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# Notes on Lesson

## Faculty Name : V. KIRAN KUMAR Code : AU28

Subject Name : DESIGN OF MACHINE
ELEMENTS
Code : ME2303
Year : III Semester : V
Degree & Branch : B.E. AUTOMOBILE Section : -
Failure Theories
Stress in machine components should be
accurately computed.

Designer must understand material limits to
ensure a safe design.
Design Factor
Factor of Safety (N)

Suitable values depend on inherent danger,
certainty of calculations, certainty of
material properties, etc.
Failure Component at Stress
Stress Expected
N =
Static Stresses - Brittle Materials
Percent elongation < 5%

for parts in tension

for parts in compression

for parts with general stress

o
t
u
s
N =
o
c
u
s
N =
c t
u u
s s N
2 1
1 o o
+ =
Example
The Gray Cast Iron (Grade 40) cylinder carries
an axial compressive load of 75,000 lbs and a
torque of 20,000 in lbs. Compute the resulting
design factor.
4.00
5.00
R0.25
R0.25
Static Stresses - Ductile Materials
Percent elongation > 5%
Distortion Energy Theory
Define von Mises Stress

For nominal stress

For localized stress

' o
y
s
N =
' o
u
s
N =
2 1
2
2
2
1
' o o o o o + =
Static Stresses - Ductile Materials
Percent elongation > 5%
Maximum Shear Stress Theory

For nominal stress

For localized stress

max max
2t t
y ys
s s
N = =
max
t
us
s
N =
Example
Specify a diameter for the middle portion of
the rod, if it is to be made from AISI 1040-hot
rolled steel.
5000 lbs
45
0

Example
For the seat support shown, specify a standard
structural tube to resist static loads shown.
The tube has properties similar to AISI 1020
hot-rolled steel. Use a design factor of 3.
200 lb
400 lb
20
14
Time
S
t
r
e
s
s
o
alt

o
mean

Example
The notched bar is machined from AISI 1020
steel. This bar is subjected to a load that
varies from 2000 lb to 3000 lb. Determine the
mean and alternating nominal stresses.
0.1 R
1
1.25
.75
Fatigue Strength
R.R. Moore Test
10
3
10
4

10
5
10
6
10
7
10
8

Endurance Strength, s
n

Cycles to Failure, N (log)
Alternating Stress, o
a

Motor
Endurance Strength
s
n
= Endurance strength
- Listed in tables

- If no information is available, use
s
n
~ 0.5 s
u
(Steel)
s
n
~ 0.4 s
u
(Aluminum)

The data from the standard R.R. Moore
test is adjusted for a particular
application.

s
n
= (C
s
) (C
m
) (C
st
) (C
R
) (s
n
)

Size and Stress Type Factors
C
s
= Size Factor
D< 0.4 in C
s
= 1.0
0.4 < D 2.0 in C
s
= (D/0.3)
-0.068

2.0 < D 10.0 in C
s
= D
-0.19
For rectangular sections, D=.808(h b)
1/2

C
st
= Stress Type Factor
= 1.0 for bending
= 0.80 for axial tension
= 0.50 for torsion

Material and Reliability Factor
C
m
= Material Factor
= 1.0 for wrought steel
= 0.80 for cast steel
= 0.70 for cast iron

C
R
= Reliability Factor
50% C
R
= 1.0
90% C
R
= 0.90
99% C
R
= 0.81
99.9% C
R
= 0.75

Example
The notched bar is machined from AISI 1020
steel. This bar is subjected to a load that
varies from 2000 lb to 3000 lb. Determine the
endurance limit of the material.
0.1 R
1
1.25
.75
Repeated Stresses - Ductile Materials
Distortion Energy Theory
Define repeated von Mises Stress

Solderberg criterion

n
a t
y
m
s
K
s N '
' ' 1 o o
+ =
m m m m m 2 1
2
2
2
1
' o o o o o + =
a a a a a 2 1
2
2
2
1
' o o o o o + =
Repeated Stresses - Ductile Materials
Maximum Shear Stress Theory
sn
a t
sy
m
s
K
s N '
) ( ) ( 1
max max
t t
+ =
s
sy
= 0.5 s
y
s
sn
= 0.5 s
n
Example
The notched bar is machined from AISI 1020
steel. This bar is subjected to a load that
varies from 2000 lb to 3000 lb. Comment on
the robustness of the design.
0.1 R
1
1.25
.75
Example
Comment on the robustness of a 1-1/4 round
bar made from AISI 1213 C-D steel. It carries
a constant tensile load of 1500 lbs, a bending
load that varies from 0 to 800 lbs at the senter
of the 48 length and a constant torque of
1200 in lbs.
48
Connect power transmission components.

