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Lecture 13 and 14: WLAN

Anders Vstberg 08-790 44 55

Slides are a selection from the slides from chapter 12,13, and 14 from:

Mobile IP Uses
Enable computers to maintain Internet connectivity while moving from one Internet attachment point to another Mobile user's point of attachment changes dynamically and all connections are automatically maintained despite the change Nomadic - user's Internet connection is terminated each time the user moves and a new connection is initiated when the user dials back in
New, temporary IP address is assigned

Operation of Mobile IP
Mobil node is assigned to a particular network home network IP address on home network is static home address Mobile node can move to another network foreign network Mobile node registers with network node on foreign network foreign agent Mobile node gives care-of address to agent on home network home agent

Capabilities of Mobile IP
Discovery mobile node uses discovery procedure to identify prospective home and foreign agents Registration mobile node uses an authenticated registration procedure to inform home agent of its care-of address Tunneling used to forward IP datagrams from a home address to a care-of address

Mobile node is responsible for ongoing discovery process
Must determine if it is attached to its home network or a foreign network

Transition from home network to foreign network can occur at any time without notification to the network layer Mobile node listens for agent advertisement messages
Compares network portion of the router's IP address with the network portion of home address

Agent Solicitation
Foreign agents are expected to issue agent advertisement messages periodically If a mobile node needs agent information immediately, it can issue ICMP router solicitation message
Any agent receiving this message will then issue an agent advertisement

Move Detection
Mobile node may move from one network to another due to some handoff mechanism without IP level being aware
Agent discovery process is intended to enable the agent to detect such a move

Algorithms to detect move:

Use of lifetime field mobile node uses lifetime field as a timer for agent advertisements Use of network prefix mobile node checks if any newly received agent advertisement messages are on the same network as the node's current care-of address

Co-Located Addresses
If mobile node moves to a network that has no foreign agents, or all foreign agents are busy, it can act as its own foreign agent Mobile agent uses co-located care-of address
IP address obtained by mobile node associated with mobile node's current network interface

Means to acquire co-located address:

Temporary IP address through an Internet service, such as DHCP May be owned by the mobile node as a long-term address for use while visiting a given foreign network

Registration Process
Mobile node sends registration request to foreign agent requesting forwarding service Foreign agent relays request to home agent Home agent accepts or denies request and sends registration reply to foreign agent Foreign agent relays reply to mobile node

Registration Operation Messages

Registration request message
Fields = type, S, B, D, M, V, G, lifetime, home address, home agent, care-of-address, identification, extensions

Registration reply message

Fields = type, code, lifetime, home address, home agent, identification, extensions

Registration Procedure Security

Mobile IP designed to resist attacks
Node pretending to be a foreign agent sends registration request to a home agent to divert mobile node traffic to itself Agent replays old registration messages to cut mobile node from network

For message authentication, registration request and reply contain authentication extension
Fields = type, length, security parameter index (SPI), authenticator

Types of Authentication Extensions

Mobile-home provides for authentication of registration messages between mobile node and home agent; must be present Mobile-foreign may be present when a security association exists between mobile node and foreign agent Foreign-home may be present when a security association exists between foreign agent and home agent

Home agent intercepts IP datagrams sent to mobile node's home address
Home agent informs other nodes on home network that datagrams to mobile node should be delivered to home agent

Datagrams forwarded to care-of address via tunneling

Datagram encapsulated in outer IP datagram

Mobile IP Encapsulation Options

IP-within-IP entire IP datagram becomes payload in new IP datagram
Original, inner IP header unchanged except TTL decremented by 1 Outer header is a full IP header

Minimal encapsulation new header is inserted between original IP header and original IP payload
Original IP header modified to form new outer IP header

Generic routing encapsulation (GRE) developed prior to development of Mobile IP

Wireless LAN Applications

LAN Extension Cross-building interconnect Nomadic Access Ad hoc networking

Wireless LAN Configurations

LAN Extension
Wireless LAN linked into a wired LAN on same premises
Wired LAN
Backbone Support servers and stationary workstations

