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# Bridging Theory in Practice

## Transferring Technical Knowledge

to Practical Applications
MOSFETs, High Side Drivers,
and Low Side Drivers
MOSFETs, High Side Drivers,
and Low Side Drivers
n n
Gate
Source Source
n
+
substrate
p p
n
+
substrate
n
Gate
Source Source
n
+
substrate
p p
Drain Drain
Blocking State Conducting State
n epi n epi
n
MOSFETs, High Side Drivers,
and Low Side Drivers
Intended Audience:
Electrical engineers with a knowledge of simple electrical circuits
A basic understanding of thermal design is required
A simple, functional understanding of capacitive and inductive loads is assumed
Topics Covered:
What is a MOSFET, a High Side Driver, and a Low Side Driver?
How do you select a MOSFET with the correct on-resistance (R
dson
)?
How does capacitive load in-rush current affect designs?
What precautions need to be taken with an inductive load?
Expected Time:
Approximately 90 minutes
Introduction
MOSFET Review
Low Side, High Side, and H-Bridge Drivers
PROFET Introduction
HITFET Introduction
Selecting the Correct R
dson

Static Operation
Dynamic Operation and the Impact of Switching Losses
Capacitive Load In-Rush Current
Switching Off an Inductive Load
MOSFETs, High Side Drivers,
and Low Side Drivers
Metal Oxide Semiconductor
Field Effect Transistor
Gate
n
+

p
+

n
+

p
+

n
+

n
-

Source Source
Drain
Vertical Power MOSFET
Transistor Process
(n-channel)
Vertical Power MOSFET
Integrated Circuit Process
(n-channel)
p
-

n
-

Drain
Ground
n
+

Gate
p
+

n
-
n
-

p
+

n
-

p
+
p
+

Source Source
n
+
n
+

MOSFET
Regions of Operation
A positive (for N-Channel) or negative (for P-Channel) V
GS
produces a
conducting channel between the Drain and Source
The MOSFET is then able to operate in two regions:
1) Linear region: The MOSFET behaves like a resistance.
2) Saturation region: The MOSFET behaves like a current source.

V
GS
> 0V

N-Channel
MOSFET
(NMOS)
I
DS
V
DS
V
G
S

i
n
c
r
e
a
s
e
s

V
DS
= V
GS
-V
T
MOSFET Breakdown
The breakdown voltage, V
(BR)DSS
, is the voltage at which current will
begin to flow from drain-source in OFF-state due to avalanche
breakdown process
For Drain-Source voltages above V
(BR)DSS
, significant current can flow
through the MOSFET, even when it is turned off

V
(BR)DSS
I
D

Electrical
Characteristic

Drain-to-Source
Breakdown Voltage

Symbol

V
(BR)DSS

Condition

V
GS
= 0V

I
D
= 1mA

Minimum

25V

Drain
Source
Gate
Low Side Drive (LSD) Configuration
The switch is
between the
14V

MOSFET
Switch
To turn on the LSD, the MOSFET
gate is pulled high
14V
With the MOSFET turned on, the
drain of the MOSFET is at near
ground potential
V
D
~ 0V
Current flows and the load
turns-on
I
High Side Drive (HSD) Configuration
14V

MOSFET
Switch
The switch is
between the
To turn on the HSD, the MOSFET
gate is pulled high
V
S
~ 9V
The drain and gate are assumed to
Be at the same potential causing
V
GS
=V
DS
. The high value of V
DS

puts the device into the saturation
Region and results in a a small
I
.

I
V
GS
~ 5V

14V

High Side Drive (HSD) Configuration
14V

MOSFET
Switch
The switch is
on the HIGH
side of the load
To turn on the HSD, the MOSFET
gate is pulled high
28V
The source voltage can now rise
to approximately V
supply

V
S
~ 14V
If the MOSFET gate is pulled to
a higher voltage than supply
The high value of V
GS
(and low
V
DS
) translates into a large value
of I
(linear region)

I
V
GS
~ 14V

In a Low Side Drive configuration:
+ More robust with simple ground
+ Simpler, lower price driver
- 2 wires in system
- Short to ground can destroy load
- Possible load corrosion (connected to V
SUPPLY
)

In a High Side Drive configuration:
+ 1 wire in system
+ Short to ground can not destroy load
+ Load corrosion unlikely (connected to GND)
- Less robust with distributed ground
- More complex, higher price driver

Low Side Drivers vs.
High Side Drivers
H-Bridge Configuration
14V

14V

CW CCW
CCW CW
The load is placed
in the middle of a
H configuration
H-Bridge Configuration
14V

