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Dr. Peter L. Fuhr
Chief Scientist RAE Systems, Sunnyvale, CA firstname.lastname@example.org
Dr. Peter Fuhr, Presenter: 480+ publications&presentations in wireless sensor networking arena. Old-timer in this area…etc etc.
RAE Systems Inc.
• Pervasive Sensing Company based in Silicon Valley founded in 1991
– Radiation detection
• Gamma and neutron
– Chemical/vapor detection
• Toxic gas, VOC, combustible gas, oxygen, CWA, temperature, humidity, C02
– Redeployable sensor networks – Mobile and fixed wireless monitors – Cargo Container Sensor Systems
ISA Wireless Security, P. Fuhr
A number of individuals have provided “content” for these slides. They include: Wayne Manges, Oak Ridge National Laboratory Robert Poor, Ember Pat Gonia, Honeywell Hesh Kagan, Foxboro/Invensys Kang Lee, NIST Tom Kevan, Advanstar Ramesh Shankar, Electric Power Research Institute Larry Hill, Larry Hill Consulting Rob Conant, Dust Rick Kriss, Xsilogy Gideon Varga, Dept of Energy Jack Eisenhauser, Energetics Michael Brambley, Pacific Northwest National Labs David Wagner, UC-Berkeley
Undoubtedly, there are other contributors too (apologies if your name is not listed).
ISA Wireless Security, P. Fuhr 3
Wireless Sensor Networking …it’s not cellular telephony …it’s not just WiFi.(and it just may be the next big thing) Each dot represents one cell phone tower.. Fuhr 4 . P. Wireless devices circa 1930 ISA Wireless Security..
April 2002 ISA Wireless Security. Dust 5 . Fuhr Slide courtesy of Rob Conant.Sensor Market: $11B in 2001 Installation (wiring) costs: >$100B • Fragmented market platform opportunity • Installation cost limits penetration reducing installation cost increases market size Highly Fragmented Sensor Market Freedonia Group report on Sensors. P.
Fuhr Slide courtesy of Rick Kriss.Industrial Market Sizing Sensor Networking Products • North American Market for Wireless products used in Applications where transmission distances are 1 mile or less: – – – 2002 Total: $107 million 2006 Forecast: $713 million 2010 Estimates: $ 2. Environmental Monitoring • Conclusions: – – – Rapid Growth in Industrial markets Tank Level Monitoring will remain a significant opportunity Key ‗ User‘ Needs: • • • Lower Costs over Wired (or Manual) Solutions Education of Potential Customers on the Technology Demonstration of Operational Reliability & Application ‗ Domain‘ Knowledge ISA Wireless Security.1 billion • Largest Application areas: – – 2002: Tank Level Monitoring. Preventative Maintenance 2006: Tank Level Monitoring. Preventative Maintenance. Asset Tracking. P. Xsilogy 6 .
Fuhr Slide courtesy of Rick Kriss.4. FLEX SAT. P.The True cost per monitored node – to the End User Higher Bluetooth. Xsilogy 7 .15. 802. etc SPARSE Higher 3-Yr TOC $$$ Design For Here Installation Costs Lower Meters $ Radio RF Range (dB) Miles $$$$$ Lower ISA Wireless Security. WiFi etc DENSE 1xRTT.
Fuhr 8 ..What to do with the data? Chemical Electrical Mechanical Thermal Radiation Optical Magne tic Parameter of Interest Sensor Measurement System Modifier Output Signal Output Transducer Chemical Electrical Mechanical Thermal Radiation Optical Magne tic Power Supply Great! But how do you get the output signal from the sensor to the location where the information will be interpreted (used)? Traditionally the output of the sensor was hardwired to some form of interpretive device (e.g. PLC) perhaps relying on a 4-20mA signal… ISA Wireless Security. P.
15. spatial…) 4. WiFi. encryption. Spectrum. 802. Bluetooth. The Big Review ISA Wireless Security. An Integrated Solution 6. P.Outline: 1. How is security achieved in a wired channel? 3.4. modulation. Security? Who needs it? 2. Security within various Wireless Delivery Schemes (cellular. The Situation for Wireless (its RF in an industrial setting. others…) 5. Fuhr 9 .
Fuhr 10 .Oh. who needs security in a wireless channel anyway! (pretty ridiculous statement isn‟t it! ISA Wireless Security. P.
Coral Gables. Fuhr 11 . Sept.Let’s ask some experts: WINA meeting.wireless4industrial. 2003 www. P.org ISA Wireless Security.
P. NC on Feb 11/12 – right after the ISA Wireless Security Expo and conference. Fuhr 12 . the Wireless Industrial Networking Alliance (WINA) was formed to promote the adoption of wireless networking technologies and practices that will help increase industrial productivity and efficiency.wireless4industrial. WINA will be holding a 1. Check out www.What‘s a WINA? In the spring of 2003.org for WINA meeting details AND www.5 day meeting at ISA-HQ in RTP.org/wireless for the ISA Wireless Security conf details! ISA Wireless Security.isa.
Back to the Question: Who needs security in a wireless channel anyway! ISA Wireless Security. P. Fuhr 13 .
Strategy Workshop Participants • Suppliers (13) • • System integrators (6) Industrial end users (10) – Chemicals – Energy/Utilities – Forest Products – Electronics – Petroleum – Automotive • Industry analysts/venture capitalists (3) • Others (associations. media. researchers) 14 ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr . government. P.
P. Fuhr 15 .End-User View of Industrial Wireless Likes • Mobility • Compactness Dislikes • Change to status quo • Complexity • High cost for coverage in large plants • Security issues • Portability issues (power) • Unproven reliability • Too risky for process control • Lack of experience in troubleshooting (staff) • Restricted infrastructure flexibility once implemented • Lack of analysis tools • Flexibility • Low cost • Capability to monitor rotating equipment • Short range (security) • Ease of installation • High reliability • Impetus to enhance electronics support ISA Wireless Security.
Fuhr *mean time between attention 16 . collectors. environments) ISA Wireless Security. and eavesdropping • Power • Value (clear to customer) • Interoperability – Co-existence with other facility networks.Technology Group: Key Issues • Security – Jamming. collectors. technology • True engineered solution (sensors.) • Assured performance & reliability/MTBA* • Software infrastructure. & systems management • Robustness (at least as good as wired) • RF characterization (radios. etc. receivers. sensors. P. data. hacking.
Technology Group: Criticality Varies by Application (5 = most critical) Attributes Latency Device Reliability Raw Thru-put (node / aggr. P.) Scalability (Max. Fuhr 17 .5 /2.# nodes) Data Reliability Monitor 2-3 2-3 2/5 Control 3-5 3-5 2.5 Applications Alarm 5 5 1/4 Shutdown 5 5 1/1 Biz WLAN 1 1 1/5 5 1 4 5 4 5 1 5 2-3 2 Security Low Cost Gateway Technology Engineered Solution 1-5 5 5 1 5 2 1 5 5 1-3 3-4 4 5 1 1 5 5 2-3 1 3 ISA Wireless Security.
Industrial CyberSecurity • The Case of Vitek Boden ISA Wireless Security. P. Fuhr 18 .
Fuhr 19 . causing millions of liters of sewage to be spilled. – Between Jan 2000 and Apr 2000 the sewage system experienced 47 unexplainable faults.• On October 31. He was refused. – Vitek left the contractor in December 1999 and approached the shire for employment. P. 2001 Vitek Boden was convicted of: – 26 counts of willfully using a restricted computer to cause damage – 1 count of causing serious environment harm • The facts of the case: – Vitek worked for the contractor involved in the installation of Maroochy Shire sewage treatment plant. ISA Wireless Security.
