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Process Studies of Oil and Gas Units and Building Dynamic Simulator

PREPARED BY: Shivang R820209056

Kongsberg Oil & Gas Technologies provides technology, products and services for surveillance, integration, analysis, simulation, quality assurance, and governance of drilling and production operations. It serves the oil & gas industry with a range of high performance information technology solutions for drilling operations, production, reservoirs and the subsea environment.

PID Controller, P&ID and PFD

K-Spice: Dynamic Process Simulator Corrosion In Multiphase Pipelines

P - Proportional I Integral D Derivative It is a generic control loop mechanism (controller) widely used in industrial control systems It calculates an "error" value as the difference between a measured process variable and a desired set point. The controller attempts to minimize the error by adjusting the process control inputs.

A flow diagram is a simple illustration that uses process symbols to describe the primary flow path through a unit. The flow diagram is used for visitor information and new employee training. The P&ID includes a graphic representation of the equipment, piping, and instrumentation. Pressure, temperature, flow, and level control loops are all included on the unit P&ID .

Process and Instrumentation Symbols

K-Spice is Kongsbergs next-generation dynamic process simulator, for detailed design and verification of oil & and gas processes and control systems at all stages of the Lifecycle process The role of the dynamic simulator changes during the project lifecycle and includes activities such as: Process design verification Control system design and verification Process safety checks Operator Training Post start-up modification studies

Some Functions: Some important features of the software can be given as: Engineering Units: It can give result in most engineering units as shown in following figure where one has to configure the units:

Thermodynamics: Thermodynamics is the backbone of Process simulation of any industry. It is very important to select a best suitable method to replicate the result similar to the plant.

Soave modification of Redlich Kwong: This is the thermodynamic reference method that was used during the tutorial model building calculations.

Corrosion It is the gradual destruction of material, usually metals, by chemical reaction with its environment. This means electro-chemical oxidation of metals in reaction with an oxidant such as oxygen. Rusting, the formation of iron oxides is a well-known example of electrochemical corrosion.

Galvanic Corrosion Pitting Corrosion Crevice Corrosion Microbial Corrosion chemoautotroph High Temperature Corrosion Bottom of the line Corrosion

Operating Parameters:
Pressure Temperature Humidity pH - calculated from the CO2 and H2S partial pressure, Salinity Passivation Surface Area

temperature, bicarbonate content in the water and ionic strength. pH stabilizing agents are added along with glycol (hydrate preventor)

Components parameters
CO2 partial pressure

Concentration of acetic acid - calculated by the means

of titration method, taking phenolphthalein as the indicator

Bicarbonate levels & Alkalinity - Bicarbonate,

carbonate and hydroxide alkalinity can be calculated from total alkalinity (TA) if the pH is known.

Presence of Sand - Soil is a complicated system which

consists of air, liquid and solid. Soil is a kind of corrosive medium.

Reactive coatings Biofilm coatings

Cathodic protection
Anodic protection - impresses anodic current on the structure to be protected. ). It is appropriate for metals that exhibit passivity (e.g. stainless steel)

Thank You