This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Assembly Of Surface-Mounted Devices
• Have pads or leads that are soldered to corresponding areas on the surface of the board. • Assembly of an SMD involves positioning the component on the board, which has previously had solder paste applied, usually by screen printing. • Placement of SMDs is often done by specifically designed pick-and-place machines
Surface Mounted Device (SMD) FPGAs Nowadays, there are three popular packages:
PQFP (Plastic Quad Flat Pack), 208 or 240 pins.
TQFP (Thin Quad Flat Pack), 100 or 144 pins.
BGA (Ball-Grid Array), 256 to 1000+ pins.
• When all the SMDs have been positioned, the board is reflow soldered. • This involves heating the solder paste until it flows into a uniform solder layer that permanently affixes the SMD pads or leads to the board. • Passive SMD components such as resistors and capacitors can also be added to the underside of the board using adhesive. • Soldering them takes place during wave solder, but reflow solder for both sides of the board is sometimes used. • The components on the underside of the board must be able to pass through the solder wave without suffering damage.
• Mixture of through-hole and surface-mounted devices complicates the insertion and assembly sequence. • The through-hole components can be mounted on the upper side of the board and the surface-mounted devices on the bottom (known as a type 2 board).
• When surface-mounted devices are placed on both sides of the board (type 3 board), a more complex assembly sequence is required. • Firstly, the topside SMDs must be placed and reflow soldered. • The through-hole devices are then inserted and the board inverted for the underside SMDs to be placed. • Wave soldering is then used to attach these components.
Estimation Of PCB Assembly Costs
• Components and operations are entered on the worksheet in assembly order, one line for each basic type of component or operation. • The time for manual insertion, obtained from the database, is entered on the worksheet and then multiplied by the operator rate to give the insertion cost. After per component allowances for rework costs are added, the total operation cost is entered. • For automatic or robot insertion the cost is obtained directly from the database, and then adjusted for programming, setup, and rework. • For mechanical parts, the manual assembly times and costs can be obtained using the Product Design for Assembly handbook . • When all the operations have been entered the total cost is obtained by summing the figures in the cost column.
• Figure 6.15 shows, referred to as a logic board, and contains 69 DIPs, 1 DIP socket, 16 axial components, and 32 radial components. 2 parts are attached mechanically requiring 11 screws, nuts and washers. • The DIPs, radials, and axials are autoinserted and the remaining components or parts manually inserted or assembled, except for one DIP, which is assembled into the corresponding DIP socket after wave solder. • The total estimated assembly cost is $3.48. • Avoidable costs: elimination of the 11 fasteners save 48.0 cents. • Cost of rework, 46.1 cents. • Cost of wave solder include the two boards to be processed together. The resulting cost is 75 cents • Finally, use automatic machine for the insertion of the 32 radial components. If these components were to be inserted manually, an additional expense of $2.19 would be incurred-increasing the total cost of assembly by 63%.
Worksheet and Database for PCB Assembly Cost Analysis Instructions 1. For soldered components, assemblies, or operations, use the database provided here. For all other parts, components, or operations, use the manual assembly data from the Product Design for Assembly handbook. 2. Record the data on the worksheet in the following order of assembly: a. Load PCB into fixture. b. Insert all wave-soldered components. (i) auto inserted components (ii) robot inserted components (iii) manually inserted components
2. c. Wave solder. d. Insert and solder all manually soldered components. (i) autoinserted components (ii) robot inserted components (iii) manually inserted components e. Insert and secure all remaining nonsoldered components.
PCB Assembly: Equations for Total Operation Cost, Cop
1) Component Geometry and Spacing
• compatibility with existing assembly equipment. • For example, Company F gives: "Axial Component Specification: A) Lead Diameter: .020 in Min to .032 in Max.. . D) Component Body Length: 0.60 in Max.. . ." • Compliance with these component dimensions will ensure that the design is within the automatic insertion range for a particular piece of equipment. • Not all geometrical component specifications in the systems relate to manufacturability. • For example, bend radius of an axial-lead component: to ensure stress relief for component leads subjected to continual thermal cycling. • Component heights: so that the final product will physically fit into the assembly in which it is to be used. • Spacing between component leads is frequently determined by electrical functionality
2) Standard Parts Listing • This item identifies whether the PCB DFM document includes a standard parts list that indicates the preferred components with regard to performance, purchase cost, and manufacturing compatibility. • Such parts may be referred to as "preferred," "offthe-shelf (OTS)" or "catalog" components. • All of the documents reviewed emphasize the importance of standard component use, but not all include the standard parts list.
3) Component Compatibility • This item identifies whether the PCB DFM document specifies that components should have certain characteristics associated with the method of assembly and processes to be used. • For example, Company C specifies that designers should: - "Avoid components that cannot withstand 6 second exposure to soldering temperatures of 525°F.'' This requirement is to avoid the necessity for manually assembling and soldering a component, which would result in added cost.
3) Board Geometry • This item identifies whether the PCB DFM document specifies physical board parameters such as hole size and grid size. • Hole size is the diameter of the PCB hole (after plating) into which the component lead is inserted. • Grid size is the spacing between the holes. • Spacing, hole size, and grid size can determine the effectiveness of automatic insertion equipment use.
4) Board Size • This item covers the specification of acceptable board sizes that are compatible with all existing processing equipment.
5) Ground Plane Requirements • The ground plane is normally a continuous sheet of metal used as a common reference point for circuit returns, electrical shielding or, heat dissipation. • If not properly designed, the ground plane will draw heat away from the plated-through hole, thereby adversely affecting the soldering process. • Company D's manufacturability guidelines, for example, state that designers should: "thermally relieve (or provide a large diameter clearance of approximately 0.250") in the area of the platedthough hole locations connected to large ground and power planes."
6) Features to Be Avoided • These are features that would generally result in the addition of nonstandard manufacturing operations. • Such operations normally result in added cost. • Examples of features that would introduce potentially avoidable costs include but are not limited to: mechanical hardware, adhesives, jumper wires, and components that cannot be inserted or placed automatically. • Such features, which can be regarded as the "donots" of PCB design,
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.