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Control systems engineering


History Technology OSI-7 Layer model Signaling

Today we will touch upon following points of HART Protocol

Message structure
Networks Benefits

Host System Capabilities Checklist

Technical Specification

What is HART?

Highway Addressable Remote Transducer

History of HART?

HART was developed by Rosemount in 1986 for their smart transmitter. After continued development and expansion to support other devices it was made an open protocol in late 1989. 18 users (manufacturers) started using HART protocol in 1989 Group increased to 79 users in 1993. In 1993 the HART Communication Foundation (HCF) was formed & Fisher Rosemount transferred ownership of the HART protocol to the HCF. The HCF is an independent, non-profit corporation, organized to serve growing industry interest in the HART protocol and the needs of HART users. Its mission is to coordinate, promote and support the application of HART technology worldwide.

Features of HART protocol

Field proven concept that is easy to understand and use Compatible with existing 4-20 mA systems Simultaneous point-to-point 4-20 mA and digital communication Alternative multi-drop mode Measured variables, tag number, range and span settings, device information, diagnostics and simple message transmitted. Digital response time of 500 ms; Burst mode response of 300 ms Open architecture; freely available to any vendor and every users

Method of Operation
Conventional communication

4-20 mA

HART Communication

4-20 mA + Digital


Method of Operation

Method of Operation

The HART protocol operates using the frequency shift keying(FSK) principle, which is based on the Bell 202 communication standard The Digital signal is made up from two frequencies - 1200Hz and 2200 Hz, representing bits 1 and 0 respectively

Sine waves of these two frequencies are superimposed on the direct current (DC) analog signal cables to provide simultaneous analog and digital communication. Average value of the FSK signal is always zero, hence the 4-20 mA analog signal is not affected.

Communication Modes

Master-Slave Mode During normal operation, each slave (field device) communication is initiated by master communication device. Two master can connect to each HART loop. Primary Master : DCS / PLC / Personal Computer Secondary Master : Handheld terminal or PC (Dedicated for HART configuration) Slave device include transmitter, actuator, and controller etc..

Burst Mode

The master instructs the slave device to continuously broadcast a standard HART reply message (e.g. the value of the process variable).
The master receives the message at the higher rate (3-4 data updates per second) until it instructs the salve to stop bursting.

Information Available form HART

HART provides information on Process Variable Output to Actuators Configuration Status & Diagnostics
PV Tagto Four measured variable Up out of limits PV to 255 range variables Description Up out of device Output Positionfixed Output current setpoint Message Engineering units Position feedback Configuration changed Date Device malfunction Engineering Units More Range Value Upperdevice specific information Value Lower Range Damping Value Materials


HART Command Structure

HART Command are.. Universal Commands Common Practice Commands Device Specific Commands
Manufacturer Revision Information (e.g. Device Variables (up to 255) Read Flow Device) Model Calibration (zero, span) Model Specific Function Tag Initial Self tests Calibration options Description Change TimeUnits Engineering constant Values Message Conversions Change range values Instrument Limits Totalizer mode Loop test (Start, Stop, Reset) Range Values Local Display options Set Zero Engineering Units Pulse output options Change Engineering units Damping Low flow Trim DACcut-off Date Line more Device status Readsize information Device Status Flow tube calibration Factor Assign Variables Process Outputs Burst mode Process Measurements


OSI 7-Layer Model




Message structure


HART Networks



HART Networks



Lower Installation Costs
HART allows you to streamline loop tests and device checkouts Cuts commissioning cost in half

Efficient Data Acquisition

Reduce hardware, wiring, and I/O with multivariable instruments Lowers installation costs by 40%

Lower life cycle costs

Manage field equipment remotely and proactively Eliminate unnecessary maintenance activities

More Process Availability

Remote checking of field device status helps keep equipment running and the process online.


Hand Held communicator


Smart Transmitter Block Diagram


Smart Transmitter : HART Circuit board

HART chip


HART Host System Capabilities Checklist

How Many HART I/O channels per card? Can the system power the devices with an internal power supply?

Which HART revisions are supported?

Is burst mode supported on all channels? Is multi drop networking supported on all channels? If yes, How many devices can be placed on a single network?

Indicate the parameters that are accessed in HART device?


Technical Data
Communication Signals
Traditional Analog Digital Logical 0 Frequency Logical 1 Frequency : : : : 4-20 mA Frequency shift keying (FSK) in accordance with Bell 202, 2200 Hz 1200 Hz

Data Information
Data Update rate: Request/ Response mode : 2 - 3 updates per second Burst mode : 3 - 4 updates per second Data byte structure : 1 start bit, 8 data bits, 1 bit for odd parity, 1 stop bit Data Integrity : Two - Dimensional error checking Status information on every reply message

Command Structure
Universal Common Practice Device specific : Common to all devices : Optional; used by many devices : For unique product features


Technical Data
Communication Masters
Two communication Masters

Variables Up to 256 variables per device IEEE 754 floating point format (32 bits) with engineering units Wiring Topologies Point to point : Simultaneous analog and digital Point to Point : Digital only Multi drop network : Digital only (up to 15 devices) Cable Lengths Maximum twisted pair length - 3048 m (10000 ft)
Cable length depends on the characteristics of individual products and cables

Intrinsically Safe With appropriate barrier/Isolator The current revision of the HART protocol specification is 5.3


HART Websites
HART Communication Foundation (HCF)

HART Technical Information HART Forum

What is HART?


HART Protocol