This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Equation of Continuity
Law of conservation of mass
(1)
] ) ( ) ( [
x x x
u u z y
t
z y x
A +
÷ A A =
c
c
A A A µ µ
µ
] ) ( ) ( [
y y y
v v x z
A +
÷ A A + µ µ
] ) ( ) ( [
z z z
w w z y
A +
÷ A A + µ µ
The mass balance is given as:


.

\

c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
÷ =
c
c
w
z
v
y
u
x t
µ µ µ
µ
By dividing the entire equation by ΔxΔ yΔ z and taking the
limit as Δx, Δy, and Δz go to zero, and then using the
definitions of the partial derivatives, we get
This is the equation of continuity, which describes the time
rate of change of the fluid density at a fixed point in space.
(2)
This equation can be written more concisely by using
vector notation as follows
) . ( V
t
µ
µ
V ÷ =
c
c
Rate of increase
of mass per unit
volume
Net rate of addition of
mass per unit volume
by convection
(3)
Recalling Eq.(2) and open all terms on right side as per
product rule for derivatives we have


.

\

c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
÷ =
c
c
w
z
v
y
u
x t
µ µ µ
µ
(2)


.

\

c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
÷ =
c
c
z
w
z
w
y
v
y
v
x
u
x
u
t
µ
µ
µ
µ
µ
µ
µ
(
¸
(
¸
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+


.

\

c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
÷ =
c
c
z
w
y
v
x
u
z
w
y
v
x
u
t
µ µ µ
µ
µ


.

\

c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
÷ =
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
z
w
y
v
x
u
z
w
y
v
x
u
t
µ
µ µ µ µ
) . ( V
Dt
D
V ÷ = µ
µ
(4)
Where is the Substantial derivative or the
derivative following the motion.
This is the rate of density change that would be noted by
an observer moving downstream at the velocity of the
fluid.
Note that in Eq. (3) is the rate of change observed
from a fixed point.
) . ( V
Dt
D
V ÷ = µ
µ
(4)
Dt
Dµ
t c
cµ
Equation of Motion
To get the equation of motion we write a momentum
balance over the volume element Δx Δy Δz in Figure of the
form
(5)
Fluid is flowing through all six faces of the volume
element in any arbitrary direction.
First consider the xcomponent of each term in Eq.(5).
Momentum enters and leaves the volume element partly
by Convection from flow of bulk fluid, and partly by
Viscous action as the result of velocity gradients.
The rate at which the x component
of momentum enters the face at x by
Convection is:
z y uu
x
A A = ) (µ
The rate at which the x component
of momentum leaves the face at
x+Δx by Convection is:
z y uu
x x
A A =
A +
) (µ
Similarly
The rate at which the x component
of momentum enters the face at y by
Convection is:
z x vu
y
A A = ) (µ
The rate at which the x component
of momentum leaves the face at
y+Δy by Convection is:
z x vu
y y
A A =
A +
) (µ
And
The rate at which the x component
of momentum enters the face at z by
Convection is:
y x wu
z
A A = ) (µ
The rate at which the x component
of momentum leaves the face at
z+Δz by Convection is:
y x wu
z z
A A =
A +
) (µ
The net convective flow into volume element is:
 
x x x
uu uu z y
A +
÷ A A ) ( ) ( µ µ
 
y y y
vu vu z x
A +
÷ A A + ) ( ) ( µ µ
 
z z z
wu wu y x
A +
÷ A A + ) ( ) ( µ µ
(6)
Similarly momentum along x component through
molecular transport.
The rate at which the x component of
momentum enters the face at x by
Molecular transport is:
z y
x xx
A A = ) (t
The rate at which the x component of
momentum leaves the face at x+Δx by
Molecular transport is:
z y
x x xx
A A =
A +
) (t
The rate at which the x component
of momentum enters the face at y by
Molecular transport is:
z x
y yx
A A = ) (t
The rate at which the x component
of momentum leaves the face at
y+Δy by Molecular transport is:
z x
y y yx
A A =
A +
) (t
And
The rate at which the x component
of momentum enters the face at z by
Molecular transport is:
y x
z zx
A A = ) (t
The rate at which the x component
of momentum leaves the face at
z+Δz by Molecular transport is:
y x
z z zx
A A =
A +
) (t
Summing up these six contributions gives the net flow of
x momentum into volume element by viscous action:
 
