=
Parameters Affecting R
dson
Selection
Typically, the following parameters are set by the device:
T
junction,max
 Usually 150C
R
dson
 Function of the silicon die and package
Z
thjc
 Function of the package type (and die
size)
Typically, the following parameters are set by the
application:
T
ambient
 Usually 85C, 105C, or 125C
I
load
 Function of the load resistance
Z
thca
 Function of the external heatsink
Datasheet Parameters
Affecting R
dson
Selection
R
dson
Selection
Example Calculation
T
ambient
= 85C
SOT223 Package
Z
thja
= 82C/W
14V
R = 3O I
load
To find I
load
, initially assume
R
dson
is 0O
R
dson
A
V
R
V
I
load
batt
load
67 . 4
3
14
=
O
= ~
R
dson
Selection
Example Calculation
14V
R = 3O
s
junction,max ambient
dson
2
load thja
T  T
R
I Z
R
dson
can now be calculated for
different T
junction,max
( ) ( )
O m 22 =
W / C 82 A 67 . 4
C 85 C 125
R
2
dson
( ) ( )
O m 36 =
W / C 82 A 67 . 4
C 85 C 150
R
2
dson
I
load
~ 82 C/W
SOT223 Heatsink
TO263 Heatsink
Larger Package
Larger Heatsink
R
dson
Selection
Example Calculation
R
dson
can now be calculated for
different T
junction,max
( ) ( )
O =
s m 76
W / C 39 A 67 . 4
C 85 C 150
R
2
dson
( ) ( )
O =
s m 47
W / C 39 A 67 . 4
C 85 C 125
R
2
dson
R
thja
= 39C/W with 1 in
2
heatsink
14V
R = 3O I
load
Rdson vs. Package
and Heatsink
Package and
Heatsink
SOT223 (0.5 in
2
)
TO263 (1 in
2
)
R
dson
at
T
junction,max
=125C
22 mO
47 mO
R
dson
at
T
junction,max
=150C
36 mO
76 mO
R
thja
for Various Packages
SO8
SOT223
TO263 TO252
Introduction
MOSFET Review
Low Side, High Side, and HBridge Drivers
PROFET Introduction
HITFET Introduction
Selecting the Correct R
dson
Static Operation
Dynamic Operation and the Impact of Switching Losses
Capacitive Load InRush Current
Switching Off an Inductive Load
MOSFETs, High Side Drivers,
and Low Side Drivers
Impact of Approximate FET
Switching Loss
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
1.0
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
Time
All values normalized
PROFET Switching Loss
Lamp TurnOn
6mO HSD
V
supply
=13.5V
Load=60W bulb
D=0.5, f=100Hz
Current response
approximately
piecewise linear
time
For a resistive load (with a piecewise linear current and
voltage response), the approximate FET switching loss is:
Approximate FET
Switching Loss
P
loss
~ (0.125)(V
DS
I
DS
)
E
loss
= (P
loss
)(t
switch
)
Approximate Switching Energy Loss
V
supply
= 13.5V
I
load
= 6.58A
P
loss,approx
= (0.125)(V
supply
)(I
load
)
= (0.125)(13.5V)(6.58A) = 11.1W
t
switch
= 250s  45s = 205s
E
loss,approx
= (t
switch
)(P
loss,approx
)
= (205s)(11.1W) = 2.28mJ
PROFET Switching Loss
Lamp TurnOn
PROFET Switching Loss:
Lamp TurnOff
6mO HSD
V
supply
=13.5V
Load=60W bulb
D=0.5, f=100Hz
Current response
approximately
linear
Approximate Switching Energy Loss
V
bb
= 13.5V
I
load
= 6.58A
P
loss,approx
= (0.125)(V
bb
)(I
load
)
= (0.125)(13.5V)(6.58A) = 11.1W
t
switch
= 205s  190s = 15s
E
loss,approx
= (t
switch
)(P
loss,approx
)
= (15s)(11.1W) = 0.17mJ
PROFET Switching Loss
Lamp TurnOff
E
loss,actual measurement
= 2.29mJ (total)
% Error = (2.45mJ 2.29mJ) / 2.29mJ
% Error = 7.0%
PROFET Switching Loss:
Lamp Turning On and Off
Approximate Switching Energy Loss
E
loss on,approx
