Design for Manufacturing

By Raghavendra(093303) Gangadhar(093304) Bhagwath(093306)

Design for X Topics
 Design for Manufacturing  Design for Production  Design for Assembly  Design for Recycling/Disposal

 Design for Life Cycle
 Prototyping

 Manufacturing cost is a key determinant of the economic success of a product since such success depends on the profit margin earned on each sale of the product and on how many units of the product the firm can sell. Profit margin is the difference between the manufacturer’s selling price and the cost of making the product.  Economically successful design is thus about ensuring high product quality while minimizing manufacturing costs and DFM is one method of achieving this

DFM requires cross-functional team
DFM utilizes information of several types:
 Sketches, drawings, product specifications, and design alternatives.  A detailed understanding of production and assembly processes  Estimates of manufacturing costs, production volumes, and ramp-up timing. DFM efforts commonly draw upon expertise from manufacturing engineers ,cost accountants and production personnel, in addition to product designers.  DFM is performed throughout the Development process.

Reduce the costs of assembly. 2. Consider the impact of DFM decisions on other factors. Estimate the manufacturing costs. Reduce the costs of components. . 3. 5. 4.DFM Method 1. Reduce the costs of supporting production.

DFM Method Proposed Design Estimate the Manufacutring Costs Reduce the Costs of Components Reduce the Costs of Assembly Reduce the Costs of Supporting Production Consider the Impact of DFM Decisions on Other Factors Recompute the Manufacturing Costs N Good enough ? Y Acceptable Design .

Estimate the Manufacturing Costs Equipment Information Tooling Raw Materials Labor Purchased Components Manufacturing System Finished Goods Energy Supplies Services Waste INPUT-OUTPUT MODEL OF A MANUFACTURING SYSTEM .

etc.) and for disposal of the wastes produced by the system • Unit manufacturing cost is computed by dividing the total manufacturing costs for some period(usually a quarter or by a year) by the number of units of the product manufactured during that period.e.Definition of Manufacturing Cost: • Sum of all the expenditures for the inputs of the system (i. raw materials. purchased components. . energy.

Elements of the Manufacturing Cost of a Product Manufacturing Cost Components Assembly Overhead Standard Custom Labor Equipment and Tooling Support Indirect Allocation Raw Material Processing Tooling .

Fixed Costs vs. Variable Costs • Fixed Costs – incurred in a predetermined amount. • Variable Costs – incurred in direct proportion to the number of units produced (i.e. . cost of raw materials) • Cost of raw materials is example of variable cost.e. setting up the factory work area or cost of an injection mold) • Purchasing injection mold is example of fixed cost. regardless of number of units produced (i.

processing and tooling. ESTIMATING COSTS OF CUSTOM COMPONENTS • When the custom component is a single part . we estimate its cost by adding up the costs of raw materials .ESTIMATING COSTS OF STANDARD COMPONENTS • The costs of standard components are estimated by either • Comparing each part to a substantially similar part the firm is already is producing or purchasing in comparable volumes or • Soliciting price quotes from vendors or suppliers. . and multiplying by the cost per unit mass of the raw material. allowing for some scrap. • The raw materials costs can be estimated by computing the mass of the part.

.molds. • Assembly operations require from about 4 seconds to about 60 seconds each. • Tooling costs are incurred for the design and fabrication of the cutters. and the production quantities .dies or fixtures required to use certain machinery to fabricate parts ESTIMATING THE COST OF ASSEMBLY • Manual assembly costs can be estimated by summing the estimated time of each assembly operation and multiplying by a labor rate.• Processing costs include costs for the operator(s) of the processing machinery as well as the cost of using the equipment itself. depending upon the size of the parts . the difficulty of the operation .

• Cost drivers are parameters of the product which are directly measurable. • Under the ABC approach . • As a result .ESTIMATING THE OVERHEAD COSTS • Most firms assign overhead charges by using overhead rates( also called burden rates). the firm may have overhead rates applied to various dimensions of product complexity . • Overhead charges are added to direct costs in proportion to the drivers. • Overhead rates are typically applied to one or two cost drivers. a firm utilizes more and different cost drivers and allocates all indirect costs to the associated cost drivers where they fit best.