Inherently subjected to transverse loads and
torsion.

Shafts
Shaft Forces
Gears
As before
W
r

W
t

T
Shaft Forces
Chains
F
slack
= 0
F
tight

D
T
F
tight
2
=
D
T
Shaft Forces
V-belts
F
slack

F
tight

D
T
F
tight
5 . 2
=
D
T
D
T
F
slack
2
=
Shaft Forces
Flat belts
F
slack

F
tight

D
T
F
tight
3
=
D
T
D
T
F
slack
=
Material Properties
s
ys
=.5s
y

s
n
=c
s
c
R
s
n
c
T
= 1 (bending)
c
m
= 1 (wrought steel)
Stress Concentrations
Keyseats
Sled Runner K
t
= 1.6

Profile K
t
= 2.0

Woodruff K
t
= 1.5

Stress Concentrations
Shoulders
Sharp, Bearing (r/d ~.03) K
t
= 2.5
Round, Gear Bore (r/d ~.17) K
t
= 1.5
Grooves
Retaining Rings K
t
= 1.5
Try not to let K
t
s overlap.
Leave .10 - .15 between
Strength Analysis
Bending stress

Torsion stress

S
M K
I
c M K
t t
= = o
S
T
J
r T
2
= = t
32
3
D
S
t
=
c
I
r
J
2 =
For round sections
For round sections
Strength Analysis
Mohrs circle and Solderberg
( ) ( )
S
s T s M K
N
y n t
2 2
/
4
3
' /
1
+
=
Suggested Design Factors:
N=2 smooth operation
N=3 typical industrial operation
Minimum Acceptable Diameter
The designer must size the shaft.
Solve for appropriate diameters
( ) ( )

+ =
2 2
/
4
3
' /
32
y n t
s T s M K
N
D
t
Example
Determine a suitable diameter for a shaft
made from AISI 1144 OQT 1000. It is
subjected to a reversing bending moment of
3000 ft lbs and a steady torque of 1800 ft lbs.
The shaft has a profile keyway.
Example
The shaft shown is part of a grain drying system
At A, a 34 lb. propeller-type fan requires 12 hp
when rotating at 475 rpm.
A flat belt pulley at D delivers 3.5 hp to a screw
conveyor handling the grain.
All power comes to the shaft through the v-belt at
C.

Using AISI 1144 cold drawn steel, determine the
minimum acceptable diameter at C.
Example
12
10 10
4
A
B
C
D
E
Sheave C
15
0

Sheave D
Components used to securely mount power
transmitting elements on a shaft.

Shafts Accessories
Axial
Rotational
Keys
Allow torque to be transferred from a shaft
to a power transmitting element (gear,
sprocket, sheave, etc.)
Key Design
Use a soft, low strength material
(ie, low carbon steel)

Standard size H=W=1/4 D
Design length
based on strength

H
L
W
Standard Key Sizes
Shaft Dia. (in) W (in)
2
2 2
W D H D
S
+
=
T
S
H
W
. 005 .
2
2 2
in
W D H D
T +
+ +
=
Key Design

Key Shear

Failure Theory

Length
y
DWs
TN
L
4
=
DLW
T
A
F 2
= = t
TD
LW s s
N
y y
4 2
= =
t
D
T
D
T
F
2
2 /
= =
Example
Specify a key for a gear (grade 40, gray cast
iron) to be mounted on a shaft (AISI 1144, hot
rolled) with a 2.00 in. diameter. The gear
transmits 21000 lb-in of torque and has a hub
length of 4 in.
Retaining Rings
Also known as snap rings
Provides a removable shoulder to lock
components on shafts or in bores.
Made of spring steel, with a high shear
strength.
Stamped, bent-wire, and spiral-wound.
Retaining Ring Selection
Based on shaft diameter & thrust force
Set Screws
Setscrews are fasteners that hold collars,
pulleys, or gears on shafts.
They are categorized by drive type and
point style.

