Cognitive Radio Networking and Communications: An Overview

Ying-Chang Liang,Fellow, IEEE, Kwang-Cheng Chen,Fellow, IEEE, Geoffrey Ye Li,Fellow, IEEE, and Petri Mähönen,Senior Member, IEEE

Click to edit Master title IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 60, NO. 7, SEPTEMBER style 2011

Networking Lab Presenter: HOANG XUAN THIEM Date: 2012/10/13

2/16 Outline  Introduction Cognitive Spectrum Access   Spectrum Sensing Techniques Cooperative Spectrum Access  .

SUs are required to capture or sense the radio environment. although they have higher priority in using it. and network layers.     To support DSA. Dynamic spectrum access(DSA) has been proposed as an alternative policy to allow the radio spectrum to more efficiently be used. we provide a systematic overview on CR networking and communications by looking at the key functions of the PHY. In DSA. Primary users (PUs) uses that spectrum is not exclusively granted to these users. a piece of spectrum can be allocated to one or more users.3/16 Introduction  In this paper. . MAC.

4/16 Cognitive spectrum access  Two cognitive spectrum access models have received extensive attention ▫Opportunistic spectrum access ▫Concurrent spectrum access .

5/16 SPECTRUM SENSING TECHNIQUES Direct Spectrum Sensing Indirect Spectrum Sensing .

Sensing methods: Local Oscillator Detection: some of the local oscillator power couples back through the input port and radiates out of the antenna. which leads to inevitable reverse leakage.6/16 Direct Spectrum Sensing   o The most effective way of spectrum sensing is to directly detect the primary Rx. .

have widely been used in wireless systems with feedback channels. automatic request retransmission. ▫The proactive sensing detects primar y Rx’s by sending a sounding signal an d observing the possible response of t he primary signal that is caused by cl osed-loop controls.7/16 Direct Spectrum Sensing  • Proactive Detection: Closed-loop control schemes. . such as power control. adaptive modulation/coding.

It has been shown in that ED is the optimal detector if only the noise power is known to the CR users. res pectively. Let Y be the energy output over m sensed sample. ED can be used for sp ectrum sensing.8/16 Indirect Spectrum Sensing  H1 and H0 as the presence and absence of the primary signal. ▫ED: When the primary signals are unknown to the CR users. as . ▫Matched Filter Detection: When the received signal of the primary Tx is known to t he CR users. The main a dvantage of matched filter detection is the short sensing time to achieve a good perfo rmance. matched filter detection can be used for spectrum sensing. t hreshold λ ▫The probability of detection and the probability of false alarm can be expressed. because coherence detection is used.

based detection): When the PU signal waveform. none of the aforementioned schemes can be used for detecting the PU signal. the cyclic spectral density (CSD) functi on of the received signal can be expressed as ▫CBD(Covariance. . ▫Where α is called the cyclic frequency. the received signal s(n) from the primary Tx is temporally correlated. the noise pow er. CBD has been developed as one of the blind-spectrum-sensing schemes. ▫ The flatness of the spectrum of the received signal at the CR Rx can be used to i nfer the presence or absence of the primary signal. ▫ Blind spectrum sensing schemes need to be developed for such a purpose. and the cyclic frequency of the PU signal are all unknown to the CR users. Then.9/16 Indirect Spectrum Sensing(cont…)  Cyclostationary Detection: Modulated signals are usually cyclostationary. and the noise is AWGN. and such a feature can be used for spectrum sensing. In practice. which is called cyclostationary detection.

. eigenvalue-based detection (EBD) can be used for spectrum sensing.10/16 Indirect Spectrum Sensing(cont…)  o o o Spectrum Sensing Using Multiple antennas: When the CR Rx is equipped with multiple antennas.values of thematrix Because EBD simultaneously estimates the noise variance and signal power. By constructing the sample covariance matrix of the received signals. it tends to be robust to noise power uncertainty. EBD simultaneously estimates the noise variance and signal power by calculating the minimum and maximum eigen.

the final decision will be H0 if . Combination Schemes: Random Matrix Theory ▫Let λi’s be the eigenvalues of (1/N)YYH and α=K/N. CR users first send the raw data that they collect to a combining user or fusion center. Denote the noise variance at e ach CR user as σ2 . If the noise variance is unknown. Ifσ 2 is known at the combining user and when K→ ∞ and N →∞. and H1 if there are eigenvalues outside the aforementioned range. the final decision will be H0 if ▫for all i’s.11/16 COOPERATIVE SPECTRUM SENSING   o In cooperative spectrum sensing.