= 2.28mJ (turnon)
E
loss off,approx
= 0.17mJ (turnoff)
E
loss,approx
= 2.28mJ + 0.17mJ = 2.45mJ (total)
R
dson
Calculations for
PWM Applications
The power dissipated in a PWM application is given by:
P
D
= P
switching
+ P
on
P
switching
= (F
switching
)(P
losson
t
turnon
+ P
lossoff
t
turnoff
)
P
lossoff
~ (0.125)(V
supply
I
load
)
P
losson
~ (0.125)(V
supply
I
load
)
P
on
= (I
load
2
)(R
dson
)(t
pulseon
)(F
switching
)
T
junction
= T
ambient
+ P
D
R
thja
D = (t
pulseon
)(F
switching
) = (t
pulseon
) / (T
Period
)
T
junction,max
T
ambient
R
thja
I
load
D (Duty Cycle)
F
switching
V
supply
t
turnon
t
turnoff
R
dson
(FET less expensive) R
dson
(FET more expensive)
Decreases
switching
losses
T
junction,max
T
ambient
R
thja
I
load
D (Duty Cycle)
F
switching
V
supply
t
turnon
t
turnoff
Increases
switching
losses
R
dson
Calculations for
PWM Applications
( )
(
(
(
s
junction ambient switching supply load
turnon turnoff
thja
dson,max
2
load
T  T F V I
 t +t
R 8
R
I D
( )
(
(
(
s
junction ambient switching supply load
turnon turnoff
thja
dson
2
load
T  T F V I
 t +t
R 8
R
I D
( )( )( )
( )
( ) ( )
(
(
s
dson
2
100Hz 13.5V 6.57A
150C 85C
 155s+30s
55K/W 8
R
6.57A 0.5
R
dson
Selection
Example Calculation
13.5V
2.05O
T
ambient,max
T
junction,max
I
load
P
loss
t
turnon
t
turnoff
F
switching
Duty Cycle
R
thja
= 85C
= 150C
= 6.57A
=11.1W
= 155s
= 30s
= 100Hz
= 50%
= 55C/W (TO252+1in
2
)
O s m 45 R
dson
T
ambient,max
T
junction,max
I
load
P
loss
t
turnon
t
turnoff
F
switching
Duty Cycle
R
thja
= 85C
= 150C
= 6.57A
=11.1W
= 155s
= 30s
= 100Hz
= 50%
= 55C/W (TO252+1in
2
)
Introduction
MOSFET Review
Low Side, High Side, and HBridge Drivers
PROFET Introduction
HITFET Introduction
Selecting the Correct R
dson
Static Operation
Dynamic Operation and the Impact of Switching Losses
Capacitive Load InRush Current
Switching Off an Inductive Load
MOSFETs, High Side Drivers,
and Low Side Drivers
Lamps and RC networks can experience significant
inrush current when they are initially turned on
When a lamp initially turns on, the filament is cold,
and has a relatively low resistance
As the filament warms up, the resistance increases
dramatically (often by an order of magnitude)
Capacitive Load
InRush Current
In Out
23.2O
2.80O 3.6mF
Lamps and RC networks can experience significant in
rush current when they are initially turned on
Capacitive Load
InRush Current
600mA
5.5A
The inrush current may be 10 times the static (DC) current
Standard Current Limiting
When the load resistance is lower than expected, PROFETs/HITFETs can
go into a protective current limiting mode
Current limiting is considered a FAULT condition devices are not
designed for prolonged use in this mode of operation
Care must be taken to keep inrush current levels below the devices
current limit threshold
Lamp InRush Current Example
Input voltage
Sense signal
Drainsource voltage
27W lamp in rush current
Driver P
diss
=V
ds
*I
load
Estimated average power during inrush (30W)
0.01
0.1
1
10
100
1E6 1E5 1E4 1E3 1E2 1E1 1E0 1E1 1E2 1E3 1E4
t
p
[s]
Z
t
h
J
A
[
K
/
W
]
0
0,01
0,02
0,05
0,1
0,2
0,5
D=
Z
thja
Chart for Lamp
InRush Current Example
Single Pulse
2.0C/W
~3msec
Approximate junction temperature increase
