OPTICAL

INSTRUMENTATION
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 1
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 2
LESSON PLAN

Faculty’s Name: ANUJ BHARDWAJ Subject Name: Optical Instrumentation
Year\Section: 4
th
year\ VIII SEM EI-A Subject Code:EIC-021
==================================================================
S.no Unit Date of
lecture
Topic to be covered in the lecture Executi
on date
Reference
Book
1 Unit-I PREAMBLE Slids
2 Light Sourcing, Transmitting and Receiving:
Concept of Light,
J. F. B.Hawkes
3 Classification of different phenomenon based on
theories of light
J. F. B.Hawkes
4 Basic light sources and its Characterization J. F. B.Hawkes
5 Polarization J. F. B.Hawkes
6 Coherent and Incoherent sources J. F. B.Hawkes
7 Grating theory& Application of diffraction grating J. F. B.Hawkes
8 Electro-optic effect, Slids\nots
9 Acousto-optic Effect Slids\nots
10 Magneto-optic Effect. Slids\nots
11 Unit-
II
Opto –Electronic devices and Optical Components:
Photo diode, PIN diode
J. F. B.Hawkes
12 Photo-Conductors J. F. B.Hawkes
13 Solar cells and Phototransistors J. F. B.Hawkes
14 Materials used to fabricate LEDs J. F. B.Hawkes
15 Lasers Design of LED for
Optical communication
J. F. B.Hawkes
16 Response times of LEDs and LED drive circuitry J. F. B.Hawkes
17 Ruby lasers, Neodymium Lasers,He- Ne Lasers, Slids\nots
18 CO2 Lasers, Dye Lasers, Semiconductors Lasers, Slids\nots
19 Lasers Applications Slids\nots
20 Unit-
III
Interferometry
Interference effect
Slids\nots
21 Radio-metry Slids\nots
22 Types of interference phenomenon and its Application Slids\nots
23 Michelson’s Interferometer and its application J. F. B.Hawkes
24 Fabry-perot interferometer J. F. B.Hawkes
25 Refractometer and Rayleigh’s interferometers J. F. B.Hawkes
26 Spectrographs and Monochromators J. F. B.Hawkes
27 Spectrophotometers and Calorimeters, J. F. B.Hawkes
28 Medical Optical Instruments Slids\nots
29 Unit-
IV
Holography:
Principle of Holography
Slids\nots
30 On-axis and Off axis Holography Slids\nots
31 Application of Holography and Optical data storage. Slids\nots
33 Active and passive optical fiber sensor Slids\nots
34 Intensity modulated, displacement type sensors Slids\nots
35 Multimode active optical fiber sensor Slids\nots
36 Single Mode fiber sensor-Phase Modulates and
polarization sensors
Slids\nots
37 Unit-
V
Fiber optic fundamentals and Measurements:
Fundamental of Fibers
J. F. B.Hawkes
38 Fiber Optic Communication system J. F. B.Hawkes
39 Optical Time domain Reflectometer (OTDR) J. F. B.Hawkes
40 Time domain dispersion measurement J. F. B.Hawkes
INTRODUCTION
Optical instrumentation has become even more firmly established as a
subject in its own right & an increasing number of courses in physics &
electronic engineering include aspects of optoelectronics.

An optical instrument either processes light waves to enhance an image for
viewing, or analyzes light waves (or photons) to determine one of a
number of characteristic properties

ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 3
SYLLABUS
• Unit:1 ) light sourcing, transmitting and receiving
Concept of light , Classification of different phenomenon based on theories of
light, Basic light sources and its characterization , Polarisation ,Coherent and
Incoherent sources , Grating theory, Application of diffraction grating, Electro-optic
effect, Acousto-optic effect, Magneto- optic effect
• Unit:2 ) Opto- Electronic devices and Optical components
Photo diode, PIN, Photo- Conductors, solar cells, Photo transistors, Materials
used to fabricate LEDs and Lasers Design of LED for optical communication,
Response times of LEDs , LED drive circuitry, Lasers classification: Ruby lasers,
Neodymium Lasers, He-Ne lasers, Dye lasers, Semiconductors lasers, Lasers
applications

ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 4
• Unit-3) Interferometry
Interference effect, Radio-metery, Types of interference phenomenon and its
application,Michelson’s Interferometer and its application , Fabry-Perot
interferometer , Refractometer,Rayleigh’s interferometers, Spectrographs and
Monochromators,Spectrophotometers,Calorimeters,Medical Optical Instruments
• unit-4) Holography
Principle of Holography, On-axis and Off axis Holography , Application of
Holography , Optical data storage
optical fiber sensors
Active and passive optical fiber sensor, Intensity modulated displacement type
sensors, Multimode active optical fiber sensor (Microbend sensor ) Single Mode
fiber sensor-Phase Modulates and polarization sensors
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 5
• Unit-5) Fiber optic fundamentals and Measurements
Fundamental of Fibers, Fiber optic Communication system, Optical Time Domain
Reflectometer (OTDR ) , Time domain dispersion measurement , Frequency
Domain dispersion measurement , Laser Doppler Velocimeter
Text book:
• J.Wilson & JFB Hawkes, Opto Electronics
• Wave optics and its Application , Rajpal S. Sirohi
• A Yariv / Optical Electronics / C.B.S. Collage Publishing
• Fundamentals of OPTOELECTRONICS by Pollock
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 6
Unit-1( Light sourcing, Transmitting and
Receiving )
Concept of light , Classification of different phenomenon based on
theories of light, Basic light sources and its characterization ,
Polarisation ,Coherent and Incoherent sources , Grating theory,
Application of diffraction grating, Electro-optic effect, Acousto-optic
effect, Magneto- optic effect


ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 7
UNIT-1 ( Light sourcing, Transmitting and
Receiving )
• Concept of light : Light is electromagnetic radiation of wavelength that is visible
to the human eye ( about 400-700 nm ).Light is composed of elementary
particles called photons.
Three properties of light :
a)Intensity b) frequency c) polarization
Light can exhibit properties of both waves and particles.

ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 8
Nature of light
What am I?
Waves?
Particles?
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 9
The Nature of Light- described by different
theories
• Quantum Theory – Light consists of small
particles (photons)
• Wave Theory – Light travels as a transverse
electromagnetic wave
• Ray Theory – Light travels along a straight
line and obeys laws of geometrical optics.
Ray theory is valid when the objects are
much larger than the wavelength
(multimode fibers)
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 10
Classification of different phenomenon based on theories
of light
• Image formation -
– ray theory
• Wavelength color,
polarization and
diffraction -
– wave theory (electricity
and magneticsm)
• Interaction of light with
atoms -
– quantum theory of
photons
• Constant speed of light
no matter how fast the
source or observer is
moving -
– special theory of relativity
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 11



Different theories of light
given by different scientist
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 12
A long time ago ……
• Aristotle (384 - 322 B.C.), an ancient Greek thinker, thought that
we saw the world by sending “something” out of our eye and that
reflected from the object.

• In Plato’s time (427 – 347 B.C.), the reflection of light from
smooth surfaces was known. He was also a Greek.

• The ancient Greeks (about 200 A.D.) also first observed the
refraction of light which occurs at the boundary of two
transparent media of different refractive indices.
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 13
Isaac Newton
1643 - 1727
Christian Huygens
1629 - 1695
In the17
th
century, two scientists had different views
about the nature of light ……
Light is
particles
No! Light is
waves
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 14
In the 17
th
century, some properties of light were
well known already. For example:

• Light has different colours.

• Light can travel through a vacuum.

• Light can be reflected and refracted, these processes are
described by the Laws of Reflection and Laws of
Refraction.

ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 15
Laws of Reflection
• According to the Laws of Reflection,
angle of incidence = angle of reflection (θ
i
= θ
r
)
Incident light ray Reflected light ray
Normal
θ
i
θ
r
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 16
Laws of Refraction
• Willebrord Snell discovered in 1621 that when a wave travels
from a medium of refractive index, n
1
, to one of different
refractive index, n
2
,

n
1
sin(θ
1
) = n
2
sin(θ
2
)
This relationship is called Snell’s Law
Incident light ray
Normal
Refracted light ray
θ
1
θ
2
n
1
n
2
Interface
Light bends towards the normal when it
travels from an optically less dense medium
to an optically more dense medium.
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 17
Newton proposed his “particle theory of light” (or
“corpuscular theory of light”) to explain the characteristics of
light.
(source: “Opticks”, published by Isaac Newton in 1704)
I think light is a stream of tiny
particles, called Corpuscles …

ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 18
Why does light have different colours?
• The particles of different colours have different
properties, such as mass, size and speed.
Why can light travel through a vacuum?
 Light, being particles, can naturally pass through vacuum.
(At Newton’s time, no known wave could travel through a
vacuum.)
Particle Theory
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 19
Why does light travel in straight lines?
• A ball thrown into space follows a curved path because of
gravity.

• Yet if the ball is thrown with greater and greater speed, its
path curves less and less.

• Thus, billions of tiny light particles of extremely low mass
travelling at enormous speeds will have paths which are
essentially straight lines.
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 20
How does the particle theory explain the Laws of
Reflection?

• The rebounding of a steel ball from
a smooth plate is similar to the
reflection of light from the
surface of a mirror.


Steel Ball Rebound
Light Reflection
Mirror
Many light
particles in a light ray
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 21
• A cannon ball hits the surface of water, it is acted upon by a
“refracting” force which is perpendicular to the water surface. It
therefore slows down and bends away from the normal. Light does
the opposite. Newton explained this observation by assuming that
light travels faster in water, so it bends towards the normal.
(What was the problem in this explanation?)

• The problem:
Does light really travel
faster in water?

In fact nobody could measure
the speed of light at the time of
Newton and Huygens
How does Newton's particle theory explain the Laws of Refraction?
Cannon ball Light
Water
Air
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 22
Why does a prism separates a beam of
white light into the colours of the rainbow?

Why does red light refract least and violet
light refract most?



Newton’s assumptions:
1. The light particles of different colours have mass.
Red light particles have more mass than violet particles.
2. All light particles experience the same refracting force
when crossing an interface.

Thus, red light particles with more inertia will be refracted
less by the same force than violet light particles by the same force .
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 23
Let’s see how Huygens used his “wave theory” to
explain the characteristics of light …

I think light is emitted as a series of
waves in a medium he called “aether”
(source: Treatise on light, published by Huygens in 1690)
(“aether” commonly also called “ether”)

ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 24
A wave starts at P and a “wavefront” W
moves outwards in all directions.
After a time, t, it has a radius r, so that
r = ct if c is the speed of the wave.

Each point on the wavefront starts
a secondary wavelet. These secondary
wavelets interfere to form a new wavefront
W’ at time t’.
How do waves propagate?
P
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 25
How can wave theory explain the Laws of Reflection?
Click here for animation
W
1 W
2
C D
A B
When wavefront W
1
(AC) reaches point A, a secondary wave from A
starts to spread out. When the incoming wavefront reaches B, the
secondary wave from A has reached D, giving a new wavefront W
2
(BD).
Angle of incidence = Angle of reflection can be proved by
geometry. Refer to the appendix of the worksheet or your textbook for
the proof.

ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 26
How can wave theory explain the Laws of Refraction?
Optically
denser
medium
n
1
sinθ
1
= n
2
sinθ
2

can be proved by geometry.
Refer to the appendix of the
worksheet or your textbook
for the proof.

Click here for animation
Wavefront W
1
reaches the boundary between media 1 & 2, point A of
wavefront W
1
starts to spread out. When the incoming wavefront
reaches B, the secondary wave from A has travelled a shorter
distance to reach D. It starts a new wavefront W2. As a result the
wave path bends towards the normal.