P. • Vitek is now in jail… Disgruntled Contractor Rogue Radio PLC PLC 20 Sewage Plant ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr . 2000 Vitek was arrested with stolen radio equipment. controller programming software on a laptop and a fully operational controller.How did he do it? • On April 23.
P. Fuhr 21 .A Favorite 2.4 GHz Antenna ISA Wireless Security.
P. Fuhr 22 .11 HotSpots in Silicon Valley ISA Wireless Security.WarDriving – 802.
11 HotSpots in San Francisco ISA Wireless Security. P.WarDriving – 802. Fuhr 23 .
So…How do you provide the appropriate level of security within the acceptable price and “inconvenience” margin -> Risk Management! ISA Wireless Security. P.The Question: Who needs security in a wireless channel anyway! The Answer: We do. Fuhr 24 .
Outside? • Where do attacks come from? 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Foreign Gov. ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 25 % of Respondents .gocsi.Inside vs. P.S.com/losses. Foreign Corp.www. Disgruntled Competitors Employees 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 *Source: “2002 CSI/FBI Computer Crime and Security Survey” Computer Security Institute . Hackers U.
When? April 2001 ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 26 . P.An “Outside” Example.
“Hacker War I” •In the Spring of 2001. Fuhr 27 . the US got it’s first a taste of a new form of warfare. •Launched from overseas and targeted at US critical infrastructure. ISA Wireless Security. P.
Honker Union worked with other groups such as the Chinese Red Guest Network Security Technology Alliance •Hackers were encouraged to ".Honker Union •Chinese Hacker Group working to advance and in some cases impose it’s political agenda •During the spring of 2001.com Attack Methods: Denial of Service Attacks •Website Defacement •E-mailing viruses to US Government Employees •“KillUSA” package ISA Wireless Security...make use of their skills for China. Fuhr 28 .." Wired.. P.
000 sites were hacked in the first 48 hours of the conflict. Fuhr 29 .Cyberwar • Cyber attacks and web defacements increased dramatically after the start of the war against Iraq. • Security consultants state that the war against Iraq made March the worst month for digital attacks since records began in 1995. P. with many of the attacks containing anti-war slogans. ISA Wireless Security. • More than 1.
is a military academy specializing in electronic warfare • 100 potential cybersoldiers graduate every year ISA Wireless Security.Hacker School • North Korea's Mirim College. Fuhr 30 . P.
The Question: Who needs security in a wireless channel anyway? The Answer: Everyone. Fuhr 31 . P. ISA Wireless Security.
4. others…) 5. P.15. Fuhr 32 . Bluetooth. encryption. WiFi. The Situation for Wireless (its RF in an industrial setting. spatial…) 4. modulation. Security? Who needs it? 2. An Integrated Solution 6. 802. Security within various Wireless Delivery Schemes (cellular. How is security achieved in a wired channel? 3.Outline: 1. Spectrum. The Big Review ISA Wireless Security.
Fuhr 33 . P.A few details… Layered Communications ISA Wireless Security.
Fuhr Slide courtesy of Wayne Manges.Encryption The “traditional” method involved encrypting the data prior to transmission over a potentially insecure channel.Wired Data Security . P. The level of protection rests on the encryption algorithm. (There are a few other factors…such as the physical media.) ISA Wireless Security. ORNL 34 .
2. others…) 5.4. 3. An Integrated Solution 6.15. The Big Review ISA Wireless Security. 802.Outline: 1. P. 4. Bluetooth. WiFi. Fuhr 35 . Security? Who needs it? How is security achieved in a wired channel? The Situation for Wireless Security within various Wireless Delivery Schemes (cellular.
Wireless Buildings Key to success: reduced installation costs ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr Slide courtesy of Pat Gonia. THIS is what a wireless sensor network can provide. Honeywell 36 . P.From many perspectives.
Modulation E(t) = A(t) cos[wt + f(t)] Amplitude Modulation (AM) info is in A(t) Frequency Modulation (FM) info is in w Phase Modulation (PM) info is in f(t) Different vendors use different schemes . Phase = 0o Phase = 180o Phase = 360o (or back to 0o) Phase = 270o ISA Wireless Security. P. Fuhr 37 .and they are not interoperable.
The FCC Frequency Assignment Different vendors may use different frequencies within the various ISM bands (green in the diagram). ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 38 . 915 and 2400 MHz. The ISM bands most commonly used are at 433. P.
FDMA. TDMA and CDMA ISA Wireless Security.Multiple Sensors Sharing the Medium: Multiplexing. Fuhr 39 . P.
P. Fuhr 40 .Binary Signaling Formats • Used to Improve Digital Signal Reception and Decision • NRZ: Non-Return to Zero • RZ: Return to Zero • Unipolar: Only one side of 0V • Bipolar: Both sides of 0V • Manchester: Bi-Phase (“0” in left 1/2 time slot. “1” in right) ISA Wireless Security.
Fuhr 41 .Narrowband or Spread Spectrum? Narrowband uses a fixed carrier frequency. F0. Least secure modulation scheme. P. F0. The receiver then locks onto the carrier frequency. Prone to jamming or interference (two transmitters at the same carrier frequency. Easy to implement (inexpensive). ISA Wireless Security. F0.
F0(t). The receiver must track the time-varying carrier frequency. Relatively easy to implement (inexpensive). Invented and patented by actress Heddy Lamarr and her pianist George Antheil. ISA Wireless Security.) ? Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum. P. Uses a carrier frequency that varies with time. Prone to jamming or interference (two transmitters at the same carrier frequency. Fuhr 42 . Hopping rates may be ~1600 hops/second (ala Bluetooth).Narrowband or Spread Spectrum (cont. Very secure modulation scheme (used in military for decades). F0) during any single transmit interval. F0(t).
Most secure modulation scheme. F0 but interleaves the data with a precise mathematical 0/1 data sequence. (This increases the length of the transmitted information vector making it longer). Highly robust technique. F0 receives the signal and then must ―undo‖ the interleaving. Most complicated scheme (of these presented).) ? Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum uses a fixed carrier frequency. The information is replicated many times throughout the bandwidth.Narrowband or Spread Spectrum (cont. P. The receiver then locks onto the carrier frequency. the remainder “gets through”. Fuhr 43 . More difficult to implement (more expensive). so if one “lobe” of the information is jammed. ISA Wireless Security.
DIRECT-SEQUENCE SPREAD-SPECTRUM SIGNALS PN Clock Carrier PN Sequence Generator ±1 Data Local PN Clock PN Sequence Generator Wide BP Filter ±1 Narrow BP Filter Local Carrier Phase Demod Data Data Clock ±1 Power Spectral Density Power Spectral Density Power Spectral Density RFI “Spread” RFI Frequency fc Frequency fc Narrow spectrum at output of modulator before spreading Spectrum has wider bandwidth and lower power density after spreading with PN sequence (PN Rate >> Data Rate) Original narrowband. high power density spectrum is restored if local PN sequence is same as and lined up with received PN sequence Frequency fc ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 44 . P.
P. Fuhr From a security standpoint. DSSS is best. 45 . ISA Wireless Security.) ? Which is best? Each has its pluses and minuses…and each scheme has its share of diehard advocates and/or naysayers! Different vendors use these (and other) schemes at different frequencies within the various ISM bands.Narrowband or Spread Spectrum (cont.