Standard Set Screw Sizes
Set Screw Holding
Pins
A pin is placed in double shear

y
s D
N T
d
t
8
=
D
d
Hole is made slightly smaller than the pin
(FN1 fit)

Example
Specify a pin for a gear (grade 40, gray cast
iron) to be mounted on a shaft (AISI 1144, hot
rolled) with a 2.00 in. diameter. The gear
transmits 21000 lb-in of torque and has a hub
length of 4 in.

Roll Pins
Easier disassembly
Collars
Creates a shoulder on shaft without
increasing stock size.
Held with either set screw or friction
(clamped)
Mechanical Couplings
Couplings are used to join two shafts
Rigid couplings are simple and low cost.
But they demand almost perfect alignment
of the mating shafts.

Misalignment causes undue forces and
accelerated wear on the shafts, coupling,
shaft bearings, or machine housing.

Mechanical Couplings
In connecting two shafts, misalignment is
the rule rather than the exception. It comes
from such sources as bearing wear,
structural deflection, thermal expansion, or
settling machine foundations.

When misalignment is expected, a flexible
coupling must be used.
Mechanical Couplings
Selection factors include:
- Amount of torque (or power & speed)
- Shaft Size
- Misalignment tolerance
Fasteners, Powers Screws,
Connections
Helical thread screw was an important invention.
Power Screw, transmit angular motion to liner motion
Transmit large or produce large axial force
It is always desired to reduce number of screws
Definition of important
Terminologies
Major diameter d, Minor diameter d
r
Mean dia or pitch diameter d
p
Lead l, distance the nut moves for one turn rotation

Double threaded screws are stronger and moves faster
Screw Designations
United National
Standard UNS
International Standard
Organization

Roots and crest can be either flat or round
Pitch diameter produce same width in the thread and space,
Fine Thread UNF, is more resistance to
loosening, because of its small helix angle.
They are used when Vibration is present
Class of screw, defines its fit, Class 1 fits have
widest tolerances, Class 2 is the most commonly
used
Class three for very precision application
Example:1in-12 UNRF-2A-LH, A for Ext. Thread
and B for Internal, R root radius
Metric M10x1.5 10 diameter mm major
diameter,1.5 pitch
Some important Data for UNC, UNF
Lets Look at the Table 8-1 on Page 398
Square and Acme Threads are used
for the power screw

d, in 1/4 5/16 3/8 1/2 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1 1/4
p,in 1/16 1/14 1/12 1/10 1/8 1/6 1/6 1/5 1/5
Mechanics of Power Screws
Used in design to change the angular motion to linear motion, Could
you recall recent failure of power screw leading to significant
causalities

What is the relationship between the
applied torque on power screw and
lifting force F

)
sec
sec
(
2 o t
o t
fl d
fd l Fd
T
m
m m
R

+
=
) (
2
) (
2
f l d
l f d Fd
T
f l d
f d l Fd
T
m
m m
L
m
m m
R
+

+
=
t
t
t
t
If the thread as an angle , the torque will be
Wedging action, it
increases friction
Stresses in the power Screw
p n d
F
A
V
p n d
F
p n d
F
d
T
t r
t r
b
t m
B
t
t
t
o
t
o
t
t
3
2
3
6
2 /
16
3
= =
=
=
=
Shear stress in the base
of the screw
Bearing stress
Bending stress at the root
of the screw
n
t
number of engaged

Failure considerations

Bolts are used to clamp two or more parts

It causes pre tension in the bolt
Grip length is the total thickness of parts
and washers
l
l
d
l
t
t
2
l
d
h
L effective grip= h+t
2
if t
2
<d

=h=d/2 for t
2
d
>
l
t
=L- ld
Failure of bolted or riveted joints
Type of Joints

Lap Joint (single Joint) But Joint
Example 1
Example 2
Example 2
Example 3
Weld
Weld under Bending
Springs
Used to:
Exert force
Store energy
Flexible machine elements
Spring Rate
Effective springs have a linear deflection
curve.
Slope of the spring deflection curve is the
rate
Force
Deflection
k
1
L
F
k
A
A
=
Example
A compression spring with a
rate of 20 lb/in is loaded with
6 lbs and has a length of 1.5
spring length (free length)
Geometry
Wire diameter, D
w
(Standard gages)
Mean Diameter, D
m

