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IRRIGATION ENGINEEERING

5th Semester III Year Department of Civil Engineering

Lecture Slides by SARAVANAN.J B.E Anna University

UNIT I INTRODUCTION
Irrigation Need & mode of irrigation Merits & demerits of irrigation Crop & crop seasons Consumptive use of water Duty Factors affecting duty Irrigation efficiencies Planning and development of irrigation projects

IRRIGATION
General: Its the process of artificially supplying water to soil for raising corps Science: Its a science of planning and designing an efficient, low-cost, economic irrigation system that suits to the natural conditions Engineering: Its the engineering of controlling and utilizing of various natural sources of water by constructing damsreservoirs; canals-headworks and finally distributing the water to agricultural fields
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NEED OF IRRIGATION
Less rainfall (Rajasthan canal-100mm to 200mm) Non-uniform rainfall (Most of Indian projects) Growing a number of crops during a year Growing perennial crops (sugar cane) Commercial crops with additional water Controlled water supply

MODES OF IRRIGATION

FLOW IRRIGATION
Its the type of irrigation in which the supply of irrigation water available is at such a level that it can be conveyed on to the land by the gravity flow. Two different classifications exists: General classification: Perennial Irrigation: Required water is supplied according to crop requirement throughout the crop period. Inundation Irrigation: Deep flooding is carried out to the cultivating land and after complete saturation, drained off prior to planting.
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FLOW IRRIGATION
Its the type of irrigation in which the supply of irrigation water available is at such a level that it can be conveyed on to the land by the gravity flow. Classification upon the source: Direct Irrigation (or) River canal irrigation Storage Irrigation (or) Tank Irrigation Combined storage & direct Irrigation

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LIFT IRRIGATION
Its practised when the water supply is at too low a level to run by gravitation on to the land. The lifting is done by mechanical means. (e.g.) Irrigation from wells.

Choice between the systems: Direct irrigation = Perennial rivers Storage irrigation = Partially insufficient rivers Combined irrigation = Multistage river valley project

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MERITS OF IRRIGATION
General development of the country Increase in food production Elimination of mixed cropping Addition to the wealth of the country Increase in prosperity of people Generation of Hydro-electric power Improvements of communication Inland navigation Canal plantation Improvement in the ground water storage
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DEMERITS OF IRRIGATION

Breeding places for mosquitoes Water-Logging Damp climate

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CROPS
Crops can be classified as follows:
Agricultural Classification:

Field crops: Wheat, rice, maize, barley, oats Commercial crops: Sugar cane, cotton, tobacco Oil seed crops: Mustard, ground nut, sesame Horticulture crops: Fruits-vegetable-flower Plantation crops: Tea, coffee, cocoa, coconut Forage crops: Fodder, grass
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CROPS
Classification based on crop seasons:
Rabi crops (winter crops) : Sown in autumn, harvested in March. (e.g.) gram, wheat, barley Kharif crops (monsoon crops): Sown in monsoon beginning, harvested in October. (e.g.) rice, maize, ground nut Perennial crops: Which needs irrigation water throughout the year (e.g.) sugar cane, fruits, vegetables 8 month crops: (e.g.) cotton
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CROPS Classification based on irrigation requirements:


Dry crops: No need of irrigation water. Wet crops: Cannot exist without irrigation water. Garden crops: Which requires irrigation throughout the year.
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CONSUMPTIVE USE OF WATER


Evapo-transpiration (or) consumptive use of water by a crop is the depth of water consumed by evaporation and transpiration during crop growth, including water consumed by accompanying the weed growth. Evaporation: Its the transfer of water from the liquid state to vapour state. The rate of evaporation from water surface is proportional to the difference between the vapour pressure at the surface and the vapour pressure in the overlying air Daltons law.
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CONSUMPTIVE USE OF WATER


Transpiration: Its the process by which plants dissipate water from the surface of their leaves, stalks and trunks in the process of growth. Transpiration is associated with photosynthesis of plants.