(using Zth diagram and estimated rectangular
average inrush power)
t
inrush
~ 3msec
Z
thja
~ 2.0C/W
P
loss,ave
~ 30W (estimated from
oscilloscope)
AT
junction
= Z
thja
P
loss
= (2.0C/W)(30W) = 60C
Lamp InRush Current
Example Calculations
Introduction
MOSFET Review
Low Side, High Side, and HBridge Drivers
PROFET Introduction
HITFET Introduction
Selecting the Correct R
dson
Static Operation
Dynamic Operation and the Impact of Switching Losses
Capacitive Load InRush Current
Switching Off an Inductive Load
MOSFETs, High Side Drivers,
and Low Side Drivers
Switching OFF an
Inductive Load
OFF
With inductive loads (for example coils and valves), additional
switching losses can occur during turn off
According to Lenzs Law:
The electromotive force (voltage) and the induced current in
an inductor are in a direction as to tend to oppose the change
that produced them
Therefore at turn off, the voltage at the output of the high
side driver becomes negative to oppose the decreasing
inductor current.
Switching OFF an Inductive Load
V
OUT
V
bb
V
IN
V
ON
Prior to the PROFET being turned on....
I
L
V
IN
V
OUT
I
L
Switching OFF an Inductive Load
V
OUT
V
bb
V
IN
V
ON
I
L
Initially, the FET is turned on, and I
L
begins to
increase
I
L
V
IN
V
OUT
I
L
V
OUT
V
bb
V
IN
V
ON
HIGH
I
L
Eventually, I
L
reaches its DC value
Switching OFF an Inductive Load
I
L
V
IN
V
OUT
I
L
V
OUT
V
bb
V
IN
V
ON
I
L
At some point, the FET is turned off
Switching OFF an Inductive Load
I
L
V
IN
V
OUT
I
L
V
OUT
V
bb
V
IN
V
ON
V
ON(CL)
V
OUT
goes below GND. The zener eventually conducts and supplies
gate charge to turn on the FET, clamping V
OUT
at a "safe" voltage.
Switching OFF an Inductive Load
I
L
V
IN
V
OUT
I
L
I
L
When I
L
0A, V
OUT
will return to GND potential
Switching OFF an Inductive Load
V
OUT
V
bb
V
IN
V
ON
0V
I
L
V
IN
V
OUT
I
L
Safely Clamping V
OUT
for Inductive Loads
If V
OUT
was not clamped, its magnitude would increase to the point of the
MOSFET avalanche breakdown voltage
V
breakdown
Clamping V
OUT
to a safe value (below avalanche) increases the maximum energy
which can be dissipated in the driver during turn off
Silicon Area (mm
2
)
A
b
s
o
r
b
a
b
l
e
I
n
d
u
c
t
o
r
E
n
e
r
g
y
(
m
J
)
Clamping V
OUT
Increases the
Maximum Inductor Energy
The maximum safe inductive energy which can be dissipated in the
FET is found in the maximum ratings section:
The clamping voltage is in the electrical characteristics:
Maximum Safe Inductor Energy
Energy Absorbed When
Turning Off an Inductive Load
T
j
= 150C
V
supply
= 12V
R
LOAD
= 0O
Maximum load
inductance for a
single switch off
The energy absorbed by the high side driver when an
inductive load is turned off (E
loss
) is equal to:
E
loss
= E
SUPPLY
+ E
L
 E
R
Where:
E
SUPPLY
is the energy delivered to the MOSFET from
the battery
E
L
is the energy delivered to the MOSFET from the
inductance (E
L
~ LI
L
2
/2)
E
R
is the energy dissipated by the inductor due to
internal selfheating
Energy Absorbed When
Turning Off an Inductive Load
This becomes a differential equation:
E
loss
= E
SUPPLY
+ E
INDUCTANCE
 E
ESR
= V
ON(CL)
*i
L
(t) dt
The solution to this equation can be approximated
for R
L
> 0O
Energy Absorbed When
Turning Off an Inductive Load
( )
 


\ .
