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its include the introduction,classification &analysis of power system.

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(Stage First Presentation)

Roll No.-094008

pk1443 - 1

Power system stability may be broadly defined as that property of a

power system that enables it to remain in a state operating equilibirium under normal operating conditions and to regain an acceptable state of equilibirium after being subjected to a disturbance.

Instability in a power system may be manifested in many different ways

depending on the system configuration and operating mode. Traditionally ,the stability problem has been one of maintaining Synchronus operation. Since power system rely on synchronus machines for electrical power generation, a necessary condition for satisfactory system is that all syn. machines should remain in synchronism. This aspect of stability is influenced by the dynamics of generators rotor angles and power-angle relationships.

Instability may also encountered without loss of synchronism. For

example a system consisting of a synchronus generator feeding an induction motor load through a transmission line can become unstable because of the collapse of load voltage. In the evaluation of stability the concern is the behavior of the power system when subjected to a transient disturbance. The disturbance may be small or large. Small disturbances in the form of load changes take place continually, and the system adjusts itself to the changing conditions. The system must be able to operate under these changes and also be capable of surviving numerous disturbances of severe nature, such as short- ckt. on transmission line, loss of a large generator or load , or loss of a tie between two subsystems,

Rotor angle stability is the ability of synchronous machines of a power

In other words, rotor angle or load angle stability denotes the angular

displacement between stator and rotor speeds. It is directly proportional to the speed of the m/c i.e. the load connected to the generator. If the Angle is beyond to liable limit, the system will come out of synchronism.

The synchronus machine is an important electromechanical converter. Synchronus

Forming a large system supplying electrical energy to the loads or consumers. For

these applications synchronous machines are built in large units, their rating ranging from tens to hundreds of megawatts. For high-speed machines, the prime movers are usually steam turbines employing fossil or nuclear energy resources. Low-speed machines are often driven by hydro-turbines that employ water power for generation. Smaller synchronous machines are sometimes used for private generation and as standby units, with diesel engines or gas turbines as prime movers. large sizes. The synchronous motor operates at a precise synchronous speed, and hence is a constant-speed motor. Unlike the induction motor, whose operation always involves a lagging power factor, the synchronous motor possesses a variablepower-factor characteristic, and hence is suitable for power-factor correction applications

Synchronous machines can also be used as motors, but they are usually built in very

SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR CHARACTERISTICS ( P versus ) The steady-state characteristics of a synchronous motor

represented by phasor diagrams are shown as function of the load P with the excitation voltage E kept constant. The power expression is P = I V cos() = E V sin() / X. The basic phasor equation is V = E + jX I. The locus of E is a portion of a circle of radius E centered at the origin of the complex plane.The locus of I is also a circle of radius E/X centered on the imaginary axis at V/X. The power P versus the torque angle is also plotted.

1. 2. 3.

For transient stability analysis we need to consider three systems Prefault - before the fault occurs the system is assumed to be at an equilibrium point Faulted - the fault changes the system equations, moving the system away from its equilibrium point Post fault - after fault is cleared the system hopefully returns to a new operating point

Voltage Stability-It refers to the ability of the system to maintain a

steady frequency, following a system drastic change resulting in a significant imbalance between generated and demand power Voltage stability margins-

Voltage stability is a problem in power systems which are heavily

loaded, faulted or have a shortage of reactive power. The nature of voltage stability can be analyzed by examining the production, transmission and consumption of reactive power.

transformers and loads restrict the maximum of power system transfers. The power system lacks the capability to transfer power over long distances or through high reactance due to the requirement of a large amount of reactive power at some critical value of power or distance.

Transfer of reactive power is difficult due to extremely high

reactive power losses, which is why the reactive power required for voltage control is produced and consumed at the control area.

The large disturbance causes the network characteristics to

shrink dramatically. The characteristics of the network and load do not intersect at the instability point. A load increase beyond the voltage collapse point results in loss of equilibrium, and the power system can no longer operate. This will typically lead to cascading outages.

. The load voltage decreases, which in turn decreases the load

demand and the loading of EHV transmission lines. The voltage control of the system, however, quickly restores generator terminal voltages by increasing excitation. The additional reactive power flow at the transformers and transmission lines causes additional voltage drop at these components.

PV-curve

1. Power systems are operated in the upper part of the PV-curve.

This part of the PV-curve is statically and dynamically stable. 2. The head of the curve is called the maximum loading point. The critical point where the solutions unite is the voltage collapse point. The maximum loading point is more interesting from the practical point of view than the true voltage collapse point, because the maximum of power system loading is achieved at this point. The maximum loading point is the voltage collapse point when constant power loads are considered, but in general they are different. The voltage dependence of loads affects the point of voltage collapse. The power system becomes voltage unstable at the voltage collapse point. Voltages decrease rapidly due to the requirement for an infinite amount of reactive power.

PV-curve

The lower part of the PV-curve (to the left of the voltage collapse point)

is statically stable, but dynamically unstable. The power system can only operate in stable equilibrium so that the system dynamics act to restore the state to equilibrium when it is perturbed.

Small-disturbance Voltage Stability- this category considers small perturbations such as an incremental change in system load. It is the load characteristics and voltage control devices that determine the system capability to maintain its steady-state bus voltages. This problem is usually studied using power-flow-based tools (steady state analysis). In that case the power system can be linearised around an operating point and the analysis is typically based on eigenvalue and eigenvector techniques

Here, the concern is to maintain a steady bus voltages

following a large disturbance such as system faults, switching or loss of load, or loss of generation. This ability is determined by the system and load characteristics, and the interactions between the different voltage control devices in the system. Large disturbance voltage stability can be studied by using non-linear time domain simulations in the short-term time frame and load-flow analysis in the long-term time frame (steady-state dynamic analysis) The voltage stability is. however, a single problem on which a combination of both linear and non-linear tools can be used.

Short-term voltage stability is characterized by

components such as induction motors, excitation of synchronous generators, and electronically controlled devices such as HVDC and static var compensator. The time scale of short-term

The analysis of long-term voltage stability requires detailed modeling of long-term dynamics Two types of stability problems emerge in the long-term time scale: 1. Frequency problems may appear after a major disturbance resulting in power system islanding. Frequency instability is related to the active power imbalance between generators and loads. An island may be either under or over-generated when the system frequency either declines or rises. 2. Voltage problems

Classification of Stability

stability program.

And also

Power system Stability & Control P.KUNDUR Presentation on Voltage collapse- M.H.Sadegi

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