ECE 208
ENGINEERING
ELECTROMAGNETICS
2
Forces Due to Magnetic
Fields
Three ways in which force due to magnetic
fields can be experienced:
Due to a moving charged particle in a B field
On a current element in an external B field
Between two current elements
3
Force on a Charged Particle
Electric force,
F
e
= QE
Magnetic field can only exert force on a moving charge
Magnetic force, F
m
, experienced by a moving charge Q
with velocity u in a magnetic field B is
F
m
is perpendicular to both u and B
F
e
is independent of the velocity of the charge and can
perform work on the charge and change its kinetic energy
1) .........( B......... u F = Q
m
4
F
m
is depend on the charge velocity
and cannot perform work because it
is at right angles to the direction of
motion of the charge (F
m
.dl = 0)
F
m
does not cause an increase in
kinetic energy of the charge
Magnitude of F
m
is generally small
compared F
e
except at high velocities
Force on a Charged Particle
5
Force on a Charged Particle
So the total force on a moving charge in the presence
of both electric and magnetic field is given by:
F = F
e
+ F
m
Or
If the mass of the charged a prticle moving in E and B
field is m, by Newton's second law of motion,
B) u E F + = ( Q
Lorentz force
equation
B) u E
u
F + = = ( Q
dt
d
m
6
Force on a Charged Particle
State of
particle
E field B field Combined E
and B fields
Stationary
QE  QE
Moving
QE Qu x B Q(E + u x
B)
7
Example
A 1.0 nC charge with velocity u = 100. m/sec
in the y direction enters a region where the
electric field intensity is E = 100. V/m a
z
and
the magnetic flux density is
B = 5.0 Wb/m
2
a
x
. Determine the force vector
acting on the charge.
8
Solution
( )
2
;
100 5 500
F E u B
u B a a a
y x z
Q
m Wb Wb
s m sm
= +
= =
9
10 100 500
400
F a a
a
z z
z
V Wb Vs mN
C
m sm Wb VC
nN
 
= +

\ .
=
Thus
9
Exercise
A 10 nC charged particle has a velocity
v = 3.0a
x
+ 4.0a
y
+ 5.0a
z
m/s as it enters a
magnetic field
B = 1000 T a
y
(recall that a tesla T = Wb/m
2
).
Calculate the force vector on the charge.
10
Force on a Current Element
Alternatively,
Thus
Which shows that an elemental current dQ
moving with velocity u, producing convection
current element dQu is equivalent to a
conduction current Idl.
u
l
l l dQ
dt
d
dQ d
dt
dQ
Id = = =
.......(2) u......... l dQ Id =
11
Force on a Current Element
Thus the force on a current element Idl in a magentic
field B is found by replacing Q by Idl:
The B field that exerts force on Idl must be due to
another element. B is external to the current element Idl.
If the current I is through a closed path L or circuit, the
force on the circuit is given by:
.......(2) u......... l dQ Id =
}
=
=
L
) ...( .......... .......... d
) ...( .......... .......... Id d
4 B l I F
3 B l F
12
Force on a Current Element
For surface current, the force exerted by an external B
field is given by:
For a volume current element Jdv
The magnetic field B is defined as the force per unit
current element
}
=
=
v
dv
dv d
...(6) .......... .......... B J F
B J F
}
=
=
S
dS
dS d
....(5) .......... B......... K F
B K F
13
Force between Two Current
Elements
Consider two current elements I
1
dl
1
and I
2
dl
2
.
According to BiottSavarts law, both current elements
produce magnetic fields.
I
1
I
1
dl
1
I
2
I
2
dl
2
I
1
1
2
R
21
14
Force between Two Current
Elements
From equation (3) the force on element I
1
dl
1
,
From BiottSavarts law,
) ...( .......... .......... d d I d d 7 B l ) F (
2 1 1 1
=
2
21
2 0
4
21
R
a l
B
2
2
t
R
d I
d
=
15
Force between Two Current
Elements
Hence,
Then force on loop 1 due to current loop 2 is:
( )
2
21
2 0 1 0
4
(
21
R
a l l
) F
2 1
1
t
R
d I d I
d d
=
( )
} }
=
1 2
2
21
2 1 0 21
4
L L
R
d d
I I
R
a l l
F
2 1
1
t
16
Problem D9.1 Hayt
17
Example 9.1 Hayt
A Square loop of Wire is in the Z=0 plane
carrying 2 mA in the field of an infinite
filament on the y axis. Find the total force
on the loop.