Reality DSSS FHSS ISA Wireless Security. P. Fuhr 46 .
P. Fuhr 47 .No Matter What…Its Just an Electromagnetic Field E(t) = A(t) cos[wt + f(t)] A(t): amplitude of the wave w: radian frequency of the wave f(t): phase of the wave ISA Wireless Security.
The RF ―Footprint‖ Network “Size” Personal Area Network: typical radiated power: 0 dBm. size: >2000m ISA Wireless Security. P. Fuhr 48 . size: 100m Wide Area Network: typical radiated power: >30 dBm. size: 10m Local Area Network: typical radiated power: 20 dBm.
P. Fuhr Ad Hoc Network 49 .There are SO many technical questions: such as… Network Topologies? Bus Network Tree Netw ork Ring Netw ork Star Network ISA Wireless Security.
The Real World Presents the Wireless Channel with Multipath and Attenuation…and… ISA Wireless Security. P. Fuhr 50 .
Real World: Multipath The Effect The Cause ISA Wireless Security. P. Fuhr 51 .
4GHz ISA Wireless Security.Real World: Atmospheric Attenuation at 2. P. Fuhr 52 .4 GHz Rayleigh Fading @ 2.
4 GHz ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 53 . P.Real World: Signal Attenuation at 2.
the background Noise level has increased by 12 dB. the overall data rate. P. (This plays havoc with the BER or for fixed BER. Fuhr 54 .) ISA Wireless Security.4 GHz wireless surveillance cameras.Real World: And Signal-to-Noise Ratios really do matter! Anecdotal Evidence: As Frankfurt has increased the deployment of 2.
45 GHz is WORSE than at 900MHz (which is worse than 433 MHz). P.Real World: Which Frequency is Best? ALERT! ALERT!! Notice that the operation at 2. Fuhr 55 . ISA Wireless Security.
spatial…) 4. Security within various Wireless Delivery Schemes (cellular. The Situation for Wireless (its RF in an industrial setting. Spectrum. Security? Who needs it? 2.15.4. encryption. others…) 5. modulation. Fuhr 56 . 802. The Big Review ISA Wireless Security. How is security achieved in a wired channel? 3.Outline: 1. P. WiFi. Bluetooth. An Integrated Solution 6.
Interleaving Wireless networks use a variety of techniques to enhance security. ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr Slide courtesy of Wayne Manges. P. This can improve the security of the network by orders of magnitude. ORNL 57 . Spreading. These techniques can make the signal virtually undetectable without prior knowledge about the network. such as spreading and interleaving.Wireless Data Security: Encryption.
The Wireless Market
TEXT LONG GRAPHICS INTERNET HI-FI AUDIO STREAMING VIDEO DIGITAL VIDEO MULTI-CHANNEL VIDEO
802.11b 802.11a/HL2 & 802.11g Bluetooth 2
ISA Wireless Security, P. Fuhr
Bluetooth vs. the Rest (cont‘d)
Parameter Technology 802.11 2.4 GHz, DSSS 11 chips/bit Data Rate 11Mbps Power +20 dBm Range 50m Topology 128 devices CSMA/CA Security Optional WEP Voice Channel Optional HomeRF 2.4GHz, FHSS 50 hops/s 1 Mbps +20 dBm 50m 128 devices CSMA/CA Optional Optional Bluetooth 2.4 GHz, FHSS 1000+hops/s 1Mbps 0, +20dBm 1-10m, 50m 8 devices, Piconet Encryption Yes ZigBee (proposed) 2.4 GHz,DSSS 15 chips/bit 40 kbits/s 0dBm 100m 100s devices, CSMA/CA Not yet No
Bluetooth – aka IEEE 802.15.1
ZigBee – aka IEEE 802.15.4
ISA Wireless Security, P. Fuhr 59
Side by Side
ISA Wireless Security, P. Fuhr
P. Fuhr 61 .11? ISA Wireless Security.802.
Fuhr 62 .11 Spectral Space ISA Wireless Security. P.The Worldwide View of the 802.
Radiated Field from a single AP (Kansas City) ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 63 . P.
P. Mesh and AP deployments ISA Wireless Security.20dB Attenuation Profile for Univ of Kansas Eng Bldg.. Fuhr 64 .
using the shared key – Use a checksum to prevent injection of spoofed packets ISA Wireless Security. P.WEP (encrypted traffic) • The industry‘s solution: WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) – Share a single cryptographic key among all devices – Encrypt all packets sent over the air. Fuhr 65 .
Aboba. Fuhr NY Times. Moore: some weaknesses Walker: Unsafe at any key size Oct 2000 Jan 30. 2001 ISA Wireless Security. Goldberg. P.11 WEP standard released Mar 2000 Simon.Early History of WEP 1997 802. Wagner: 7 serious attacks on WEP 66 . 2001 Feb 5. WSJ break the story Borisov.
Mishra: still more attacks Feb 2002 ISA Wireless Security.Subsequent Events Jan 2001 Mar 2001 Arbaugh: Your 802. Goldberg. Fuhr 67 Borisov.11 network has no clothes May 2001 Jun 2001 Aug 2001 Newsham: dictionary attacks on WEP keys Fluhrer. Wagner Arbaugh: more attacks … . Shamir: efficient attack on way WEP uses RC4 Arbaugh. P. Mantin.
net • WEPCrack – http://sourceforge. Fuhr 68 .sourceforge.WEP Attack Tools • Downloadable procedures from the Internet – To crack the Key: • AirSnort – http://airsnort.net/projects/wepcrack/ – To brute force enter into WLAN. P.com/releases. • THC-RUT – http://www.php ISA Wireless Security.thehackerschoice.
0). – WPA standard joint effort between Wi-Fi Alliance and IEEE .flaws include weak encryption.WPA a subset of IEEE 802.11 standard. – IEEE developing 802. P. (keys no longer than 40 bits).11i standard will not be ratified until late 2003. •WPA provides stronger data encryption (weak in WEP) and user authentication (largely missing in WEP). possibly early 2004 .outstanding issues. ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 69 . static encryption keys.11i standard (Draft 3. – 802.11i standard for enhanced wireless security Addresses weak data encryption and user authentication within existing 802. lack of key distribution method.Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) – Flaws in WEP known since January 2001 .
3. 4. ISA Wireless Security.k. – TKIP based on RC4 stream cipher algorithm. A message integrity check (MIC) .11b hardware compared to other available cipher suites.a. New per-packet key mixing function.stronger data encryption. 2. „Michael‟. •TKIP chosen as primary encryption cipher suite Easily deployed and supported in legacy 802.a. Fuhr 70 . surrounds WEP cipher engine with 4 new algorithms. addresses known vulnerabilities in WEP.k. 1. P.a.WPA – Data Encryption – WPA uses Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) . re-keying. Extended 48-bit Initialization Vector (IV) and IV sequencing rules (compared to the shorter 24-bit WEP RC4 key). ensures messages haven‟t been tampered with during transmission.a. Derivation and distribution method .