Transpiration Ratio: Its the ratio of the weight of water transpired by the plant during its growth to the weight of dry matter produced by the plant exclusive of roots. The average values of transpiration ratio for wheat and rice are 560 and 680.
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FACTORS AFFECTING CONSUMPTIVE USE OF WATER

Evaporation, which depends upon humidity. Mean monthly temperature. Growing season of crop & cropping pattern. Monthly precipitation in the area. Irrigation depth (or) the depth of water applied for irrigation. Wind velocity in the locality. Soil and topography. Irrigation practices and method of irrigation.
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PET - AET
PET: If sufficient moisture is always available to completely meet the needs of the plants, the resulting evapo-transpiration is called potential evapotranspiration. AET: The real evapo-transpiration occurring in a specific situation is called actual evapo-transpiration. At the moisture content in the soil corresponding to field capacity, the water supply to the plant is adequate and hence AET/PET = 1. AET/PET reduces with respect to the reduction of moisture content available.
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MEASUREMENT OF CONSUMPTIVE USE OF WATER

Equation Methods:
Blaney-Criddle method Penman method Hargreaves class A pan evaporation method

Principal Methods:
Tank and lysimeter methods. (10m2 and 3m deep) Field experimental plots. (break point) Soil moisture studies. Integration method. Inflow and outflow studies for large area.

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DUTY & DELTA


Duty: Its the irrigating capacity of a unit of a water. It gives a relationship between . . . . - Area of a crop to be irrigated - Required irrigation water for growing of a crop Delta: Its the total depth of water required by a crop during its growing in the field. Crop period: Its the time, (in days) that a crop takes from the instant of its sowing to that of its harvesting. Base period: For a crop, its the time from the first supply of irrigation water for the ground preparation to the last supply before the harvesting.
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Relationship b/w Duty & Delta


If, = Total depth of water supplied ( in meters) D = Duty in hectares/cumec B = Base period in days Then. . . = 8.64 { } Note: 1 hectare = 10*4 sq. meters 1 cumec-day = 8.64 hectare-meter

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FACTORS AFFECTING DUTY

Methods and systems of irrigation Mode of applying water to the crops Method of cultivation Time and frequency of tilling Type of the crop Base period of the crop Climatic conditions of the area Quality of water Method of assessment of irrigation method Canal conditions Character of soil and sub-soil of the canal Character of soil and sub-soil of irrigation fields
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METHODS OF IMPROVING DUTY Suitable method of applying water to the crops should be used. The land should be properly ploughed and leveled before sowing. The land should be cultivated frequently. The canals should be lined. The rotation of crops should be practiced. The alignment of the canals in sandy soils and fissured rocks should be avoided.
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SOME TERMS

Kor depth: During subsequent watering, the quantity of water needed by crops gradually decreases and is least when crop gains maturity. The first watering is known as kor-watering and the depth applied is kor-depth. Kor period: The portion of base period in which kor-watering is needed is known as kor-period. Outlet factor: Its defined as the duty at the outlet.
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SOME TERMS

Time factor: Its defined as the ratio of the number of days, the canal has actually run to the number of days of irrigation period. Capacity factor: This is the ratio of the mean supply to the full supply of a canal. Cumec-Day: The quantity of water flowing for one day at the rate of 1 Cumec is known as a cumec-day. Its equal to 8.64 hectare-metres.

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SOME TERMS
Paleo: Its the first watering before sowing the crop. This is done in order to add sufficient moisture to the unsaturated zone of the soil and is required for the initial growth of crops. Full supply coefficient: Its defined as the area estimated to be irrigated during the base period divided by the design full supply discharge of the channel at its head during maximum demand. This is also known as duty on capacity. Nominal duty: Its the ratio of the area of which the permit has been granted for the period divided by the mean supply for the base period
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SOME TERMS
Open discharge: Its the ratio of number of cumecdays to the number of days the canal has actually been used for irrigation. Root zone depth: Its the maximum depth of soil strata in which the crop spreads its root system and derives water from the soil.