14V

A
CCW
CCW
A
The load is placed
in the middle of a
H configuration
To turn the load on
in one direction,
CW is pulled high
28V
14V
H-Bridge Configuration
14V

14V

CW
B
B
CW
The load is placed
in the middle of a
H configuration
To turn the load on
in one direction,
CW is pulled high
To turn on in the
other direction,
CCW is pulled high
14V
28V
PROFETs = PROtected FETs
PROFET
MOSFET Diagnostics
Short Circuit
Protection
Integrated
Charge Pump
Over
Voltage
Protection
Current Limit
Over
Temperature
Protection
Reverse
Battery
Protection
PROFET - Block Diagram
HITFETs =Highly Integrated,
Temperature protected FETs
HITFET
MOSFET
Diagnostics
(Requires external
Components)
Over
Voltage
Protection
Current Limit
Short Circuit
Protection
Over
Temperature
Protection
HITFET - Block Diagram
V
SUPPLY
Introduction
MOSFET Review
Low Side, High Side, and H-Bridge Drivers
PROFET Introduction
HITFET Introduction
Selecting the Correct R
dson

Static Operation
Dynamic Operation and the Impact of Switching Losses
Capacitive Load In-Rush Current
Switching Off an Inductive Load
MOSFETs, High Side Drivers,
and Low Side Drivers
Power Dissipation (switch applications in linear region)
P
D
= I
2
R
dson

Thermal Impedance
Z
thja
= Z
thjc
+ Z
thca

Junction Temperature
T
junction
= T
ambient
+ P
D
Z
thja

For static operation Z
thja
= R
thja

Basic Power Equations
R
dson
Equations
Rearranging, the equations yield:

dson thja
ambient junction
R Z
T T
I

=
ambient junction
dson
Z I
T T
R
2

=
Parameters Affecting R
dson
Selection
Typically, the following parameters are set by the device:
T
junction,max
- Usually 150C
R
dson
- Function of the silicon die and package
Z
thjc
- Function of the package type (and die
size)

Typically, the following parameters are set by the
application:
T
ambient
- Usually 85C, 105C, or 125C
I
- Function of the load resistance
Z
thca
- Function of the external heatsink
Datasheet Parameters
Affecting R
dson
Selection
R
dson
Selection
Example Calculation
T
ambient
= 85C

SOT-223 Package
Z
thja
= 82C/W
14V
R = 3O I

To find I
, initially assume
R
dson
is 0O
R
dson
A
V
R
V
I
batt
67 . 4
3
14
=
O
= ~
R
dson
Selection
Example Calculation
14V
R = 3O
s
junction,max ambient
dson
2
T - T
R
I Z
R
dson
can now be calculated for
different T
junction,max
( ) ( )
O m 22 =
W / C 82 A 67 . 4
C 85 C 125
R
2
dson
( ) ( )
O m 36 =
W / C 82 A 67 . 4
C 85 C 150
R
2
dson
I

~ 82 C/W
SOT-223 Heatsink
TO-263 Heatsink
Larger Package
Larger Heatsink
R
dson
Selection
Example Calculation
R
dson
can now be calculated for
different T
junction,max
( ) ( )
O =

s m 76
W / C 39 A 67 . 4
C 85 C 150
R
2
dson
( ) ( )
O =

s m 47
W / C 39 A 67 . 4
C 85 C 125
R
2
dson
R
thja
= 39C/W with 1 in
2
heatsink
14V
R = 3O I

Rdson vs. Package
and Heatsink
Package and
Heatsink

SOT-223 (0.5 in
2
)

TO-263 (1 in
2
)
R
dson
at
T
junction,max
=125C

22 mO

47 mO
R
dson
at
T
junction,max
=150C

36 mO

76 mO
R
thja
for Various Packages
SO8
SOT-223
TO-263 TO-252
Introduction
MOSFET Review
Low Side, High Side, and H-Bridge Drivers
PROFET Introduction
HITFET Introduction
Selecting the Correct R
dson

Static Operation
Dynamic Operation and the Impact of Switching Losses
Capacitive Load In-Rush Current
Switching Off an Inductive Load
MOSFETs, High Side Drivers,
and Low Side Drivers
Impact of Approximate FET
Switching Loss

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
1.0
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
Time
All values normalized
PROFET Switching Loss
Lamp Turn-On
6mO HSD
V
supply
=13.5V
D=0.5, f=100Hz
Current response
approximately
piece-wise linear
time
For a resistive load (with a piecewise linear current and
voltage response), the approximate FET switching loss is:

Approximate FET
Switching Loss
P
loss
~ (0.125)(V
DS
I
DS
)

E
loss
= (P
loss
)(t
switch
)
Approximate Switching Energy Loss
V
supply
= 13.5V
I
= 6.58A
P
loss,approx
= (0.125)(V
supply
)(I
)
= (0.125)(13.5V)(6.58A) = 11.1W
t
switch
= 250s - 45s = 205s
E
loss,approx
= (t
switch
)(P
loss,approx
)
= (205s)(11.1W) = 2.28mJ
PROFET Switching Loss
Lamp Turn-On
PROFET Switching Loss:
Lamp Turn-Off
6mO HSD
V
supply
=13.5V
D=0.5, f=100Hz
Current response
approximately
linear
Approximate Switching Energy Loss
V
bb
= 13.5V
I
= 6.58A
P
loss,approx
= (0.125)(V
bb
)(I
)
= (0.125)(13.5V)(6.58A) = 11.1W
t
switch
= 205s - 190s = 15s
E
loss,approx
= (t
switch
)(P
loss,approx
)
= (15s)(11.1W) = 0.17mJ
PROFET Switching Loss
Lamp Turn-Off

E
loss,actual measurement
= 2.29mJ (total)

% Error = (2.45mJ 2.29mJ) / 2.29mJ
% Error = 7.0%
PROFET Switching Loss:
Lamp Turning On and Off
Approximate Switching Energy Loss

E
loss on,approx
= 2.28mJ (turn-on)
E
loss off,approx
= 0.17mJ (turn-off)
E
loss,approx
= 2.28mJ + 0.17mJ = 2.45mJ (total)
R
dson
Calculations for
PWM Applications
The power dissipated in a PWM application is given by:
P
D
= P
switching
+ P
on

P
switching
= (F
switching
)(P
loss-on
t
turn-on
+ P
loss-off
t
turn-off
)
P
loss-off
~ (0.125)(V
supply
I
)
P
loss-on
~ (0.125)(V
supply
I
)
P
on
= (I
2
)(R
dson
)(t
pulse-on
)(F
switching
)
T
junction
= T
ambient
+ P
D
R
thja

D = (t
pulse-on
)(F
switching
) = (t
pulse-on
) / (T
Period
)

T
junction,max

T
ambient

R
thja

I
D (Duty Cycle)
F
switching

V
supply

t
turn-on

t
turn-off
R
dson
(FET less expensive) R
dson
(FET more expensive)
Decreases
switching
losses

T
junction,max

T
ambient

R
thja

I
D (Duty Cycle)
F
switching

V
supply

t
turn-on

t
turn-off
Increases
switching
losses
R
dson
Calculations for
PWM Applications
( )
(
(
(

s
junction ambient switching supply load
turn-on turn-off
thja
dson,max
2
T - T F V I
- t +t
R 8
R
I D
( )
(
(
(

s
junction ambient switching supply load
turn-on turn-off
thja
dson
2
T - T F V I
- t +t
R 8
R
I D
( )( )( )
( )
( ) ( )
(
(

s
dson
2
100Hz 13.5V 6.57A
150C- 85C
- 155s+30s
55K/W 8
R
6.57A 0.5
R
dson
Selection
Example Calculation
13.5V
2.05O
T
ambient,max

T
junction,max
I

P
loss

t
turn-on

t
turn-off
F
switching

Duty Cycle
R
thja

= 85C
= 150C
= 6.57A
=11.1W
= 155s
= 30s
= 100Hz
= 50%
= 55C/W (TO252+1in
2
)

O s m 45 R
dson
T
ambient,max

T
junction,max
I

P
loss

t
turn-on

t
turn-off
F
switching

Duty Cycle
R
thja

= 85C
= 150C
= 6.57A
=11.1W
= 155s
= 30s
= 100Hz
= 50%
= 55C/W (TO252+1in
2
)

Introduction
MOSFET Review
Low Side, High Side, and H-Bridge Drivers
PROFET Introduction
HITFET Introduction
Selecting the Correct R
dson