P. Fuhr TKIP – Temporal Key Integrity Protocol TSC – TKIP Sequence Counter TTAK– result of phase 1 key mixing of Temporal Key and Transmitter Address WEP – Wired Equivalent Privacy WEP IV – Wired Equivalent Privacy Initialization Vector 71 . Phase 1 key mixing WEP seed(s) (represented as WEP IV + RC4 key) Temporal Key TA TTAK Key TSC MIC Key Plaintext MSDU + MIC Phase 2 key mixing SA + DA + Plaintext MSDU Data MIC Fragment(s) Plaintext MPDU(s) WEP Encapsulation Ciphertext MPDU(s) •DA – Destination Address •ICV– Integrity Check Value •MPDU – Message Protocol Data Unit •MSDU – MAC Service Data Unit •RSN – Robust Security Network •SA – Source Address •TA – Transmitter Address ISA Wireless Security. cont‘d • the Temporal Key Integrity Protocol.WPA – Data Encryption.
– Countermeasures bound probability of successful forgery and amount of information attacker can learn about a key.WPA – Data Encryption.reduces rate which attacker can make message forgery attempts down to two packets every 60 seconds. ISA Wireless Security. P. depending on which attacked – ensures attacker cannot obtain information from attacked key. Fuhr 72 . – TKIP is made available as firmware or software upgrade to existing legacy hardware. – After 60 second timeout new PMK or Groupwise Key generated. cont’d – TKIP implements countermeasures . •TKIP eliminates having to replace existing hardware or having to purchase new hardware.
Fuhr 73 .Bluetooth? ISA Wireless Security. P.
480 GHz frequency range • Frequency hopping spread spectrum 79 hops separated by 1 MHz • Maximum frequency hopping rate: 1600 hops/sec • Nominal range: 10 cm to 10 meters • Nominal antenna power: 0 dBm • One complete Bluetooth data packet can be transmitted within each 625 msec hop slot.2.Some Specifications • Uses unlicensed 2.BlueTooth. ISA Wireless Security. P. Fuhr 74 .402 .
Fuhr 75 .Potential Bluetooth Markets ISA Wireless Security. P.
Bluetooth Market Forecast Nov‘03: 100M Bluetooth compliant devices worldwide ISA Wireless Security. P. Fuhr 76 .
Bluetooth Protocol Stack
• Adopted Protocols – PPP(Point-To-Point Protocol) – TCP/UDP/IP – OBEX-Session Protocol for IrDA(Infrared Data Association) – Contents Fromat(e.g. vCard, vCalendar) – WAP-Wireless Application Protocol
ISA Wireless Security, P. Fuhr
• Supports Unidirectional or Mutual Encryption based on a Secret Link key Shared Between Two Devices • Security Defined In 3 modes: – Mode1- No Security – Mode 2 - Service Level Security: Not Established Before Channel is Established at L2CAP – Mode 3 - Link Level Security: Device Initiates Security Before LMP Link is Setup
• Devices and Services can be Set for Different Levels of Security – Two Trust Levels are Set for Devices • Trusted Device: Fixed Relationship and Unrestricted Access to All Services • Untrusted: No Permanent relationship and Restricted Services
ISA Wireless Security, P. Fuhr 78
• Devices and Services can be Set for Different Levels of Security – Two Trust Levels are Set for Devices • Trusted Device: Fixed Relationship and Unrestricted Access to All Services • Untrusted: No Permanent relationship and Restricted Services
ISA Wireless Security, P. Fuhr
Bluetooth Security • 3 Levels of Service Access – Require Authorization and Authenication – Require Authentication Only – Default Security for Legacy Applications ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 80 . P.
P.But is this Wireless Link Secure? Newsflash: Jan 2001: Norwegian “hackers” crack a Bluetooth transmission ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 81 .
P. Fuhr 82 .Analysis of a BlueTooth Transmission High overhead? ISA Wireless Security.
Fuhr 83 . P.4/Zigbee? ISA Wireless Security.802.15.
IEEE 802.1 (Bluetooth) ISA Wireless Security.1 • Supports multiple network topologies including Star.4 IEEE 802.4 868/915 MHz PHY 2400 MHz PHY 802. Data Link Controller (DLC) IEEE 802.4 MAC versus 131 primitives for IEEE 802. guaranteed time slot management.2 beacon management. channel access Networking App Layer (NWK) mechanism.15.15. frame delivery. channel scan IEEE 802.15.4 LLC LLC. P.15.15. Type I • Low complexity: 26 primitives IEEE 802. Cluster Tree and • Features of the MAC: Mesh ZigBee Application Framework Association/dissociation. ACK.15. Fuhr 84 . frame validation.4 standard • Includes layers up to and including Link Layer Control – LLC is standardized in 802.
Fuhr 85 . 40 or 250 kbps • Channels – 1 channel in the 868MHz band – 10 channels in the 915MHz band – 16 channels in the 2.15.11b DSSS – 802.15. P.4GHz/250kbps) • Coexistence w/ – 802.PHY overview • Speed – 20.3 DSSS ISA Wireless Security.1 FHSS – 802.4GHz band • Modulation – BPSK (868MHz/20kbs) – BPSK (915MHz/40kbps) – O-QPSK (2.
Fuhr 86 . P.MAC overview • Security support • Power consumption consideration • Dynamic channel selection • Network topology – Star topology – p2p topology – cluster-tree network topology ISA Wireless Security.
Fuhr 87 . P.Device classification • Full Function Device (FFD) – Any topology – Can talk to RFDs or other FFDs – Operate in three modes • PAN coordinator • Coordinator • Device. • Reduced Function Device (RFD) – Limited to star topology – Can only talk to an FFD (coordinator) – Cannot become a coordinator – Unnecessary to send large amounts of data – Extremely simple – Can be implemented using minimal resources and memory capacity ISA Wireless Security.
Transmission management • Acknowledgement –No ACK –ACK –Retransmission –Duplicate detection • Indirect transmission ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 88 . P.
Security • Unsecured mode • ACL mode – Access control • Secured mode – Access control – Data encryption – Frame integrity –Sequential freshness ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 89 . P.
Scalable Security • Assume the attacker can deploy own nodes (can create a ―ring‖ at some distance from controller)[Wisenet 2003] • Enemy nodes ―mimick‖ the mesh nodes. P. Fuhr 90 . they ACK the ―health inquiry‖ as if everything was OK – but they do not forward to the rest of the net • The rest of the network is virtually cut off from inspection by controller • Need secure key and a random seed that changes at each round ISA Wireless Security.
5? 1xRTT? SAT? CDPD? Others? No time this morning! ISA Wireless Security. P.What About: 1451. Fuhr 91 .
Security? Who needs it? 2. How is security achieved in a wired channel? 3. others…) 5. Spectrum. modulation. encryption. The Situation for Wireless (its RF in an industrial setting. An Integrated Solution 6. P.Outline: 1. Bluetooth. Security within various Wireless Delivery Schemes (cellular.15. WiFi. 802. The Big Review ISA Wireless Security. spatial…) 4. Fuhr 92 .4.
ISA Wireless Security.There are SO many technical questions: such as… Integrated Industrial Networks? If the sensor network is to integrate into an industrial setting. Fuhr 93 . P. then you should be cognizant of the Industrial Networking arena.
P. Fuhr . Ethernet acts as the company's intranet backbone. or fieldbus. An industrial network.Industrial Device Network Topology • Typically. three layers of networking make up enterprisewide networks. and it's linked to controllers or industrial PCs. links sensors and smart devices. A gateway (not uncommon in a large system with lots of devices) links devices that have only RS-232 or RS485 ports to the fieldbus system. 94 ISA Wireless Security. which supply strategic data to the enterprise.
Fuhr . 95 ISA Wireless Security. Industrial Device Networks • Obviously the complexity of the network increases as the functionality is increased. P.• General characteristics for industrial device networks have arisen.
