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The Age of Absolutism

The Modern World Develops

England and France


The 17th century saw the development of two different models of government. England - Parliamentary monarchy France - Absolutism

Focal Points
The factors behind the divergent political paths in England and France in the 17th century. English Civil War The religious policies and subsequent wars of Louis XIV.

On the Road to Constitutionalism


In 1603, Elizabeth I dies with no heir James I of Scotland succeeds as the next English Monarch. Puritan Movement in England

James I
1566-1625 Stuart Family Favored Absolutism Parliament too strong

The Divine Right


James believed in an Absolute Monarchy. Anglican Episcopacy Avoid Parliament through impositions

Take Heed
1604 Millenary Petition at Hampton Court
No Bishops No King!!!

Found issues with both the Puritans and the Catholics.


Gunpowder Plot of 1605

Gunpowder Plot 1605

Absolute Concessions
1611 Issued the King James Bible to ease the tensions with the Puritans 1618 Supported Bohemian Calvinists against the Catholic adversaries. 1618 Popular Recreation on Sunday 1620 Pilgrims sail to America 1624 War with Spain

Charles I
1625-1649 Married to a Catholic French Princess Levied Taxes Enforced new laws

Conflict and War


In 1629, Charles sent Parliament prorogued. Fear of Popery among Parliament In 1640, Scotland rebelled against Charles religious policies. He calls Parliament to raise funds, but his efforts were to no avail.

The Long Parliament


1640-1660 John Pym headed Parliament in the first phase. During this time, Parliament moved to establish constitutionalism. Parliament was uncooperative with Charles I. Abolished tax and religious laws.

Eruption of War
In 1641, Parliament issued Charles the grand remonstrance In 1642, Charles storms Parliament and attempts to capture John Pym Charles withdrew to Nottingham and raises an army.

The Civil War: 1642-1646


Fought over two main issues: 1. Government/Politics 2. Religion England became divided into those who supported Parliament and those who supported the King.

The New Model


1644 Battle of Marston Moor 1645 Battle of Naseby Oliver Cromwell established Puritan dominance

The End of the War


Parliamentarians gain the upper hand by 1645, for two reasons: - alliance with Scotland - Oliver Cromwell By 1648, Cromwell had defeated Charles, but Prides Purge

Charles Beheaded on January 30, 1649

Oliver Cromwell
Military Genius, but not a political one. Establishes the Puritan Republic Lord Protector of England Died 1658

The Restoration
In 1660, Parliament allowed for the restoration of the throne. Charles II succeeds as monarch. Instituted a puritanization of England But held secret Catholic sympathies.

Charles II: 1660-85

Renewed Rights
Charles II maintained a policy of religious toleration. England first, then religion. Clarendon Code - Parliament - Book of Common Prayer - Thirty Nine Articles

Religious Tension Revisited


Charles attempted to rejoin the Catholic faith but found problems Declaration of Indulgence in 1672 Parliament responded with the Test Act. - oath against transubstantiation

Popish Plot
In 1678, Titus Oates swore that Charles wife was plotting with Jesuits and Irishmen to kill Charles. Parliament believed Oates, despite his track of lying. Charles II dies in 1685 and his brother James becomes king.

James II:1685-88
Ardent Catholic Tried to repeal the Test Act Tolerance reinstated Forced out of England

William & Mary

Glorious Revolution
In 1688, Parliament chased James II out of England. Parliament declared throne vacant and proclaimed Wm. & Mary as the new monarchs in 1689 The Bill of Rights - 1689 Constitutionalism Established.

The Settlement
The Act of Toleration 1689 The Mutiny Act 1689 The Act of Settlement 1701 The Act of Union - 1707

Absolute France
Rise of King Louis XIV in 1643 one king, one law, one faith Made the monarchy the most important and powerful political institution. Used the system to his advantage.

Predecessors
Henry IV curtailed the privileges of the nobility. In 1610, Louis XIII developed the role of the intendant. The role of Cardinal Richelieu

Richelieu: 1585-1642
Master of politics and diplomacy Played both sides of the fence Used the arts and printing press to define the raison detat

The Rise of Sun King


Ostensibly, Louis XIV became monarch in 1643, but he was FIVE. Cardinal Mazarin was his chief advisor and ruled the government. 1649-1651: French parlement revolted and took over government. 1652 - Louis XIV began his career.

Anchoring his Image


Louis XIV had two successful strategies. First, he used propaganda to create a political image. Second, he gained the favor of the French nobles

Rigauds Portrait

King By Divine Right


Louis XIV declared Letat, cest moi The Divine right of Kings - cited examples from the Old Testament Only God could judge the King Louis had help from Bossuet as master of Canon and French Law.

Smoke and Mirrors


Louis XIV continued his propaganda by moving the royal court to Versailles in 1682. Chose the royal emblem of the sun as it was associated with Apollo the god of peace and arts.

Religious Policies
Louis XIV upheld the doctrines of the Council of Trent Suppressed the Jansenists and the French Huguenots. Appealed to the Jesuit Rule.

On Warfare
Louis XIVs unification of France led to a strong military. Secured international boundaries for France. The Great War Machine: Colbert, Louvois, and Vauban.

Ministers of Defense
Jean-Baptiste Colbert: 1619-1683 - Economic genius, he enhanced the mercantile system and increased taxes Marquis of Louvois and Sebastien Vauban - Perfected the French Military, both in strength and tactics.

The Early Wars


The War of Devolution - 1667-68 Louis held claim to Spanish Belgian Invasion of the Netherlands - 1670-72 Louis wanted control of the trading routes. Peace of Nijmwegen 1679 Revocation of the Edit of Nantes bad PR move for Louis.

Charles II of Spain
1661-1700 Son of Philip IV through his 2nd marriage. Sufferer because of ailments Cause of two of Louis XIVs wars.

The Later Wars


War of Spanish Succession - Long and drawn out war that weighed heavily on the French military. Results of War - Foundation for the European alliance system

Questions????
Why did England and France develop differently in the seventeenth century? How did the personalities of their rulers affect each nations political institutions?