x x xx x xx
z y
A +
÷ A A ) ( ) ( t t
 
z z zx z zx
y x
A +
÷ A A + ) ( ) ( t t
 
y y yx y yx
z x
A +
÷ A A + ) ( ) ( t t
(7)
τ
xx
normal stress on the x face, and
τ
yx
and τ
zx
are the xdirected tangential stresses, or shear stresses,
on the y and z faces resulting from viscous forces, respectively.
Similar expressions may be written for momentum flow in
the y and z directions.
The shear stresses result from the deformation of the volume
element; the normal stress is related principally to the
change in and the dilation of the element.
x u c c /
In most cases the important forces acting on the system
arise from the fluid pressure p and gravitational force
per unit mass g. The resultant of the forces in the x
direction is:
z y x g p p z y
x x x x
A A A + ÷ A A
A +
µ ) (
(8)
Finally, the rate of accumulation
of x component within the
element is:

.

\

c
c
A A A
t
u
z y x
µ
(9)
Substituting the expressions from Eqs.(6), (7), (8) and
(9) and putting in Eq. (5) we have:
z y x g p p z y
x x x x
A A A + ÷ A A +
A +
µ ) (

.

\

c
c
A A A
t
u
z y x
µ
(10)
 
x x x
uu uu z y
A +
÷ A A = ) ( ) ( µ µ
 
y y y
vu vu z x
A +
÷ A A + ) ( ) ( µ µ
 
z z z
wu wu y x
A +
÷ A A + ) ( ) ( µ µ
 
x x xx x xx
z y
A +
÷ A A + ) ( ) ( t t
 
z z zx z zx
y x
A +
÷ A A + ) ( ) ( t t
 
y y yx y yx
z x
A +
÷ A A + ) ( ) ( t t
Dividing Eq.(10) by ΔxΔyΔz, taking the limit as Δx, Δy
and Δz approaches to zero, given the x component of the
equation of motion:
(11)
x
g
x
p
µ +
c
c
÷

.

\

c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
÷ 
.

\

c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
÷ =
c
c
zx yx xx
z y x
wu
z
vu
y
uu
x
u
t
t t t µ µ µ µ
Above equation may be rearranged with the help of the
equation of continuity to give:
x
zx
yx
xx
g
z y x x
p
Dt
Du
µ
t
t
t
µ +


.

\

c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
÷
c
c
÷ =
(12)
Similarly equations may be derived for the y and z
components. Adding the three components vectorially
gives:
(13)
g µ t µ + V ÷ ÷V = ] . [ p
Dt
V D
The stress at any point depends on the velocity gradients
and the rheological properties of the fluid.
NavierStokes Equations
For a fluid of constant density and viscosity, the
equations of motion, known as the NavierStokes
equations are
x
g
x
p
z
u
y
u
x
u
z
u
w
y
u
v
x
u
u
t
u
µ µ µ +
c
c
÷


.

\

c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= 
.

\

c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
2
2
2
2
2
2
y
g
y
p
z
v
y
v
x
v
z
v
w
y
v
v
x
v
u
t
v
µ µ µ +
c
c
÷


.

\

c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= 
.

\

c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
2
2
2
2
2
2
z
g
z
p
z
w
y
w
x
w
z
w
w
y
w
v
x
w
u
t
w
µ µ µ +
c
c
÷


.

\

c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= 
.

\

c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
2
2
2
2
2
2
THANK YOU
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.