Air
A
C
B
D
W
1
W
2
θ
1
θ
2
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 27
If light behaves as waves, diffraction and interference should be seen. These
are two important features of waves. This was known in the 17th century.
(You can see this easily with water waves in a “ripple tank”)
• The wave theory of light predicts interference and
diffraction. However, Huygens could not provide any
strong evidence to show that diffraction and interference
of light occurred.
Diffraction and interference
of water waves
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 28
Newton was the “winner”….. (at that time!)
• Newton’s particle theory of light dominated optics during
the 18
th
century.

• Most scientists believed Newton’s particle theory of light
because it had greater explanatory power.

• Let’s consider the reasons……
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 29
• Sounds can easily be heard around an obstacle but
light cannot be seen around an obstacle. Light, unlike
sound, does not demonstrates the property of
diffraction and it is unlikely to be a type of wave.
(1)Waves do not travel only in straight lines,
so light cannot be “waves”.
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 30
• In the 17
th
century, it was believed that waves could not
travel through a vacuum. It was difficult for people at
that time to believe that waves could travel through the
“ether”, which was the imaginary “medium” that light
travels through, proposed by Huygens.

(2) Light, unlike sound waves, can travel through
a vacuum. Particles can travel through a
vacuum.
X
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 31
(3) Particle theory of light can explain why there are
different colours of light.
• Huygens could not explain why light has different colours
at all. He did not know that different colours of light have
different “wavelengths”.

• Though Newton’s explanation was not correct (particles
of different colours of light have different mass and size),
his particles theory could explain this phenomenon
logically in the 17
th
century.
? ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 32
(4) Reputation of Newton
• People tend to accept “authority” when there is not
enough evidence to make judgement. Newton’s
particle theory could only explain refraction by
incorrectly assuming that light travels faster in a denser
medium. No one could prove he was wrong at that
time.

• The uncertainty about the speed of light in water remained
unresolved for over one hundred years after Newton's death.

ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 33
However, the wave theory of light was
re-examined 100 years after Newton’s particle theory of light had been
accepted……
Thomas Young
1773 - 1829
Light is not
particles!
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 34
 Thomas Young successfully
demonstrated the
interference of light (which
Huygens failed to show),
by his famous double-slit
experiments.

 Since then the wave
theory of light has been
firmly established.


ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 35
The wave theory of light was widely accepted until
1905……
Albert Einstein
1879 - 1955
Wave theory of
light? “No way!”
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 36
 The photoelectric effect is observed when light strikes a metal,
and emits electrons.
Einstein used the idea of photons (light consists of tiny particles)
to explain results which demonstrate the photoelectric effect.
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 37
Light
• What evidence did Einstein find in his
photoelectric effect experiments that
helps to support the particle theory of
light?
 In the setup investigating the photoelectric effect (as shown
below), the intensity of the light, its frequency, the voltage
and the size of the current generated are measured.
e
-
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 38
f
C
• For certain metals, dim blue light can generate a current
while intense red light causes no current at all.

• Below a certain “cut off” frequency
of light ( ), no voltage is
measurable.

• Why does the wave theory of light
not explain the result?


Results from photoelectric effect experiments
Voltage
Frequency
of light
v
0
f
C
f

ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 39
Einstein’s explanation

• Electrons are knocked free from the metal by incoming photons,
with each photon carrying an amount of energy E that is related to
the frequency (v) of the light by
E = h v
Where h is Planck’s constant (6.62 x 10
-34
J seconds).

• Only photons of high enough energy (above a threshold value) can
knock an electron free. e.g. blue light, but not red light, has
sufficient energy to free an electron from the metal.)
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 40
Albert Einstein provided a piece of convincing evidence for the particle
nature of light ……
Has the story ended yet?
Is light particles or waves?
Louis de Broglie
1892 - 1987
Light is not particles, not
waves, but BOTH!
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 41
• Louis de Broglie in 1924 proposed that particles also have
wave-like properties, this was confirmed experimentally
three years later.