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IRRIGATION EFFICIENCIES

Its the ratio of water output to the water input and is expressed as %. Various irrigation efficiencies are:
Water Conveyance Efficiency Water Application Efficiency Water Use Efficiency Water Storage Efficiency Water Distribution Efficiency Consumptive Use Efficiency
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Water Conveyance Efficiency


It takes into account the conveyance or transit losses.

c = ( Wf / Wr ) * 100 c = Water conveyance efficiency Wf = Water delivered to the farm or irrigation plot Wr = Water supplied or delivered from the river / reservoir.
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Water Application Efficiency


Its the ratio of the quantity of water stored into the root zone of the crops to the quantity of water delivered to the field.

a = ( Ws / Wf ) * 100
a = Water application efficiency Ws = Water stored in the root zone during the irrigation Wf = Water delivered to the farm
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Water Application Efficiency It should be atleast 60% for a well designed irrigation system. Factors causing low application efficiency:
Irregular land surfaces Shallow soils underlain by gravels of light permeability Either large or small irrigation streams Non-attendance of water during irrigation Long irrigation runs Wrong irrigation methods Improper preparation of land
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Water Use Efficiency Its the ratio of water beneficially used to the quantity of water delivered.
u = ( Wu / Wd ) * 100 u = Water use efficiency Wu = Water used beneficially Wd = Water delivered
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Water Storage Efficiency The concept of water storage efficiency gives an insight to how completely the required water has been stored in the root zone during irrigation.
s = ( Ws / Wn ) * 100

s = Water storage efficiency Ws = Water stored in root zone during irrigation Wn = Water needed in the root zone prior to irrigation
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Water Distribution Efficiency


It evaluates the degree to which water is uniformly distributed throughout the root zone.

d = 100 [1 y/d ] d = Water distributed efficiency y = Average numerical deviation in depth of water stored from average depth stored during irrigation d = Average depth of water stored during irrigation
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Consumptive Use Efficiency


It evaluates the loss of water by deep percolation and by surface evaporation following an irrigation.

cu = ( Weu / Wd ) * 100

cu = Consumptive use efficiency Weu = Normal consumptive use of water Wd = Net amount of water depleted from root zone of soil

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Planning and Development of Irrigation Project


Initially we need to know what all are the purposes for which an irrigation development project shall be started. Then, we have to have the basic knowledge about the ways ( or classification) in which we can development of projects. Next, we have to finalize our objectives for which we are developing our water resource project. Then, list out the functional requirements in multipurpose projects. Finally, the process of project formulation shall be carried out.
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Purposes of Water Resource Development


Irrigation:
Crop growth including cultivation of cash crops Land reclamation Salinity control

Pollution Control:
Prevention of salt water intrusion Waste water dilution

Soil Conservation:
Erosion control Sedimentation control Watershed management

Water Transport:
Navigation Port or harbor
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Purposes of Water Resource Development


Flood Control:
Reservoirs and detention basis Embankments (or) dikes Flood diversion River channel improvements Watershed management Flood zoning Flood forecasting and warning

Hydropower Generation:
Run-of-river and storage projects Hydropower from pumped storage Tidal power

Municipal and Industrial water supply:


Surface water development Ground water development Water desalination

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Classification of Water Resource Development Project


Single purpose project: Irrigation Power generation Flood control Multipurpose project: Serves 2 or more purposes. Such as storage and irrigation; storage and industrial uses; storage and power generation; inland navigation; flood control; preservation and cultivation. Objectives of Multipurpose projects:
To enhance national economic development by increasing the output of goods and services. To enhance regional development through increase in regions income, employment, economic base.
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Functional Requirements in Multi-Purpose Projects


Requirements for Irrigation Requirements for Domestic supply Requirements for Industrial uses

Requirements for Hydro-electric power


Requirements for Flood control Requirements for Navigation
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Process of Project Formulation


The development process for water resources projects comprises of formulation, construction and operation of a project. Its the dynamic process that includes,
Problem identification and statement of objectives Solution identification Projection for planning Definition of alternatives Evaluation of alternative projects Comparison of alternative projects Selection of a project
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