Wireless LAN
Stations in large open areas Manufacturing plants, stock exchange trading floors, and warehouses

Cross-Building Interconnect
Connect LANs in nearby buildings
Wired or wireless LANs

Point-to-point wireless link is used Devices connected are typically bridges or routers

Nomadic Access
Wireless link between LAN hub and mobile data terminal equipped with antenna
Laptop computer or notepad computer

Transfer data from portable computer to office server Extended environment such as campus

Ad Hoc Networking
Temporary peer-to-peer network set up to meet immediate need Example:
Group of employees with laptops convene for a meeting; employees link computers in a temporary network for duration of meeting

Wireless LAN Requirements

Throughput Number of nodes Connection to backbone LAN Service area Battery power consumption Transmission robustness and security Collocated network operation License-free operation Handoff/roaming Dynamic configuration

Wireless LAN Categories

Infrared (IR) LANs Spread spectrum LANs Narrowband microwave

Strengths of Infrared Over Microwave Radio

Spectrum for infrared virtually unlimited
Possibility of high data rates

Infrared spectrum unregulated Equipment inexpensive and simple Reflected by light-colored objects
Ceiling reflection for entire room coverage

Doesnt penetrate walls

More easily secured against eavesdropping Less interference between different rooms

Drawbacks of Infrared Medium

Indoor environments experience infrared background radiation
Sunlight and indoor lighting Ambient radiation appears as noise in an infrared receiver Transmitters of higher power required
Limited by concerns of eye safety and excessive power consumption

Limits range

Spread Spectrum LAN Configuration

Multiple-cell arrangement Within a cell, either peer-to-peer or hub Peer-to-peer topology
No hub Access controlled with MAC algorithm

Appropriate for ad hoc LANs

IEEE 802 Protocol Layers

Protocol Architecture
Functions of physical layer:
Encoding/decoding of signals Preamble generation/removal (for synchronization) Bit transmission/reception Includes specification of the transmission medium

Protocol Architecture
Functions of medium access control (MAC) layer:
On transmission, assemble data into a frame with address and error detection fields On reception, disassemble frame and perform address recognition and error detection Govern access to the LAN transmission medium

Functions of logical link control (LLC) Layer:

Provide an interface to higher layers and perform flow and error control

Separation of LLC and MAC

The logic required to manage access to a shared-access medium not found in traditional layer 2 data link control For the same LLC, several MAC options may be provided

MAC Frame Format

MAC control
Contains Mac protocol information

Destination MAC address

Destination physical attachment point

Source MAC address

Source physical attachment point

Cyclic redundancy check

Logical Link Control

Characteristics of LLC not shared by other control protocols:
Must support multiaccess, shared-medium nature of the link Relieved of some details of link access by MAC layer

LLC Services
Unacknowledged connectionless service
No flow- and error-control mechanisms Data delivery not guaranteed

Connection-mode service
Logical connection set up between two users Flow- and error-control provided

Acknowledged connectionless service

Cross between previous two Datagrams acknowledged No prior logical setup

Differences between LLC and HDLC

LLC uses asynchronous balanced mode of operation of HDLC (type 2 operation) LLC supports unacknowledged connectionless service (type 1 operation) LLC supports acknowledged connectionless service (type 3 operation) LLC permits multiplexing by the use of LLC service access points (LSAPs)

IEEE 802.11 Architecture

Distribution system (DS) Access point (AP) Basic service set (BSS)
Stations competing for access to shared wireless medium Isolated or connected to backbone DS through AP

Extended service set (ESS)

Two or more basic service sets interconnected by DS

IEEE 802.11 Services

Distribution of Messages Within a DS

Distribution service
Used to exchange MAC frames from station in one BSS to station in another BSS

Integration service
Transfer of data between station on IEEE 802.11 LAN and station on integrated IEEE 802.x LAN