• Most scientists did not understand de Broglie’s Ph.D.
dissertation at that time. One scientist passed it on to
Einstein for his interpretation. Einstein replied that de
Broglie did not just deserve a doctorate but a Nobel Prize!

• De Broglie was awarded the
Nobel Prize in 1929.
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 42
Aristotle ( Light was emitted from our eyes )

Christian Huygens ( Wave theory of light )

Isaac Newton ( Particle theory of light )

Thomas Young ( Wave theory of light )

Albert Einstein ( Particle theory of light )

de Broglie ( Wave-particle duality of all matter)

Summary
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 43
Summary: What can we learn from the historical development about the
understanding the nature of light?
• Evidence (e.g. Young’s double slit experiment, photoelectric
experimental results…etc) can establish or refute a theory.

• Gathering scientific knowledge (the nature of light) is hard
work, building upon the hard work of other scientists in the
past or present. (collaboration across time)

• Scientific knowledge is ever changing, sometimes even
revolutionary (Einstein discovered the particle nature of light,
de Broglie discovered the
wave-particle duality of all matter)
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 44
Some properties of light...
• light travels more slowly in an optically dense
medium than it does in a less dense medium

• A measure of this effect is the refractive index (index
of refraction)

• Gives us refraction and reflection
material
in light of
Speed
in vacuum
light of Speed
=
n
n > 1

ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 45
Reflected Rays
n
1

n
2

u
a
u
a
= acceptance angle
u
c
= critical angle
Incident Ray Reflected
Ray
u
c
Partial Reflection
Exit Ray
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 46
Total internal reflection is an extreme case of a ray bending away from the
normal as it goes from a higher to a lower index of refraction medium (from a
slower to a faster medium)

Glass or
water
(slow)
Normal
Air (fast medium)
Just below the critical angle for total
internal reflection there is a reflected
and a transmitted (refracted) ray
Glass or
water
(slow)
Normal
Just above the critical angle for total
internal reflection there is a reflected ray
but no transmitted (refracted) ray
Critical
angle
For the glass-air interface
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 47
Total internal reflection
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 48
• Basic light sources and its characterisation:
There are many sources of light. The most common light sources are
• black body radiation
• Incandescent light bulbs
• Flames
Certain other mechanisms can also produce light:
• scintillation
• Electroluminescence
• Sonoluminescence
• Cherenkov radiation
For characterisation of these sources , we have to discuss their properties,
that how they emit light, what is the spectrum region…..etc etc….
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 49
• Polarisation : This
phenomenon tells the
transverse nature of light.
We can understand this by
doing simple experiment.
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 50
• Experiment:
• light from a source S fall on a tourmaline crystal A cut parallel to its
crystallographic axis shown dotted in fig on next slide.
• Second crystal B is placed in the path of beam.
• Now if B is rotated, the intensity of the emergent light decreases and no light
comes out of the crystal B when B is right angle to A .
• Thus it can be easily inferred that light is transverse motion.
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 51
experiment
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 52
Plane polarised light may be
defined as the light in which
the light vector vibrates
along a fixed straight line in
a plane perpendicular to
the direction of
propagation.
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 53
Pictorial representation of light vibrations
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 54
Brewster’s law
• According to this law,
when light is incident at the
polarizing angle the
reflected and refracted rays
are perpendicular to each
other.
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 55
Coherence
• Purpose
– Neglect temporal dependence
– Coherence light -> stable interference
– Degree of coherence – interference fringes visibility
• What light is coherent
– Monochromatic – temporal coherence
• Coherence length
– Spherical waves – spatial coherence
• Coherence area
• Formal description
– Binary relation
– Cross correlation between two signals
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 56
Constructive vs. destructive interference;
Coherent vs. incoherent interference
Waves that combine
in phase add up to
relatively high irradiance.
Waves that combine 180°
out of phase cancel out
and yield zero irradiance.
Waves that combine with
lots of different phases
nearly cancel out and
yield very low irradiance.
=
=
=
Constructive
interference
(coherent)
Destructive
interference
(coherent)
Incoherent
addition
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 57
Interfering many waves: in phase, out of phase, or with random
phase…
Waves adding exactly
in phase (coherent
constructive addition)
Waves adding with
random phase,
partially canceling
(incoherent
addition)
If we plot the
complex
amplitudes:
Re
Im
Waves adding exactly
out of phase, adding to
zero (coherent
destructive addition)
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 58
Light bulbs
Light from a light bulb is
very complicated!
1. It has many colors (it’s white), so we have to add waves of many
different values of e (and hence k-magnitudes).
2. It isn’t a point source, so, for each color, we have to add waves with
all possible k directions (it’s omnidirectional).
3. Even along one direction, many different molecules are emitting light with
random relative phases (the effect we just considered).
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 59
Light from a light bulb is incoherent
• I
total
= I
1
+ I
2
+ … + I
n