• EXAMPLE REPRESENTING CALCULATION OF MANUFACTURING COST .

Reduce the Cost of Components • Understand the Process Constraints and Cost Drivers • Redesign Components to Eliminate Processing Steps • Choose the Appropriate Economic Scale for the Part Process • Standardize Components and Processes • Adhere to “Black Box” Component Procurement .

. Work closely with design engineers—raise awareness of difficult operations and high costs.Understand the Process Constraints and Cost Drivers Redesign costly parts with the same performance while avoiding high manufacturing costs.

• Use substitution steps. • Analysis Tool – Process Flow Chart and Value Stream Mapping . where applicable.Redesign Components to Eliminate Processing Steps • Reduce the number of steps of the production process • Eliminate unnecessary steps.

• Fixed costs divided among more units. . manufacturing costs usually decrease. • Variable costs are lower since the firm can use more efficient processes and equipment.Choose the Appropriate Economic Scale for the Part Process Economies of Scale – As production volume increases.

• Standard Components—common to more than one product • Analysis tools – group technology and mass customization .Standardize Components and Processes • Economies of Scale – The unit cost of a component decreases as the production volume increases.

and interactions of each component. • Successful black box design requires clear definitions of the functions.Adhere to “Black Box” Component Procurement Customers Requirement BLACK BOX Out Put • Black box—only give a description of what the component has to do. . interfaces. not how to achieve it.

Reduce the Costs of Assembly • Design for Assembly (DFA) index • Integrated Parts (Advantages and Disadvantages) • Maximize Ease of Assembly • Consider Customer Assembly .

The Assembly from Heaven* • Can be assembled one-handed by a blind person wearing a boxing glove • Is stable and self-aligning • Tolerances are loose and forgiving • Few fasteners • Few tools and fixtures • Parts presented in the right orientation • Parts asymmetric for easy feeding • Parts easy to grasp and insert .

Design for Assembly Index (Theoretical minimum number of parts) x (3 seconds) DFA index = Estimated total assembly time .

or repair? .Determining the Theoretical Minimum Number of Parts • Does the part need to move relative to the rest of the assembly? • Must the part be made of a different material from the rest of the assembly for fundamental physical reasons? • Does the part have to be separated from the assembly for assembly access. replacement.

Integrated Part Design Home Hot Water System Family Part .

Comparison between Assembled & Integrated Parts .

Advantages of Integrated Parts • Do not have to be assembled • Often less expensive to fabricate rather than the sum of each individual part • Allows critical geometric features to be controlled by the part fabrication process versus a similar assembly process Disadvantages of Integrated Parts • Conflict with other sound approaches to minimize costs • Not always a wise strategy .

linear motion • Part is secured immediately upon insertion .Maximize Ease of Assembly • Part is inserted from the top of the assembly • Part is self-aligning • Part does not need to be oriented • Part requires only one hand for assembly • Part requires no tools • Part is assembled in a single.

Consider Customer Assembly • Customers will tolerate some assembly • Design product so that customers can easily and assemble correctly • Customers will likely ignore directions .

DFMA Example .

5 10.2 • • • • • • • • • • • • • Motor Subassembly Motor Screw Sensor Subassembly Setscrew Standoff End plate End-plate screw Plastic bush Thread lead Reorient Cover Cover Screw TOTALS • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 4 19 • • • • • • • • • • • • • 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 4 • • • • • • • • • • • • • 9.5 5.2 160.8 13.5 9.2 3.5 12.1 8.0 13.6 3.9 4.5 21.0 8.0 • • • • • • • • • • • • • 7.0 8.4 16.8 2.3 • Assembly Cost (cents) • • 2.8 7.DFMA-Example 1 Analysis • • • • DFMA Worksheet for Datum Design • • • Item Base Bush Number 1 2 • Theoretical Part Count • • 1 0 • Assembly Time(s) • • 3.9 26.9 10.9 17.6 16.3 7.4 34.0 4.5 7.0 .0 133.