Classification of Industrial Networks • Three logical groupings of instrumentation networks used in an industrial setting. • There are over 100 different proprietary networks in the field. ISA Wireless Security. P. Fuhr 96 .
blocking legitimate maintenance and forcing process shutdown. Plant Highway Disgruntled Employee PLC PLC PLC PLC Steam Plant Paper Plant * Source: BCIT Industrial Security Incident Database (ISID) ISA Wireless Security.Inside Security Incident • Employee attacks PLC in another plant area over PLC highway. • Password changed to obscenity. P. Fuhr 97 .
Fuhr Cost + 98 . RS485 etc. Seriplex.Network Positioning + Data Ethernet TCP/IP ControlNet Foundation Fieldbus H2 Profibus-FMS Profibus-DP Data Highway+ Interbus-S Modbus Plus Remote I/O DeviceNet Other CAN SDS Fieldbus H1 Profibus-PA Modbus HART + + Functionality Complexity - ASi. P. - ISA Wireless Security. Hardwiring.
• Myth #3: Our IT department understands process control issues and security.Too Focused on Internet Issues? • Myth #1: Our SCADA/PLC/DCS is safe if we don‘t connect to the Internet. Fuhr 99 . • Myth #2: Our Internet firewall will protect our control systems. P. ISA Wireless Security.
Fuhr 802.Is Industrial Comm Security Too Focused on Internet Issues? Internet Remote Engineering Firewall Enterprise Resource Planning Manufacturing Logistics Production Planning Enterprise Network Production Networks Ethernet Programming Stations SCAD A Control Network PLC Modem Process Historian WarDialing Attack PLC Handheld Operator Terminal ISA Wireless Security. Windsor. CT. P. 2002 100 .11 WLAN Field Devices OEM Source (used by permission): Interface Technologies.
Security? Who needs it? 2. How is security achieved in a wired channel? 3. Fuhr 101 . The Big Review ISA Wireless Security. WiFi. The Situation for Wireless (its RF in an industrial setting. An Integrated Solution 6. spatial…) 4. Security within various Wireless Delivery Schemes (cellular. encryption. Bluetooth. modulation. P. 802. others…) 5. Spectrum.Outline: 1.15.4.
Bit Rate vs. Quality of Service How Many Bits are Needed? The more bits you xmit. P. Fuhr 102 . the more power you consume! ISA Wireless Security.
Quality of Service Is Coding Really Necessary? ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 103 .Coding vs. P.
Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum ISA Wireless Security. P. Fuhr 104 .
Fuhr Medium Low Long High Medium Lowest . Range RF Power Battery life longest Short short Number s In Area High Medium High 105 DSSS FHSS UWB ISA Wireless Security.Comparing Wireless Tech. P.
8GHz 900MHz 5.4GHz 5. P.8GHz Power Harvesting NA NA yes NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA Embedded Intelligence Diversity NA yes NA NA yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes NA yes NA yes NA NA NA NA FEC yes NA yes NA NA NA yes NA yes NA NA ISA Wireless Security.8GHz 900MHz NA 900MHz 5.Technology Beats Marketing in Performance! Technology versus Attributes Summary Chart Technology Low Mobile Power Ad Hoc Designs Networks NA yes NA NA yes NA yes yes NA NA yes NA NA NA NA yes NA yes yes NA yes NA DSSS FHSS UWB Attribute Long Range NA Plug-and-Play DSSS Long Battery life FHSS Low RFI risk DSSS Self Locating DSSS Secure UWB High throughput UWB non line-of-sight UWB robust connections DSSS low cost FHSS small size FHSS CDMA TDMA FDMA NA CDMA FDMA NA CDMA CDMA NA NA CDMA FDMA TDMA BPSK Open QPSK Standards M-ary NA NA yes NA NA M-ary NA NA NA NA NA NA NA M-ary NA NA NA BPSK yes BPSK NA BPSK 900MHz 2.8GHz 5. Fuhr 106 .8GHz 5.8GHz 900MHz 5.8GHz 5.
P.Statistics on Types of Attacks Denial of Service Laptop Theft Active Wiretap Telecom Fraud Unauthorized Insider Access Virus Finacial Fraud Insider Abuse of Net Access System Penetration Telecom Evesdropping Sabotage Theft of Propriety Info 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 % of Respondents *Source: “2002 CSI/FBI Computer Crime and Security Survey” Computer Security Institute .www. Fuhr 107 .com/losses.gocsi. ISA Wireless Security.
Fuhr 108 . Optimal Level of Security at Minimum Cost Cost ($) Cost of Security Breaches Cost of Security Countermeasures Security Level ISA Wireless Security. P. Cost • Risk reduction is balanced against the cost of security counter measures to mitigate the risk.Optimization of Security vs.
Fuhr 109 . environmental damage.” • Security Definition: “Risk is an expression of the likelihood that a defined threat will exploit a specific vulnerability of a particular attractive target or combination of targets to cause a given set of consequences.” *Source: CSPP Guidelines For Analyzing And Managing The Security Vulnerabilities Of Fixed Chemical Sites ISA Wireless Security. P. Risk in Security • Safety Definition: “Risk is a measure of human injury.Risk in Safety vs. or economic loss in terms of both the incident likelihood and the magnitude of the loss or injury.
• The internal router blocks all traffic except to the proxy server. Internet External Router Internal Router ISA Wireless Security. source routing. P.g.Firewall Architectures • The external router blocks attempts to use the underlying IP layer to break security (e. IP spoofing. • The proxy firewall handles potential security holes in the higher layer protocols. packet fragments. Fuhr 110 . etc) and forces all traffic to the proxy.
Fuhr 111 .There‘s lot of ―Wireless‖ • From cellphones to PDAs to WiFi to Satellite-based ISA Wireless Security. P.
Wireless LAN Standards ISA Wireless Security. P. Fuhr 112 .
11e – 802.16 – Frequency Hopping/DSSS 54Mbps / HyperLAN (1999) 11Mbps Quality of Service Point 2 Point Roaming (2003) 54Mbps European Inspired Changes (Q2. P.11f – 802.11g – 802.11i – 802.11b – 802.11h – 802.2004) Port Based Network Access Personal Area Network (WPAN) Wireless Metropolitan Area Network (WMAN) 113 ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr .1x – 802.Existing/Developing IEEE 802.11a – 802.2004) New Encryption Protocols (Q2.15 – 802.11802.11 Standards • • • • • • • • • • • 802.
Wireless Backbone for Inflight “Entertainment” On-Board Network Integration PicoCell BTS PicoCell BTS Noise Floor Lifter 6 MCU GSM SERVER SDU ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr …and we haven’t even touched on RFID! 114 . P.
There‘s lot of ―Wireless‖ • And it all needs to feel more Secure! ISA Wireless Security. P. Fuhr 115 .
P.For a real review of networking security… • Take Eric Byrnes ISA course IC32C… ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 116 .
P. … ISA Wireless Security.11 analog cloning.15. Fuhr 2003 WPA Future: ??? 117 .11. 802.: 3GPP.11i 2000 Future: 3rd gen. WEP 2000 digital: TDMA.4.BGW] 2001 2002 Proprietary systems 2002 2003 1451. scanners fraud pervasive & costly wireless networks 1999 802.Will History Repeat? Cellular networks 1980 analog cellphones: AMPS wireless security: not just 802. TinyOS Future: 802. GSM 1990 TDMA eavesdropping [Bar] sensor networks WEP broken [BGW] WEP badly broken [FMS] attacks pervasive more TDMA flaws [WSK] GSM cloneable [BGW] GSM eavesdropping [BSW.
