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LINEAR DC POWER SUPPLY

BLOCK DIAGRAM

FUNCTIONS
TYPES

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OBJECTIVES
At the end of the lesson students able to:
i. State the importance of DC power Supply units in

electronic appliances
ii. Draw the block diagram of DC power supply

iii. Explain function of each block.

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The Basic DC Power Supply


Most are designed to convert high voltage AC mains

electricity to a suitable low voltage supply for electronics circuits and other devices. The importance of DC power supply: a) Most electric equipment requires DC voltage. b) Dry cells unable to accommodate the needs of electrical equipments and not economical. c) Power supplied to the house in AC but electrical equipment needs DC voltage.
A power supply can by broken down into a series of

blocks, each of which performs a particular function.

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Block Diagram of DC Power Supply


Transformer
Step-up Step-down

Rectifier
Half-wave Full-wave Bridge

Filter
RC filter LC filter filter

Regulator
Zener diode Serial transistor Integrated circuit

Voltage divider
Fixed Variable

Function of each block; a) Transformer - convert AC electricity from one voltage to another with little loss of power. - steps down high voltage AC mains to low voltage AC. b) Rectifier - converts AC to DC, but the DC output is varying. c) Filter - smooth the DC from varying greatly to a small ripple. d) Regulator - eliminates ripple by setting DC output to a fixed voltage. e) Voltage divider distributes DC output voltage to load

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Block diagram of a typical linear DC power supply


Peak to peak AC signal Average voltage with AC ripple

Pulsating DC
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DC signal

Transformer

Transformers convert AC electricity from one voltage

to another with little loss of power. Transformers work only with AC and this is one of the reasons why mains electricity is AC. Step-up transformers increase voltage, Step-down transformers reduce voltage. Most DC power supplies use a step-down transformer to reduce the dangerously high mains voltage (240V ) to a safer low voltage.
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Transformer

*to Step Down high voltage AC main to low voltage AC. Example: 120Vac to 12Vac.
*The low voltage AC output is suitable for lamps, heaters and special AC motors. It is not suitable for electronic circuits unless they include a rectifier and a smoothing capacitor.

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Rectifier
to convert AC to DC, but the DC output is varying

There are several ways of connecting diodes to make

a rectifier to convert AC to DC. i. single diode can be used as a rectifier but it only uses the positive (+) parts of the AC wave to produce half-wave varying DC. ii. bridge rectifier is the most important and it produces full-wave varying DC. iii full-wave rectifier can also be made from just two diodes if a centre-tap transformer is used, but this method is rarely used now that diodes are cheaper.
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Rectifier
to convert AC to DC, but the DC output is varying There are several ways of connecting diodes to make

a rectifier to convert AC to DC.


i) half wave rectifier ii)Full wave rectifier

iii)Bridge rectifier

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Diode as half wave rectifier


A single diode can be used as a rectifier but this

produces half-wave varying DC which has gaps when the AC is negative. It only uses the positive (+) parts of the AC wave to produce half-wave varying DC.

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i. Half-wave Rectifier
During +ve half-cycle :

The diode D is forward bias. Diode D act as short

circuit, the current flow through the diode M, D, RL and N circuit. So that the output waveform is +ve voltage.

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During -ve half-cycle :

The diode D is reverse bias. Diode D act as open

circuit, there is no current flow through the circuit . So that the output waveform is zero volt.

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Input & Output waveform of Half-wave Rectifier

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ii. Full-wave Rectifier


A full wave rectifier is exactly the same as the half

wave, but allows unidirectional current through the load during the entire sinusoidal cycle. Average value of output becomes twice that of the half wave rectifier output: VAVG= 2Vp/

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ii. Center-tapped Full-wave Rectifier

Two diodes connected to the secondary of a centertapped transformer can form a full-wave rectifier that allows both half-cycles of the AC waveform to contribute to the DC making it smoother than a half-wave rectifier

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ii. Center-tapped Full-wave Rectifier

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ii. Center-tapped Full-wave Rectifier


During +ve half-cycle :

The diode D1 is forward bias, diode D2 is reverse

bias. Diode D1 act as closed circuit and D2 as open circuit, the current flow through M, D1, RL and G. So that the output waveform is +ve voltage.

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ii. Full-wave Rectifier


During -ve half-cycle :

The diode D1 is reverse bias, diode D2 is forward

bias. Diode D1 act as open circuit and D2 as closed circuit, the current flow through N, D2, RL and G. So that the output waveform is +ve voltage.

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Input & Output waveform of Full-wave Rectifier

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Bridge Rectifier

A bridge rectifier can be made using four individual diodes.

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No center tap results in full secondary voltage reaching the load.


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SUMMARY

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FILTER

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FILTER

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- During the +ve quarter cycle of

the input, the diode is forward biased allowing the capacitor to charge to within a diode drop of the input peak, as figure (a) -When the input begins to decrease below its peak (b), the capacitor retains its charge and the diode becomes reverse biased During the first quarter of the next cycle, the diode again will become forward biased when the input voltage exceeds the capacitor by approximately a diode drop, as ilustrated in (c)
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FILTER
A capacitor-input filter will charge and discharge such that it

fills in the gaps between each peak. This reduces variations of voltage. This voltage variation is called ripple voltage. The smaller the ripple voltage, the better the filtering action. The advantage of a full-wave rectifier over a half-wave is quite clear. The capacitor can more effectively reduce the ripple when the time between peaks is shorter.

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The higher value of capacitor will remove ripple voltage

more effective. The higher value of capacitor will take more times to discharge (Time constant longer). must be doubled when smoothing half-wave DC.
Vk 20 15 10 5 0 A 2 4 C 6 8 Z 10 t
X

A larger capacitor will give less ripple. The capacitor value


B C1 0.1uF C2 1uF Ripple Voltage

Time Constant, RLC1 Time Constant, RLC2


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Three (3) types of filter:


RC FILTER

LC FILTER
FILTER

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LC Filter

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VOLTAGE REGULATOR
The regulated DC output is very smooth with no

ripple. It is suitable for all electronic circuits. The main purpose was to reduce change to zero or at least to value that most minimum. Types of voltage regulator circuits: i. Zener diode ii. Serial transistor iii. Integrated circuits

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ZENER DIODES VOLTAGE REGULATOR


Zener Diode will be operational as voltage

regulator during reverse bias. Zener Diode having own specially namely could arrange voltage if operating inside zener area. To operate in zener area, input voltage must be greater than zener voltage load resistance does not cause current R become zero.
Rectifier Filter Dz

RL

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Transistor that connected serial with load would be handle

entry voltage value that permitted to product. Voltage take out will sampled by one circuits which supplies reverse biased voltage that will be compared with reference voltage If output voltage decrease, addition in VBE will cause transistor to generate more value stream that are going to rise output voltage and maintain output voltage. Zener diode going to act as reference voltage. Process that same happens if output voltage increase. Transistor would be minimized value stream, cause output voltage decrease and maintain output voltage.
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IC Voltage Regulator
Eliminates ripple by setting DC output to a

fixed voltage Voltage regulator ICs are available with fixed (typically 5, 9 and 12V) or variable output voltages. Many of the fixed voltage regulator ICs have 3 leads and look like power transistors, such as the 7805 +5V 1A regulator shown on the right. They include a hole for attaching a heatsink if necessary.

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Linear DC Power Supply Complete Circuit

TRANSFORMER FILTER

RECTIFIER

VOLTAGE REGULATER

VOLTAGE DIVIDER

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Transformer + Rectifier + Filter + Regulator


Filter

Filter

The regulated DC output is very smooth with no ripple. It is suitable for all electronic circuits.

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