Static Operation
Dynamic Operation and the Impact of Switching Losses
Capacitive Load In-Rush Current
Switching Off an Inductive Load
MOSFETs, High Side Drivers,
and Low Side Drivers
Lamps and RC networks can experience significant
in-rush current when they are initially turned on
When a lamp initially turns on, the filament is cold,
and has a relatively low resistance
As the filament warms up, the resistance increases
dramatically (often by an order of magnitude)
In-Rush Current
In Out
23.2O
2.80O 3.6mF
Lamps and RC networks can experience significant in-
rush current when they are initially turned on
In-Rush Current
600mA
5.5A
The in-rush current may be 10 times the static (DC) current
Standard Current Limiting
When the load resistance is lower than expected, PROFETs/HITFETs can
go into a protective current limiting mode

Current limiting is considered a FAULT condition devices are not
designed for prolonged use in this mode of operation
Care must be taken to keep in-rush current levels below the devices
current limit threshold
Lamp In-Rush Current Example
Input voltage
Sense signal
Drain-source voltage
27W lamp in rush current
Driver P
diss
=V
ds
*I
Estimated average power during in-rush (30W)

0.01
0.1
1
10
100
1E-6 1E-5 1E-4 1E-3 1E-2 1E-1 1E0 1E1 1E2 1E3 1E4
t
p
[s]
Z
t
h
J
A

[
K
/
W
]
0
0,01
0,02
0,05
0,1
0,2
0,5
D=
Z
thja
Chart for Lamp
In-Rush Current Example
Single Pulse
2.0C/W
~3msec
Approximate junction temperature increase
(using Zth diagram and estimated rectangular
average in-rush power)

t
in-rush
~ 3msec
Z
thja
~ 2.0C/W

P
loss,ave
~ 30W (estimated from
oscilloscope)

AT
junction
= Z
thja
P
loss
= (2.0C/W)(30W) = 60C
Lamp In-Rush Current
Example Calculations
Introduction
MOSFET Review
Low Side, High Side, and H-Bridge Drivers
PROFET Introduction
HITFET Introduction
Selecting the Correct R
dson

Static Operation
Dynamic Operation and the Impact of Switching Losses
Capacitive Load In-Rush Current
Switching Off an Inductive Load
MOSFETs, High Side Drivers,
and Low Side Drivers
Switching OFF an
OFF

With inductive loads (for example coils and valves), additional
switching losses can occur during turn off

According to Lenzs Law:
The electromotive force (voltage) and the induced current in
an inductor are in a direction as to tend to oppose the change
that produced them

Therefore at turn off, the voltage at the output of the high
side driver becomes negative to oppose the decreasing
inductor current.
Switching OFF an Inductive Load
V
OUT

V
bb

V
IN

V
ON

Prior to the PROFET being turned on....
I
L
V
IN
V
OUT
I
L
Switching OFF an Inductive Load
V
OUT

V
bb

V
IN

V
ON

I
L

Initially, the FET is turned on, and I
L
begins to
increase
I
L
V
IN
V
OUT
I
L
V
OUT

V
bb

V
IN

V
ON

HIGH
I
L

Eventually, I
L
reaches its DC value
Switching OFF an Inductive Load
I
L
V
IN
V
OUT
I
L
V
OUT

V
bb

V
IN

V
ON

I
L

At some point, the FET is turned off
Switching OFF an Inductive Load
I
L
V
IN
V
OUT
I
L
V
OUT

V
bb

V
IN

V
ON

V
ON(CL)

V
OUT
goes below GND. The zener eventually conducts and supplies
gate charge to turn on the FET, clamping V
OUT
at a "safe" voltage.
Switching OFF an Inductive Load
I
L
V
IN
V
OUT
I
L
I
L

When I
L
0A, V
OUT
Switching OFF an Inductive Load
V
OUT

V
bb

V
IN

V
ON

0V
I
L
V
IN
V
OUT
I
L
Safely Clamping V
OUT

If V
OUT
was not clamped, its magnitude would increase to the point of the
MOSFET avalanche breakdown voltage
V
breakdown
Clamping V
OUT
to a safe value (below avalanche) increases the maximum energy
which can be dissipated in the driver during turn off

Silicon Area (mm
2
)
A
b
s
o
r
b
a
b
l
e

I
n
d
u
c
t
o
r

E
n
e
r
g
y

(
m
J
)

Clamping V
OUT
Increases the
Maximum Inductor Energy
The maximum safe inductive energy which can be dissipated in the
FET is found in the maximum ratings section:

The clamping voltage is in the electrical characteristics:
Maximum Safe Inductor Energy
Energy Absorbed When
Turning Off an Inductive Load
T
j
= 150C
V
supply
= 12V
R
= 0O
inductance for a
single switch off
The energy absorbed by the high side driver when an
inductive load is turned off (E
loss
) is equal to:
E
loss
= E
SUPPLY
+ E
L
- E
R