Fuhr 118 .PATRIOT Act • PATRIOT (Provide Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism) • Legally classifies many hacking attacks as acts of terrorism ISA Wireless Security. P.
at least PLEASE do this for your WiFi System! • Conduct site survey • • • • WLAN Security Countermeasures Identify areas of signal strength and weakness Do a “walkaround” with NetStumbler Document and shut down rogue access points Document and shut down unauthorized wireless NICs • AND TURN ON SOME LEVEL OF THE PROVIDED PROTECTION! ISA Wireless Security. P. Fuhr 119 .So… If Nothing else.
k. Fuhr 120 . So if your wireless network has primepower (a. P.a. But if you’re going off a battery then it’s a tradeoff of security versus Power Consumption You Choose that one! ISA Wireless Security.Oh… And don’t forget that as you layer in all of these wacky encryption schemes and CDMA and DSSS and…and… that it takes some joules to actually implement this. AC) you’re ok.
And they should both be secure! ISA Wireless Security..... HoneyBee with RFID Two potential forms of wireless sensor networks.. BumbleBee with RF xcvr .. Fuhr 121 .and in the end....or. P.
spatial…) 4. encryption. Glossary and References ISA Wireless Security. others…) 5.4. An Integrated Solution 6. Spectrum. WiFi. Security? Who needs it? 2. The Situation for Wireless (its RF in an industrial setting. Security within various Wireless Delivery Schemes (cellular.Outline: 1. P. 802. How is security achieved in a wired channel? 3. The Big Review 7. Bluetooth. modulation.15. Fuhr 122 .
10BASE-T: IEEE 802.3 standard for a twisted-pair Ethernet network. 10 Mbps transmission rate over baseband using unshielded, twistedpair cable. 802.11: The IEEE 802.11 standard defines both frequency hopping and direct sequence spread spectrum solutions for use in the 2.4-2.5 MHz ISM (Industrial, Scientific, Medical) band. 802.11a: The Global System for Mobile Communications standard for worldwide wireless communications on wide area networks (WANs). 802.11b: The portion of the 802.11 specification that defines the 11 Mbps data rate. A Access Point: Provides a bridge between Ethernet wired LANs and the wireless network. Access points are the connectivity point between Ethernet wired networks and devices (laptops, hand-held computers, point-of-sale terminals) equipped with a wireless LAN adapter card. Analog phone: Comes from the word "analogous," which means similar to. In telephone transmission, the signal being transmitted from the phone—voice, video or image—is analogous to the original signal. Antenna-Directional: Transmits and receives radio waves off the front of the antenna. The power behind and to the sides of the antenna is reduced. The coverage area is oval with the antenna at one of the narrow ends. Typical directional antenna beam width angles are from 90° (somewhat directional) to as little as 20°(very directional). A directional antenna directs power to concentrate the coverage pattern in a particular direction. The antenna direction is specified by the angle of the coverage pattern called the beam width. Antenna-Omni-directional: Transmits and receives radio waves in all directions. The coverage area is circular with the antenna at the center. Omni-directional antennas are also referred to as whip or low-profile antennas. Association: The process of determining the viability of the wireless connection and establishing a wireless network's root and designated access points. A mobile unit associates with its wireless network as soon as it is powered on or moves into range. ATM: Asynchronous Transfer Mode. A type of high-speed wide area network.
ISA Wireless Security, P. Fuhr
B Backbone: A network that interconnects other networks, employing high-speed transmission paths and often spanning a large geographic area. Bandwidth: The range of frequencies, expressed in hertz (Hz), that can pass over a given transmission channel. The bandwidth determines the rate at which information can be transmitted through the circuit. Bandwidth Management: Functionality that allocates and manages RF traffic by preventing unwanted frames from being processed by the access point. BC/MC: Broadcast frames; Multicast frames Beacon: A uniframe system packet broadcast by the AP to keep the network synchronized. A beacon Includes the Net_ID (ESSID), the AP address, the Broadcast destination addresses, a time stamp, a DTIM (Delivery Traffic Indicator Maps) and the TIM (Traffic Indicator Message). BFA Antenna Connector: Miniature coaxial antenna connector manufactured by MuRata Manufacturing Corporation. Bluetooth: See Wireless Personal Area Networks. Bridge: A device that connects two LANs of the same or dissimilar types. It operates at the Data Link Layer, as opposed to routers. The bridge provides fast connection of two collocated LAN segments that appear as one logical network through the bridge. Buffer: A segment of computer memory used to hold data while it is being processed.
ISA Wireless Security, P. Fuhr
CAM: Continuously Aware Mode: Mode in which the adapter is instructed to continually check for network activity. Card and Socket Services: Packages that work with the host computer operating system, enabling the Wireless LAN adapter to interface with host computer configuration and power management functions. Cellular Phone: Low-powered, duplex, radio/telephone that operates between 800 and 900 MHz, using multiple transceiver sites linked to a central computer for coordination. The sites, or "cells," cover a range of one to six or more miles in each direction. Centrex: Business telephone service offered by a local telephone company from a local telephone company office. Centrex is basically a single line phone system leased to businesses as a substitute for a business that is buying or leasing its own on-premises phone system or PBX. CDMA and TDMA: The Code Division Multiple Access and Time Division Multiple Access standard for wireless communications on wide area networks (WANs) in North America. Circuit switching: The process of setting up and keeping a circuit open between two or more users so that users have exclusive and full use of the circuit until the connection is released. Client: A computer that accesses the resources of a server. Client/Server: A network system design in which a processor or computer designated as a server (such as a file server or database server) provides services to other client processors or computers. CODEC: Coder-Decoder. Audio compression/decompression algorithm that is designed to offer excellent audio performance. Converts voice signals from their analog form to digital signals acceptable to modern digital PBXs and digital transmission systems. It then converts those digital signals back to analog so that you may hear and understand what the other person is saying. Computer Telephony Integration: Technology that integrates computer intelligence with making, receiving, and managing telephone calls. Computer telephony integrates messaging, real-time connectivity, and transaction processing and information access.
ISA Wireless Security, P. Fuhr
Diversity Reception: The use of two antennas attached to a single access point to improve radio reception. Direct Inward Dialing: DID. which then completes the call. including a wide variety of dumb terminals or terminals without embedded intelligence in the form of programmed logic. The signal being transmitted in a digital phone system is the same as the signal being transmitted in an analog phone system. Alternatively.4GHz band. Desktop Conferencing: A telecommunications facility or service on a PC that permits callers from several diverse locations to be connected together for a conference call. Fuhr 126 . Decryption: Decryption is the decoding and unscrambling of received encrypted data. the conversion from analog-to-digital can occur in a digital phone. Northern Telecom. Mitel. Compared with frequency hopping. wider range and is upgradable in the 2. Direct-Sequence (DS) Spread Spectrum: Direct sequence transmits data by generating a redundant bit pattern for each bit of information sent.Glossary D Data Terminal: Computer transmit and receive equipment. ISA Wireless Security. while the primary is used for both transmitting and receiving. The ability for a caller outside a company to call an internal extension without having to pass through an operator or attendant. The system can consist of a proprietary PBX system that converts voice signals from their analog form to digital signals. P. such as AT&T. Commonly referred to as a "chip" or "chipping code. In large PBX systems. Most data terminals provide a user interface to a more capable host computer. Driver: A program routine that links a peripheral device. Digital Phone System: Proprietary phone system provided by a vendor. and so on. The same device. usually performs both encryption and decryption. to the computer system. such as a mobile unit's radio card. the dialed digits are passed from the PSTN to the PBX. The second antenna is used only for receiving radio signals. host computer or front-end processor. direct sequence has higher throughput." this bit pattern numbers 10 chips to one per bit of information. such as a mainframe or midrange computer. and then converts those digital signals back to analog.