L L L
loss SUPPLY OUT(CL)
L
OUT(CL)
LI I R
E = V + V ln 1+
2R
V
What Can Go Wrong?
Protected FET die after the maximum dissipated energy is
exceeded due to switching off an inductive load
Driving a FET with a PWM Input
14V
Load
n
+
p
+
n
+
p
+
n
+
n

Gate
Source Source
Drain
Note: Generally,
inductive loads are
not PWM driven
due to the repetitive
clamping energy /
power.
Turning Off an Inductive Load
V
IN
MOSFET is turned off
V
OUT
V
supply
= 12V
V
IN
V
ON
L=630H
I
L
=9.5A
V
supply
= 12V
V
AZ
= 42V
V
IN
V
OUT
= V
supply
 V
AZ
V
OUT
= 12V 42V = 30V
V
AZ
~ V
DS
= V
ON
Turning Off an Inductive Load
V
OUT
V
supply
= 12V
V
IN
L=630H
I
L
=9.5A
V
AZ
V
ON
V
ON
I
L
di/dt = V
OUT
/ L
t
off
= L * I
L
/ V
OUT
V
IN
t
off
= (630H)(9.5A) / 30V
t
off
= 200s
V
OUT
V
supply
= 12V
V
IN
V
ON
L=630H
I
L
=9.5A
V
ON
V
supply
= 12V
V
AZ
= 42V
Turning Off an Inductive Load
V
OUT
clamped to 30V
P
loss
E
loss
I
L
di/dt = V
OUT
/ L
t
off
= 200s
V
IN
Area under the P
loss
curve
is the dissipated energy
V
OUT
V
supply
= 12V
V
IN
V
ON
L=630H
I
L
=9.5A
V
ON
V
supply
= 12V
V
AZ
= 42V
P
loss,avg
~ V
AZ
* I
L,max
/ 2 = (42V)(9.5A) / 2
P
loss,avg
~ 200W
E
loss
~ (P
loss
)(t
off
) = 40mJ
Turning Off an Inductive Load
Low Side Drivers and
Inductive Loads
MOSFETs and HITFETs can also be used to drive inductive loads in a
low side configuration.
The low side configuration, however, results in a positive voltage
spike at the output
V
OUT
V
SUPPLY
V
IN
V
OUT
V
SUPPLY
V
IN
Negative
Voltage
Spike
Positive
Voltage
Spike
Switching an Inductive Load
Initially, the MOSFET is turned on and I
L
reaches its DC
value
V
OUT
V
SUPPLY
V
IN
I
L
V
IN
I
L
V
OUT
I
L
Switching an Inductive Load
At some point, the FET is turned off
V
OUT
V
SUPPLY
V
IN
I
L
V
IN
I
L
V
OUT
I
L
Switching an Inductive Load
V
OUT
goes above V
SUPPLY
as the inductor current goes to 0A.
V
OUT
V
SUPPLY
V
IN
I
L
V
IN
I
L
V
OUT
I
L
Switching an Inductive Load
When I
L
= 0A, V
OUT
returns back to V
SUPPLY
V
OUT
V
SUPPLY
V
IN
I
L
V
IN
I
L
V
OUT
I
L
Introduction
MOSFET Review
Low Side, High Side, and HBridge Drivers
PROFET Introduction
HITFET Introduction
Selecting the Correct R
dson
Static Operation
Dynamic Operation and the Impact of Switching Losses
Capacitive Load InRush Current
Switching Off an Inductive Load
MOSFETs, High Side Drivers,
and Low Side Drivers
MOSFETs, High Side Drivers,
and Low Side Drivers
n n
Gate
Source Source
n
+
substrate
p p
n
+
substrate
n
Gate
Source Source
n
+
substrate
p p
Drain Drain
Blocking State Conducting State
n epi n epi
n
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