Where:
E
SUPPLY
is the energy delivered to the MOSFET from
the battery
E
L
is the energy delivered to the MOSFET from the
inductance (E
L
~ LI
L
2
/2)
E
R
is the energy dissipated by the inductor due to
internal self-heating

Energy Absorbed When
Turning Off an Inductive Load
This becomes a differential equation:
E
loss
= E
SUPPLY
+ E
INDUCTANCE
- E
ESR
= V
ON(CL)
*i
L
(t) dt

The solution to this equation can be approximated
for R
L
> 0O
Energy Absorbed When
Turning Off an Inductive Load
( )
| |
|
|
\ .
L L L
loss SUPPLY OUT(CL)
L
OUT(CL)
LI I R
E = V + V ln 1+
2R
V
What Can Go Wrong?
Protected FET die after the maximum dissipated energy is
exceeded due to switching off an inductive load
Driving a FET with a PWM Input
14V

n
+

p
+

n
+

p
+

n
+

n
-

Gate
Source Source
Drain
Note: Generally,
not PWM driven
due to the repetitive
clamping energy /
power.
Turning Off an Inductive Load
V
IN

MOSFET is turned off
V
OUT

V
supply
= 12V
V
IN

V
ON

L=630H
I
L
=9.5A
V
supply
= 12V
V
AZ
= 42V
V
IN

V
OUT
= V
supply
- V
AZ
V
OUT
= 12V 42V = -30V
V
AZ
~ V
DS
= V
ON
Turning Off an Inductive Load
V
OUT

V
supply
= 12V
V
IN

L=630H
I
L
=9.5A
V
AZ
V
ON

V
ON

I
L

di/dt = V
OUT
/ L
t
off
= L * I
L
/ V
OUT

V
IN

t
off
= (630H)(9.5A) / 30V
t
off
= 200s
V
OUT

V
supply
= 12V
V
IN

V
ON

L=630H
I
L
=9.5A
V
ON

V
supply
= 12V
V
AZ
= 42V
Turning Off an Inductive Load
V
OUT
clamped to -30V

P
loss

E
loss

I
L

di/dt = V
OUT
/ L
t
off
= 200s
V
IN

Area under the P
loss
curve
is the dissipated energy
V
OUT

V
supply
= 12V
V
IN

V
ON

L=630H
I
L
=9.5A
V
ON

V
supply
= 12V
V
AZ
= 42V
P
loss,avg
~ V
AZ
* I
L,max
/ 2 = (42V)(9.5A) / 2
P
loss,avg
~ 200W
E
loss
~ (P
loss
)(t
off
) = 40mJ
Turning Off an Inductive Load
Low Side Drivers and
MOSFETs and HITFETs can also be used to drive inductive loads in a
low side configuration.
The low side configuration, however, results in a positive voltage
spike at the output
V
OUT
V
SUPPLY
V
IN
V
OUT
V
SUPPLY
V
IN
Negative
Voltage
Spike
Positive
Voltage
Spike
Switching an Inductive Load

Initially, the MOSFET is turned on and I
L
reaches its DC
value
V
OUT

V
SUPPLY

V
IN

I
L
V
IN
I
L
V
OUT
I
L
Switching an Inductive Load

At some point, the FET is turned off
V
OUT

V
SUPPLY

V
IN

I
L
V
IN
I
L
V
OUT
I
L
Switching an Inductive Load

V
OUT
goes above V
SUPPLY
as the inductor current goes to 0A.
V
OUT

V
SUPPLY

V
IN

I
L
V
IN
I
L
V
OUT
I
L
Switching an Inductive Load

When I
L
= 0A, V
OUT
returns back to V
SUPPLY

V
OUT

V
SUPPLY

V
IN

I
L
V
IN
I
L
V
OUT
I
L
Introduction
MOSFET Review
Low Side, High Side, and H-Bridge Drivers
PROFET Introduction
HITFET Introduction
Selecting the Correct R
dson

Static Operation
Dynamic Operation and the Impact of Switching Losses
Capacitive Load In-Rush Current
Switching Off an Inductive Load
MOSFETs, High Side Drivers,
and Low Side Drivers
MOSFETs, High Side Drivers,
and Low Side Drivers
n n
Gate
Source Source
n
+
substrate
p p
n
+
substrate
n
Gate
Source Source
n
+
substrate
p p
Drain Drain
Blocking State Conducting State
n epi n epi
n
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