dBi: Antenna gain. is credited in name only for inventing frequency hopping during World War II. with 1 Gbps speeds coming soon. there has also been a greater selection of WLAN products from which to chose. P. Frequency hopping technology is recognized as superior to direct sequence in terms of echo resistance. dBic: Antenna gain. FTP (File Transfer Protocol): A common Internet protocol used for transferring files from a server to the Internet user. Fragmentation Threshold: The maximum size for directed data packets transmitted over the radio. The receiving station reassembles the transmitted fragments. expressed in decibels referenced to a theoretical isotropic radiator. Gain. communications protocols. expressed in decibels referenced to a half wave dipole. interference immunity. Gatekeepers map LAN aliases to IP addresses and provide address lookups when needed. terminals. the actress. One Gigahertz (GHz) is one billion Hertz. Gateways bridge H. printers. before the information is transmitted over a network.45 GHz. Frequency Hopping (FH) Spread Spectrum: Hedy Lamarr.5 hops per channel per second is required in the United States. Fuhr 127 . Gain.Element-level Management: Level of technologies aimed at small or medium-sized businesses. ISA Wireless Security. GHz: International unit for measuring frequency is Hertz (Hz). cost and ease-of-installation. Glossary Encryption: Entails scrambling and coding information. It uses TCP/IP commands. and so on.323 compliant terminals are not needed. There are 79 channels in a 2. frequency hopping transmits using a narrowband carrier that changes frequency in a given pattern. expressed in decibels referenced to a theoretical isotropic radiator that is circularly polarized. Ethernet: A local area network used for connecting computers. Filtering: Prevents user-defined frames from being processed by the access point. dBi: Antenna gain.323 conferences to other networks. To date. Larger frames fragment into several packets this size or smaller before transmission over the radio. Gateways are not required if connections to other networks or non-H. workstations. within the same building or campus. Ethernet operates over twisted wire and over coaxial cable at speeds up to 100 Mbps. servers. Frame Mode: A communications protocol supported by the OEM Modules. As its label suggests. Gain. which is equivalent to the older unit of cycles per second. The frame protocol implements asynchronous serial Point-to-Point (PPP) frames similar to those used by serial Internet protocols. Microwave ovens typically operate at 2.4GHz ISM band. and multimedia formats. typically with mathematical formulas called algorithms. Gatekeeper: Software that performs two important functions to maintain the robustness of the network: address translation and bandwidth management.323 conference. A minimum hop rate of 2. GSM: The Global System for Mobile Communications standard for worldwide wireless communications on wide area networks (WANs). each channel occupying 1MHz of bandwidth. Gateway: Optional element in an H.
323 and other international standards. The Internet is a virtual network based on packet switching technology. Enabled by the IEEE 802. speaker. bypassing the traditional PSTN and saving money in the process. The Internet protocol suite is often referred to as TCP/IP because IP is one of the two fundamental protocols. The most recent band approved by the FCC for WLANs was the medical band in January 1997. The voice processing acts as a front-end to appropriate databases that reside on general purpose computers. P. airline reservation systems. The participants on the Internet and its topology change on a daily basis. ISM Band: ISM bands--instrumental (902-928MHz). an intranet is a private Internet reserved for use by people who have been given the authority and passwords necessary to use that network. multimedia management. Jitter: Noise on a communications line which is based on phase hits. causing potential phase distortions and bit errors.725-5. Handheld PC (HPC): The term adopted by Microsoft and its supporters to describe handheld computers employing Microsoft's Windows CE operating system.4-2. often referred to as the Information Superhighway. science (2. Intranet: A private network that uses Internet software and Internet standards. from different vendors.best-effort packet delivery service.. Samples of Internet commerce applications include electronic banking. International Roaming: Ability to use one adapter worldwide. Interoperability: The ability of equipment or software to operate properly in a mixed environment of hardware and software. and modem. DTMF (touch tone) input of a Personal Identification Number can be required for access or more unusual and expensive techniques such as voice recognition and voice print matching. IP (Internet Protocol): The Internet standard protocol that defines the Internet datagram as the unit of information passed across the Internet.4835GHz).850GHz)--are the radio frequency bands allocated by the FCC for unlicensed continuous operations for up to 1W. Internet Phone: Device used to transmit voice over the Internet. and medical (5. Provides the basis of the Internet connection-less. and bandwidth management for point-to-point and multi-point conferences. The most popular standard currently in use. ISA Wireless Security. In essence. Fuhr 128 . Internet: World's largest network.Glossary H.11 open standard. Standards body that defined H. Interactive Voice Response: System used to access a database access application using a telephone. Emerging network technology offered by local phone companies that is designed for digital communications.323: An umbrella standard from the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) that addresses call control. ITU: International Telecommunications Union. and voice processing systems. and Internet malls. ISDN: Integrated Services Digital Network. An Internet phone can be a small phone (such as the NetVision Phone) or a multimedia PC with a microphone. as well as interfaces between LANs and other networks. Internet Commerce: Electronic business transactions that occur over the Internet. For instance. computer telephony.
bar-code scanner. typically around 50 telephones. Microcell: A bounded physical space in which a number of wireless devices can communicate. the WLAN adapter connects to an access point (AP) or another WLAN installed system. PC Card and PCI adapter. Mobile units appear as network nodes to other devices. P. Because it is possible to have overlapping cells as well as isolated cells. Multipath: The signal variation caused when radio signals take multiple paths from transmitter to receiver. and other Mobile Unit Mode: In this mode. consequently. ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 129 . MD5 Encryption: An authentication methodology when MU is in foreign subnet. Key phone systems are most often found in relatively small business environments. Data is received from the network connection and sent out over the serial port. Layer: A protocol that interacts with other protocols as part of an overall transmission system. the boundaries of the cell are established by some rule or convention. Mobile Unit (MU): May be a Symbol Spectrum24 terminal. MIB (Management Information Base): An SNMP structure that describes the specific device being monitored by the remote-monitoring program. Modulation: Any of several techniques for combining user information with a transmitter's carrier signal. Mobile IP: The ability of the mobile unit to communicate with the other host using only its home IP address. Multipath Fading: A type of fading caused by signals taking different paths from the transmitter to the receiver and. Modems are used to send digital data signals over the analog PSTN. Key Telephone System: A system in which the telephone has multiple buttons permitting the user to directly select central office phone lines and intercom lines. as defined by the IEEE. after changing its point of attachment to the Internet and intranet. Modem: Equipment that converts digital signals to analog signals and vice versa. allowing the device to roam freely between AP cells in the network. third-party device.Glossary Kerberos: A widely deployed security protocol that was developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to authenticate users and clients in a wired network environment and to securely distribute encryption keys. this sublayer contains protocols for gaining orderly access to cable or wireless media. MAC (Media Access Control): Part of the Data Link Layer. interfering with each other. LPD (Line Printer Daemon): A TCP-based protocol typically used between a Unix server and a printer driver. MMCX Antenna Connector: Miniature coaxial antenna connector in use by several major wireless vendors.