DFMA Example 1 Analysis • Total actual assembly Time T1= 163 s • Theoretical total part count is 4 and average assembly time is 3 s.07362 T1 163 s or 7. Theoretical assembly time T2= 4 x 3 s = 12 s • • Calculate Design Efficiency : T2 12 s     0.362% • .

• .DFMA Recommended redesign • • Bushes are integral to the base Snap-on plastic cover replaces standoff. which redesign to be self-alignment. cover . Using pilot point screw to fix the base. six screws.plastic bush.

DFMA.An Improved Design .

5 8.1 7.DFMA Worksheet for an Improved Design • • Item Base • • Number 1 • Theoretical Part Count • 1 • Assembly Time(s) • 3.5 12.4 .9 • • • • • Motor Subassembly Motor Screw Sensor Subassembly Setscrew Thread leads • • • • • 1 2 1 1 - • • • • • 1 0 1 0 - • • 4.0 7.1 4.0 • 3.2 • • • 8.5 • Assembly Cost (cents) • 2.8 10.5 5.0 • • • • • 3.0 • Plastic Cover • 1 • 0 • 4.0 • 38.3 • TOTALS • 7 • 4 • 46.

40 35.10 8.05 0.40 • • • • Cost.44 • • Motor Screw(2) Setscrew • • 0.10 5.DFMA Cost Differential Worksheet .73 .19 5.00 • 21.20 0.10 • Plastic Cover (include tooling) • 8.43 • • • • • • • • • Motor Screw(2) Setscrew Standoff(2) Endplate End-plate Screw Plastic bush Cover Cover screw(4) Totals • • • • • • • • • 0.91 2. $ 13. • • • • Old Design Item Base (Aluminum) Bush(2) • • • • New Design Item Base (nylon) Cost.$ 12.20 0.20 0.89 0.

Theoretical assembly time T2= 4 x 3 s = 12 s Calculate Design Efficiency :   T2 12 s   0.Improved Assembly Design Efficiency • • Total actual assembly Time T1= 46 s Theoretical total part count is 4 and average assembly time is 3 s.26087 T1 46 s • • or 26.087% .

66 .71 = $14.DFMA –Calculate Total Saving Total Saving = Saving from Assembly Time Reduction + Saving from parts reduction = $0.95 + $13.

Proposed Design Estimate the Manufacutring Costs Reduce the Costs of Components Reduce the Costs of Assembly Reduce the Costs of Supporting Production Consider the Impact of DFM Decisions on Other Factors Recompute the Manufacturing Costs N Good enough ? Y Acceptable Design .

3.reduces no of workers • Standardizing no of parts. .reduces demands on engineering support and quality control. • Reduction in assembly content.reduction in inventory.Reduce the Costs of Supporting Production • Reduction in no of parts.

• Needs to be monitered.Minimize Systemic Complexity • Production system consist.people. • Minimize Systemic Complexity (inputs. and transforming processes) – Use smart design decisions . outputs.Comlexicity is driven by design. parts.many suppliers.processes.

but different parts .Error Proofing – Anticipate possible failure modes – Take appropriate corrective actions in the early stages – Use color coding to easily identify similar looking.

5.Consider the Impact of DFM Decisions on Other Factors • • • • Development Time Development Cost Product Quality External Factors – Component reuse – Life cycle costscost of toxic disposal. warranty period cost. .

.Conclusion • DFM is aimed at reducing manufacturing cost while simultaneously improving product quality. and development cost.development time.

MA: Irwin McGraw-Hill. Boston. (2000). S. . Boothroyd Dewhurst Inc. Geoffrey Boothroyd and Peter Dewhurst. & Eppinger. 1991.References • Ulrich. • Product Design for Assembly. K. Product Design and Development.

Thank you .

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