18
Solution
19
Solution
20
Example
A rectangular loop of wire in free space joins points A(1,
0, 1) to B(3, 0, 1) to C(3, 0, 4) to D(1, 0, 4) to A. The wire
carries a current of 6 mA, flowing in the a
z
direction from B
to C. A filamentary current of 15 A flows along the entire z
axis in the a
z
direction.
a) Find F on side BC:
b) Find F on side AB:
c) Find F
total
on the loop:
21
Solution
Sketch the problem
D(1, 0, 4)
A(1, 0, 1)
B(3, 0, 1)
C(3, 0, 4)
x
y
z
6mA
15 A
22
Solution (a)
23
Solution (b)
The field from the long wire now varies with position along
the loop segment. We include that dependence and write
24
Solution (c)
by symmetry, the forces on sides AB and CD will be equal
and opposite, and so will cancel. This leaves the sum of
forces on sides BC (part a) and DA, where
25
Example 9.2 Hayt
Let I
1
dL
1
= 3 a
y
A.m at P(5,2,1) & I
2
dL
2
= 4
a
z
A.m at Q(1,8,5). Find force on dL
2
.
Answer: 8.56 a
y
mN.
TO SOLVE: D9.4 Hayt
26
Torque
Torque on a planar loop in a uniform
magnetic field is
T = IS B = m B
Where m is the magnetic dipole
moment.
27
Example 9.3 Hayt
Find torque for the diagram shown below.
28
Solution
I = 4 mA
29
Magnetic Materials
m
_
Is magnetic susceptibility of a medium
where
30
Magnetic Materials
31
Types
32
33
Magnetic Boundary Conditions
34
Magnetic Boundary Conditions
35
Magnetic Boundary Conditions
36
37
Problem
38
Solution
39
Example 8.8 Sadiku
40
Diagram
41
Solution
Let f(x,y) = yx2.
For a plane Ax+By+Cz = D, the vector A
a
x
+ B a
y
+ C a
z
is perpendicular to it.
In this plane yx =2, the perpendicular
vector is a
y
a
x
.
A unit vector normal to the plane is
42
Solution
43
Solution
44
Solution
45
Solution
46
Exercise
47
Example 8.9 Sadiku
48
Answer
49
Magnetic Energy
Magnetostatic energy density w
m
(J/m3) is given by:
Hence
Thus the energy in magnetostatic field in a linear
medium is
or
2 2
1
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
0
lim
B
H B H w
H
v
W
w
m
m
v
m
= = =
=
A
A
=
A
2 2
1
2
1
2
2
B
H B H W
dv w W
m
m m
= = =
=
}
50
Force on magnetic materials
Useful in electromechanical systems.
Ignoring fringing, the magnetic field in air gap is the
same as that in iron,
To find the force between the two pieces of iron,
calculate the change in the total energy that would result
were the two pieces of the magnetic circuit separated by
a differential displacement dl.
iron
51
The work required to effect the displacement is equal to the
change in stored energy in the air gap
where:
S is the crosssectional area of the gap
2 accounts for the two air gaps
negative sign indicates that the force acts to reduce the air gap
The force is exerted on the lower
piece, not on the currentcarrying
upper piece, giving rise to the field
Thus
Force on magnetic materials
52
The attractive force across a single gap:
Attractive pressure (in N/m2) in a
magnetized surface is
which is the same as the energy density w
m
in the air gap.
Force on magnetic materials
53
Faradays Law
A time varying magnetic field produces an induced voltage
called electromagnetic force or emf.
Induced emf, V
emf
in any closed circuit is equal to the time
rate of change of the magnetic flux linkage by the circuit
The negative sign shows that the induced voltage acts in
such a way as to oppose the flux producing it Lentzs Law
Emf sources such as electric generator and batteries can
convert nonelectrical energy into electrical energy
54
Emf of the battery is the line integral of the
emfproduced field:
Can also be regarded as as the potential
difference (V
p
V
N
) between the batterys
opencircuit terminals
Faradays Law
55
It is important to note that:
An electrostatic field E
e
cannot maintain a steady current
in a closed circuit since =IR
An emfproduced field E
f
is nonconservative.
Except in electrostatics, voltage and potential difference
are usually not equivalent.
Faradays Law
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