When many light waves add with
random phases, we say the light is
incoherent, and the light wave total
irradiance is just the sum of the
individual irradiances.
Other characteristics of incoherent light:
1. It’s relatively weak.
2. It’s omni-directional.
3. Its irradiance is proportional to the number of emitters.
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 60
Coherent vs. Incoherent Light
• I
total
= I
1
+ I
2
+ … + I
n

E
total
= E
1
+ E
2

+ … + E
n

Coherent light:
1. It’s strong.
2. It’s uni-directional.
3. Total irradiance N
2
or 0.
4. Total irradiance is the mag-square
of the sum of individual fields.
·
Incoherent light:
1. It’s relatively weak.
2. It’s omni-directional.
3. Total irradiance N.
4. Total irradiance is the sum of
individual irradiances.
·
Laser
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 61
Diffraction
• What exactly is diffraction
– Everything not being reflection or refraction
– Interference of many sources
• Scalar Diffraction
– Easier in certain environment
– Huygens-Fresnel principle
– More precise formulations
• Kirchhoff
• Rayleigh-Sommerfeld

t
t
t÷At
t÷At
t+At
t+At
Direction of
propagation
Direction of
propagation
( ) ( ) s d s o
i
y x u
s r
s r ik
S
 
 
 
o
ì
cos
~
,
~
| ) ( |
|) ) ( | exp(
í
=
1
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 62
• Diffraction is a phenomenon when a wave
that passes through an aperture or around an
obstacle forms a pattern on a screen.

• What causes diffraction is interference of an
infinite number of waves that are emitted by
the points of the aperture

ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 63
• Huygens principle says that a large hole can be
approximated by many small holes where
each are a point source.

• The point source generating spherical waves is
the source of diffraction.


ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 64
• There are two different limiting types of
diffraction observations
- Fresnel diffraction patterns
- Fraunhofer diffraction patterns


ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 65


• For Fraunhofer diffraction pattern there is a
large distance between aperture and the
screen.

• For Fresnel diffraction the distance between
the aperture and the screen is generally
small.



ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 66

Example of Fresnel diffraction

ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 67


Airy disk: This is a Fraunhofer diffraction.
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 68
• Grating theory: diffraction
grating is an arrangement
equivalent to a large number of
parallel slits of equal widths and
separated from each other by
equal opaque spaces.

ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 69
A single beam of light will scatter off of the grating and emerge as many beams with indices m
= 0,1,2,3,,,,. The outgoing beam with m = 0 is called the "zeroth order" beam and it goes
straight through. The beam with m=1 is called the "first-order" beam and the beam with
m=2 is called the "second order" beam.

All of these higher orders beams have the same color (wavelength) as the incident beam.

Each order m refers to a pair of diffracted beams that emerge from the grating at
angles from the initial beam's direction.

The directions of the beams diffracted from the initial beam of wavelength is given by the
relation,



ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 70
• A diffraction grating is the tool of choice
for separating the colors in incident light.