Transition Types Based On Mobility

No transition
Stationary or moves only within BSS

BSS transition
Station moving from one BSS to another BSS in same ESS

ESS transition
Station moving from BSS in one ESS to BSS within another ESS

Association-Related Services
Establishes initial association between station and AP

Enables transfer of association from one AP to another, allowing station to move from one BSS to another

Association termination notice from station or AP

Access and Privacy Services

Establishes identity of stations to each other

Invoked when existing authentication is terminated

Prevents message contents from being read by unintended recipient

IEEE 802.11 Medium Access Control

MAC layer covers three functional areas:
Reliable data delivery Access control Security

Reliable Data Delivery

More efficient to deal with errors at the MAC level than higher layer (such as TCP) Frame exchange protocol
Source station transmits data Destination responds with acknowledgment (ACK) If source doesnt receive ACK, it retransmits frame

Four frame exchange

Source issues request to send (RTS) Destination responds with clear to send (CTS) Source transmits data Destination responds with ACK

Access Control

Medium Access Control Logic

Interframe Space (IFS) Values

Short IFS (SIFS)
Shortest IFS Used for immediate response actions

Point coordination function IFS (PIFS)

Midlength IFS Used by centralized controller in PCF scheme when using polls

Distributed coordination function IFS (DIFS)

Longest IFS Used as minimum delay of asynchronous frames contending for access

IFS Usage
Acknowledgment (ACK) Clear to send (CTS) Poll response

Used by centralized controller in issuing polls Takes precedence over normal contention traffic

Used for all ordinary asynchronous traffic

MAC Frame Format

MAC Frame Fields

Frame Control frame type, control information Duration/connection ID channel allocation time Addresses context dependant, types include source and destination Sequence control numbering and reassembly Frame body MSDU or fragment of MSDU Frame check sequence 32-bit CRC

Frame Control Fields

Protocol version 802.11 version Type control, management, or data Subtype identifies function of frame To DS 1 if destined for DS From DS 1 if leaving DS More fragments 1 if fragments follow Retry 1 if retransmission of previous frame

Frame Control Fields

Power management 1 if transmitting station is in sleep mode More data Indicates that station has more data to send WEP 1 if wired equivalent protocol is implemented Order 1 if any data frame is sent using the Strictly Ordered service

Control Frame Subtypes

Power save poll (PS-Poll) Request to send (RTS) Clear to send (CTS) Acknowledgment Contention-free (CF)-end CF-end + CF-ack

Data Frame Subtypes

Data-carrying frames

Data Data + CF-Ack Data + CF-Poll Data + CF-Ack + CF-Poll

Null Function CF-Ack CF-Poll CF-Ack + CF-Poll

Other subtypes (dont carry user data)

Management Frame Subtypes

Association request Association response Reassociation request Reassociation response Probe request Probe response Beacon

Management Frame Subtypes

Announcement traffic indication message Dissociation Authentication Deauthentication

Wired Equivalent Privacy

Open system authentication
Exchange of identities, no security benefits

Shared Key authentication

Shared Key assures authentication

Physical Media Defined by Original 802.11 Standard

Direct-sequence spread spectrum
Operating in 2.4 GHz ISM band Data rates of 1 and 2 Mbps

Frequency-hopping spread spectrum

Operating in 2.4 GHz ISM band Data rates of 1 and 2 Mbps

1 and 2 Mbps Wavelength between 850 and 950 nm

IEEE 802.11a and IEEE 802.11b

IEEE 802.11a
Makes use of 5-GHz band Provides rates of 6, 9 , 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, 54 Mbps Uses orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) Subcarrier modulated using BPSK, QPSK, 16-QAM or 64QAM

IEEE 802.11b
Provides data rates of 5.5 and 11 Mbps Complementary code keying (CCK) modulation scheme

IEEE 802.11g and IEEE 802.11n

IEEE 802.11g: Provides data rates up to 108 Mbps and is compatible with 802.11b IEEE 802.11n: Even higher data rates.