D
m
= D
o
- D
w
D
o

D
i

D
w

L
D
w

Spring Parameters
Spring index

C > 5 (manufacturing limits)
Active coils, N
a
= N for plain ends
= N-1 for ground ends
= N-2 for closed ends
w
m
D
D
C =
Deflection
Deflection for helical springs
w
a
w
a m
GD
N FC
GD
N FD
3
4
3
8 8
= = o
Spring rate for helical springs
a
w
N C
GD
k
3
8
=
G = Shear modulus
Example
A helical compression spring is formed from
35 gage music wire with 10-1/4 turns and an
O.D. if 0.850 in. Its ends are squared. The
free length is 2 inches. Determine the force to
press the spring solid.
Stress Analysis
Spring wire is in torsion
F
V
T
2
8
w
D
C F K
J
r T
t
t = =
Wahl factor, K
Accounts for the
curvature of the wire
C C
C
K
615 .
4 4
1 4
+

=
Example
A helical compression spring is formed from
35 gage music wire with 10-1/4 turns and an
O.D. if 0.850 in. Its made from A228 and
the ends are squared. The free length is 2
inches.
If the spring is repeatedly compressed to 1.3
in, do you expect problems?
Design Procedure
Select a material
Compute required spring rate
Estimate D
m
based on size constraints
Determine required D
w
(use K=1.2)
Select standard wire
Verify actual stress is satisfactory.
Compute number of coils required.
Example
Design a helical compression spring to exert a
force of 22 lbs when compressed to a length
of 1.75 in. When its length is 3.0 in, it must
exert 5 lb. The spring will be cycled rapidly.
Use ASTM A401 steel wire.
Provides support for machine elements,
while allowing smooth motion.
u=0.001 - 0.005
Rolling Element Bearings
Types
Single-row
Angular
Contact Ball
Angular
Roller
Types
Spherical
Roller
Needle
Thrust
Tapered Roller
Ball Bearings
Stress Analysis
Contact Stress
o
c
=300,000 is not unusual
Balls, rollers and races are made from
extremely high strength steel
ex. AISI 52100
s
y
= 260,000 psi
s
u
=322,000 psi
Test (fatigue) data
L
10
Life (cycles)
k
P
P
L
L
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
1
1
2
Empirical relationship:
k=3.0 (ball)
k=3.33 (roller)
Example
A bearing is mounted on a shaft rotating at
1200 rpm. The bearing has been tested to have
a L
10
life of 300 hrs, when loaded with 500
lbs. Determine the expected L
10
life, if the
load is increased to 700 lbs.
Manufacturers Data
Vendors publish the
rating (C) of a bearing at
an L
10
life of 1 million
cycles.
Bearing Selection
Determine the design life (in cycles)
P
d
= V R

Calculate the required basic dynamic load

Select a bearing with (C > C
reqd
) and a bore
that closely matches the shaft diameter.
k
d
d d req
L
P C
1
6
'
10
|
.
|

\
|
=
V=1 for inner race rotation
V=1.2 for outer race rotation
Example
Specify suitable bearings for a shaft used in an
grain dryer. The shaft rotates at 1700 rpm.
The required supporting loads at the bearing
are

and the minimum acceptable diameter is
2.16.
R
Bx
=589 lb
R
By
=164 lb
Mounting of Bearings
Shaft/bearing bore has a light interference
fit.
Housing/outer race has a slight clearance fit.
Check manufacturers catalog

Shaft or housing shoulders not to exceed
20% of diameter.
Mounted Bearings
Pillow block

Bearing is inserted into a cast housing, with
base or flange slots, which can be readily
attached to a machine base.
Compute a weighted average load based on
duty cycle.
( ) | |
p
i
i
p
i
m
N
N F
F
1
|
|
.
|

\
|
=

F
m
F
i
condition i
N
i
= cycles for
condition i
p = exponent for
Example
Bearing 6211 is carrying the following load
cycle, while rotating at 1700 rpm.
1 600 480
2 200 115
3 100 45
Compute the bearing L
10
life in minutes.
P=VXR +YT