that allow people to create a truly collaborative workplace To engage whole employees- emphasize human touch, involve employees hearts & minds as well as their bodies. To keep pace with ever advancing technology To do more with less

Do you agree with the idea that management may be considered or should be considered as a fourth agent or factor of production aside from land, labor, and capital?
YES. As stated that, whenever people are working together for a common end, there must be some form of organization;

Cont. That is, the task must be divide among them and the work of the group must be planned, directed, coordinated, and controlled by managers who make the decisions, a process by which a course of action is chosen from available alternatives for the purpose of achieving a desired result. Therefore, it is viewed as a complementary concepts.

Why is management needed in our schools, colleges, and universities? Because of the basic roles performed by managers under three categories: 1. Interpersonal Roles 2. Informational Roles 3. Decisional Roles

1. Interpersonal Roles
a. A manager is a symbol or figurehead. This role is necessary because of the position occupied and consists of such duties as signing certain documents required by law and officially receiving visitors. b. Managers serves as a leader, that is, hires, trains, encourages, fires, remunerates, judges. c. Managers serves as a Liaison between outside contracts such as community, etc and the organization.

2. Informational Roles
a. As monitors, managers gather information in order to be well-informed. b. Managers serves as a Disseminators of information, flowing from both external and internal sources. c. Managers are spokesperson or representative of the organization, they speak for subordinates to superiors and represent upper management to subordinates.

3. Decisional Roles a. Managers are entrepreneurs, are initiators innovators, problem discoverers, and designers of improvement projects that direct and control change in the organization . b. As Disturbance handlers, Managers react to situations that are unexpected, such as resignations of subordinates, firings, or losses of customers.

3. Decisional Roles

c. Managers are Resource allocators. d. Finally, Managers are Negotiators. This role can be partially delegated at times; however, managers assume it when conflicts arise.

Reminder: Managing is an indispensable human activity. Let us learn how to manage organizations successfully. Happy managing!