it notifies the AP of its activity status. Point-of-Sale Device: A special type of equipment that is used to collect and store retail sales data.8 GHz range.. Pocket PC: The term adopted by Microsoft and its supporters to describe handheld computers employing Microsoft's Pocket PC operating system. In a packet switched network. requires less user interaction and minimizes hardware conflicts. This device may be connected to a bar code reader and it may query a central computer for the current price of that item. P. PSP (Power Save Polling): stations power off their radios for long periods. thus conserving power. and are digital. and access to the public switched telephone network. higher-frequency competitive technology to cellular. and airtime is cheaper. the PSTN is provided by AT&T. PCS (Personal Communications Service): A new. Packet switching is a data switching technique only. no circuit is left open on a dedicated basis. Small version of the phone company's larger central switching office. Plug and Play: A feature that allows a computer to recognize the PCI adapter and configure the hardware interrupt. ISA Wireless Security. PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network): Refers to the worldwide voice telephone network accessible to all those with telephones and access privileges. Fuhr 130 . PBX Phone System: Private Branch eXchange. The AP responds by buffering packets received for the MU. In the U. and device recognition addresses.Node: A network junction such as a switch or a routing center. The cells are smaller and closer together.S. Ping: A troubleshooting TCP/IP application that sends out a test message to a network device to measure the response time. memory. An alternative to a PBX is to subscribe to a local telephone company's Centrex service. lower powered. POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service): The basic service supplying standard single line telephones. The idea with PCS is that the phone are cheaper.5 to 1. PCS operates in the 1. PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) PC Card: A credit card-size device used in laptop computers and available as removable network adapters. Peer-to-peer Network: A network design in which each computer shares and uses devices on an equal basis. Glossary Packet Switching: Refers to sending data in packets through a network to some remote location. Power Management: Algorithms that allow the adapter to sleep between checking for network activity. All frames are sent to the wireless network verbatim--should be used with care as improperly formatted data can go through with undesirable consequences. PLD (Data Link Protocol): A raw packet protocol based on the Ethernet frame format. telephone lines. Whereas cellular typically operates in the 800900 MHz range. have less range. When a mobile unit in PSP mode associates with an access point.
in a new or expanding installation. Site Survey: Physical environment survey to determine the placement of access points and antennas. QoS refers to things like: Is the call easy to hear? Is it clear? Is it loud enough? RBOC (Regional Bell Operating Company): One of the seven Bell operating companies set up after the divestiture of AT&T. Two types of spread spectrum exist: direct sequence and frequency hopping. Roaming usually occurs in infrastructure networks built around multiple access points. ISA Wireless Security. Stream Mode: A communications protocol supported only by the Telnet and TCP protocols. Spread Spectrum: A transmission technique developed by the U. Router: The main device in any modern network that routes data blocks from source to destination using routing tables and determining the best path dynamically.Glossary QoS (Quality of Service): Measure of the telephone service quality provided to a subscriber. as well as the number of devices necessary to provide optimal coverage. military in World War II to provide secure voice communications. Interference from narrowband signals is also minimized to background noise when it is de-spread by the receiver. the signal sounds like background noise. De-spreading the signal is impossible for those not aware of the spreading parameters. spread spectrum is the most commonly used WLAN technology today. Defines the method for obtaining information about network operating characteristics. The MU continues communicating with that access point until it needs to switch cells or roam. Repeater: A device used to extend cabling distances by regenerating signals. change parameters for routers and gateways. It provides security by "spreading" the signal over a range of frequencies. It functions as an addressable entity on the LAN and is the basic building block of the Internet. P. The statistics enable a mobile unit to reassociate by synchronizing its frequency to the AP. to them. Roaming: Movement of a wireless node between two microcells. SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol): The network management protocol of choice for TCP/IP based intranets. Stream mode transfers serial characters as they are received by encapsulating them in a packet and sending them to the host. The signal is manipulated in the transmitter so that the bandwidth becomes wider than the actual information bandwidth. Fuhr 131 .S. Scanning: A periodic process where the mobile unit sends out probe messages on all frequencies defined by the country code. each of which own two or more Bell Operating Companies (BOCs).
T1 is the standard for digital transmission in the U.Glossary T1: A type of dedicated digital leased-line available from a public telephone provider with a capacity of 1. between computers with diverse hardware architectures. providing the mechanism for connection maintenance. TCP/IP is used in the industry to refer to the family of common Internet protocols. and time-outs. it can handle more voice channels. Terminal: An endpoint. flow control.S. or mobile unit. gateway.11b. Hong Kong. Telnet (Terminal Emulation Protocol): A protocol that uses the TCP/IP networking protocol as a reliable transport mechanism. P. retries. Token ring is the technique used by IBM and others. Only select wireless networking products possess this characteristic of IEEE802. and various operating systems. Wireless AP Support: Access Point functions as a bridge to connect two Ethernet LANs. and retrieves voice messages.544 Mbps. Video Conferencing: Video and audio communication between two or more people via a video CODEC (coder/decoder) at either end and linked by digital circuits. ISA Wireless Security. Fuhr 132 . Token Ring: A ring type of local area network (LAN) in which a supervisory frame. provides low overhead and fast response and is well suited for high-bandwidth applications. The two types of voice mail devices are those which are "stand alone" and those which offer some integration with the user's phone system. TCP/IP: Networking protocol that provides communication across interconnected networks. or token. TCP (Transport Communication Protocol): Controls the transfer of data from one client to one host. A T1 line can normally handle 24 voice conversations. stores. With more advanced digital voice encoding techniques. Canada. must be received by an attached terminal or workstation before that terminal or workstation can start transmitting. two-way communications with another terminal. Wi-Fi: A logo granted as the "seal of interoperability" by the Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance (WECA). and Japan. each one digitized at 64 Kbps. UDP (User Datagram Protocol): UDP/IP is a connection-less protocol that describes how messages reach application programs running in the destination machine. which provides for real-time. Considered extremely stable. Voice Mail System: Device or system that records.
a mobile computing device such as a notebook computer. WLANs transmit and receive data over electromagnetic waves. or the Internet. PDA. P. and in the office. and other hand-held devices to do business at home. WLANs must include NICs (adapters) and access points (in-building bridges). your corporate intranet. and database access as well as augmenting wired LANs. Over a short range. can receive and send information from a network. PC-to-hub. and for campus communications building-to-building (LAN-LAN) bridges. PDAs. e-mail. Bluetooth is ideal for mobile professionals who need to link notebook computers. ISA Wireless Security. peripheral sharing. Using the mobile phone as a modem.Glossary Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN): A wireless LAN is a data communications system providing wireless peer-to-peer (PC-to-PC. Wireless Wide Area Network (WWAN): Wide area networks utilize digital mobile phone systems to access data and information from any location in the range of a cell tower connected to a data-enabled network. PIMs. mobile phones. WLANs perform traditional network communications functions such as file transfer. or printer-to-hub) and point-to-point (LAN-to-LAN) connectivity within a building or campus. on the road. or a device with a stand-alone radio card. Fuhr 133 . In place of TP or coaxial wires or optical fiber as used in a conventional LAN. Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN): Personal area networks are based on a global specification called Bluetooth which uses radio frequency to transmit voice and data. this cable-replacement technology wirelessly and transparently synchronizes data across devices and creates access to networks and the Internet.
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P. Fuhr 136 .Questions? Comments? ISA Wireless Security.
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