can be applied. in which one user acts as a relay for the other user and then amplifie s and forwards the signal received from its partner without any further processing..frequency (SF) coding can be applied for OFD M based CR users. 2. and each pair uses a given slot to appl y the same scheme. they can form pairs. .12/16 COOPERATIVE SPECTRUM SENSING Limitations and Practical Considerations: 1) Asynchronous Sensing Information: Assume that there are K cooperative users in the CR network and the k th (k =1.and. The optimum decision is based on the following likelihood ratio:  2) Nonideal Reporting Channel: In space– time block coding (STBC) is proposed to ensure robust reporting..forward (AF) cooperation protocol. 3) In a decentralized network. space. Similarly. it has been shown in [39] that the amplify... The combining user makes the final decision on the absence or presence of the licensed signal at t .K) CR user sends its sensing information uk that is obtained at tk to the combining user. ▫If there are more users.

OFDM. A. ▫The transform-domain communication system (TDCS ) is another approach for realizing OSA. which was ori ginally proposed in for military communications. Transmit Signal Design for OSA: The OSA model allows the CR users to coexist with the PUs in an opportunistic way. with th e basic idea of using spectrum information to avoid ja mmers. with its own advantages of combating fading and interference. multicarrier modulation techniques become natural candidates for CR transmission mainly due to the flexibility in spectrum usage. . ha s been proposed for the PHY layer of CR. ▫In OSA.13/16 COGNITIVES PECTRUM ACCESS   o Spectrum-sensing techniques for identifying the spectrum holes have been reviewed from the signal processing perspective. The CR users in OSA ideally transmit only within the spectrum holes.

o 1) Cognitive Multiple-Input–Multiple-Output (MIMO) Channel: the received signal at the CR Rx is given by: y = Hx + n  Maximum transmit power for the is : Tr(Q) ≤ by where x is the nT-D signal vector that TxtransmittedPt. We have: Tr(GH QG) ≤ Pave where U is a matrix whose columns represent the spatial and/or the frequency “directions” power constraints.) denotes the maximum eigenvalue of a matrix.14/16 COGNITIVES PECTRUM ACCESS B.received by theUH QRx0 CR =  Null R -D vector that is We have : Pt is its own transmit power constraint n is the nR -D noise-plus-interference vector at the CR Rx  Average power constraints. We have:transmit(GHQG) ≤ Ppeak  Peak the CR Tx is not allowed to λ  max ▫Where λmax(. Resource Allocation for Multiantenna CSA: The use of multiple antennas for wireless transmissions provides us both multiplexing and diversity gains. y is the npower constraints. the CR users coexist with the PUs at the same time and the same geographic region. different transmit schemes can be designed to ▫and Ppeak is the corresponding maximum peak power constraint maximize the achievable rate of the secondary link as: R = log2 |I+HQHH| . Transmit Power Allocation for Single-Antenna CSA: As aforementioned. in CSA.  With the aforementioned constraints. as long as they do not cause harmful interference to the primary Rx’s  C. the CR Tx H is the nR x nT full-rank channel matrix between the Tx and it’s intended to Rx where Q is the covriance matrix of the CR Tx.

this channel is called the cognitive multiple-access channel. 3) Cognitive Broadcast Channel: If the transmission from a common BS (CR Tx) of the secondary network to multiple CR Rx’s in the presence of primary transmissions is of interest. to efficiently utilize spectrum resource with cognitive MIMO.pendent messages to a common BS in the secondary network. this scenario is described as a cognitive broadcast channel.15/16 COGNITIVES PECTRUM ACCESS    2) Cognitive Multiple-Access Channel: If multiple CR users share the same spectrum with the PUs to transmit inde. the CR user has to acquire the information of different channels. matrix is definedPU. is the covariance which of the ith as: ▫and αi is the expected value of the portion of instants that the ith PU is transmitting  The transmit covariance matrix of the CR Tx: SCR = ACRAHCR  Should ideally be designed such that: GeffACR = 0. . 4) Blind Channel Estimation: Note that. ▫where Gi on the channel covariance matrix acquired during spectrum sensing. the ▫Si effective channel. When two PUs take turns in transmitting to each other. Define the covariance matrix due to only signals from PUs as: Qs = α1GH1 S1G1 +α2GH 2 S2G2  Based is the sample matrix from the ith PU to the CR Tx. theCRTx takes samples from both users over the frequency band of interest through spectrum sensing.

16/16 Thank you for your listening ! .

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