• The condition for maximum intensity is
the same as that for a double slit.
However, angular separation of the
maxima is generally much greater because
the slit spacing is so small for a diffraction
grating.
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 71
Diffraction
Gratings
•Scattering ideas explain what
happens when light impinges on a
periodic array of grooves.
Constructive interference occurs
if the delay between adjacent
beamlets is an integral number,
m, of wavelengths.
| |
sin( ) sin( )
m i
a m u u ì ÷ =
where m is any integer.
A grating has solutions of zero, one, or many values of m, or orders.
Remember that m and u
m
can be negative, too.
Path difference: AB – CD = mì
Scatterer
Scatterer
a
u
i
u
m
a
AB = a sin(u
m
)
CD = a sin(u
i
)
A
D
C
B
Potential
diffracted
wave-front
Incident
wave-front
u
i
u
m
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 72
Diffraction
orders
Because the diffraction angle depends
on ì, different wavelengths are
separated in the nonzero orders.
No
wavelength
dependence
occurs in
zero order.
The longer the wavelength, the larger its deflection in each
nonzero order.
Diffraction angle, u
m
(ì)

Zeroth order
First order
Minus
first order
Incidence
angle, u
i
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 73
Because diffraction gratings are used to separate colors, it’s helpful to
know the variation of the diffracted angle vs. wavelength.


Differentiating the grating equation,
with respect to wavelength:
Diffraction-grating dispersion
cos( )
m
m
d
a m
d
u
u
ì
=
| |
sin( ) sin( )
m i
a m u u ì ÷ =
cos( )
m
m
d m
d a
u
ì u
=
Rearranging:
[u
i
is constant]
Thus, to separate different colors maximally, make a small, work in high
order (make m large), and use a diffraction angle near 90 degrees.
Gratings typically have an
order of magnitude more
dispersion than prisms.
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 74
Any surface or medium with
periodically varying o or n is a
diffraction grating.
Transmission gratings can be amplitude (o) or phase (n) gratings.
Gratings can work in reflection (r) or transmission (t).
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 75
Real diffraction
gratings
Diffracted white light
White light diffracted by a real grating.
m = 0
m =1
m = 2
m = -1
The dots on a CD are
equally spaced (although
some are missing, of
course), so it acts like a
diffraction grating.
Diffraction
gratings
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 76
The tracks of a compact
disc act as a diffraction
grating, producing a separation of
the colors of white light. The nominal
track separation on a CD is 1.6
micrometers, corresponding to about
625 tracks per millimeter. This is in
the range of ordinary laboratory
diffraction gratings. For red light of
wavelength 600 nm, this would give
a first order diffraction maximum at
about 22° .
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 77
Application of diffraction grating

• GRATINGS FOR INSTRUMENTAL ANALYSIS
Atomic and molecular spectroscopy
Fluorescence spectroscopy
Colorimetry
Raman spectroscopy
• GRATINGS IN LASER SYSTEMS
Laser tuning
Pulse stretching and compression
• GRATINGS IN ASTRONOMICAL APPLICATIONS
Ground-based astronomy
Space-borne astronomy
• GRATINGS IN SYNCHROTRON RADIATION BEAMLINES
• SPECIAL USES FOR GRATINGS
• Gratings as filters
• Gratings in fiber-optic telecommunications
• Gratings as beam splitters
• Gratings as optical couplers
• .Gratings in metrological applications


ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 78
• Colorimetry is the measurement
and specification of color, used in
analytical chemistry, color matching,
color reproduction and appearance
studies. Because color as perceived
cannot be associated with a single
wavelength – it is a more complicated
function of how the three different
light receptors in the human eye
respond to the entire visible
spectrum when looking at an object –
it is common to use a
multiwavelength instrument such as
a grating spectrometer.
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 79
GRATINGS IN LASER SYSTEMS
( laser tuning )
Tuning a dye laser – the grating as output reflector. In this case,
the zero-order from the grating G is the output beam, and the
output coupler in Figure 13-3 is replaced by a mirror. The
wavelength is tuned by rotating the grating.
Tuning a dye laser – the grating as a total reflector in the Littrow
configuration. Light from the dye laser cell is diffracted by the grating G,
which is oriented so that light of the desired wavelength is redirected back
toward the cell; the output beam is transmitted by an output coupler OC
(which reflects most of the light back into the laser). The wavelength is
tuned by rotating the grating.
The Littman-Metcalf arrangement The light diffracted by
grating G is retroreflected by mirror M, which diffracts the
light again back into the dye laser cell
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 80
Real life application of diffraction grating
• The diffraction grating is an
immensely useful tool for the
separation of the spectral lines
associated with atomic
transitions. It acts as a "super
prism", separating the different
colors of light much more than
the dispersion effect in a prism.
The illustration shows the
hydrogen spectrum. The
hydrogen gas in a thin glass tube
is excited by an electrical
discharge and the spectrum can
be viewed through the grating.
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 81
• Electro-optic effect:
when an electric field Is applied across an optical medium the distribution of
electrons within it is distorted so that the polarizability and hence the refractive
index of the medium changes anisotropically. The result of this electro-optic
effect may be to introduce new optic axes into naturally doubly refracting
crystals…e.g. KDP,GaS
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 82
Definition: the phenomenon that the refractive index of a material
can be modified with an electric field (or electrooptic effect)
The electro-optic effect is the modification of the refractive index of a medium,
caused by an electric field. Only non-centrosymmetric crystal materials exhibit the
linear electro-optic effect, also called Pockels effect, where the refractive index
change is proportional to the electric field strength.

Basically all other transparent media exhibit only the Kerr effect, where the
refractive index change is proportional to the square of the electric field strength,
and is typically much weaker than for the linear effect. Materials exhibiting
the Pockels effect are called electro-optic materials.
Electro-optic Effect
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 83

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• Acousto-optic effect: the
acousto-optic effect is the change in
the refractive index of a medium
caused by the mechanical strains
accompanying the passage of an
acousic(strain) wave through the
medium.
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 89
Acousto-Optics:
- The refractive index of an optical medium is altered by
the presence of sound; sound modifies the effect of
medium on light;
- Many useful devices make use of this acousto optic
effect: optical modulator,switches, deflectors, filters,
isolators, frequency shifters, and spectrum analyzers.
- Sound is a dynamic strain involving molecular
vibrations that take the form of waves which travel at a
velocity characteristic of the medium; vibration of
molecular => polarizability => refractive index
x
u
z
A
u
A = 2 / s in ì θ
Bragg diffraction: an
acoustic plane
wave acts as a partial
reflector of light
(beamsplitter).
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 90
+Interaction of light and sound:
- Bragg Diffraction:
Consider an acoustic plane wave traveling in the x
direction in a medium with velocity v
s
, frequency f,
and wavelength A = v
s
/f. The strain (relative
displacement) at position x and time t is
) c o s ( ) , (
0
q x t s t x s ÷ O =
s
0
: amplitude; O = 2tf ; q = 2t /A (wavenumber).
The acoustic intensity (W/m
2
) is
2 /
2
0
3
s v I
s s
p =
p : mass density of medium.
The medium is assumed to be optical transparent and
the refractive index in the absence of sound is n. The
strain s => perturbation of the refractive index
(analogous to the Pockels effect)
) , ( ) , (
3
2
1
t x s n t x n p ÷ = A
p : photoelastic constant
(strain-optic coefficient)
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• Magneto-optic devices:
the presence of magnetic fields may
also affect the optical properties of
some substances thereby giving rise
to a number of useful devices.This is
based on the faraday effect.
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 93
Assignment
• Discuss basic light sources and its characterisation.
• What is Bire frengence? How it is useful to generate electro-
optic effect.
• What is Acousto optic effect? Explain Raman Nath effect.
• How magneto optic effect is used to design current
sensors.Explain with relevant diagram.
• What is Diffraction grating? Write down its application.
ANUJ BHARDWAJ (UNIT-1) 94

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