WIND ENEGRY

• • • • Introduction Nature of Wind Energy and Power in the Wind Forces on the Blades and Trust on the Turbine Aerodynamics of Wind turbines Basic Components of WECS Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines Vertical Axis Wind Turbines Performance of Wind Turbines Environmental Impacts

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INTRODUCTION
Wind power

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Fastest growing renewable energy technology Propelling ships ,pumping water, irrigation, milling grains Clean, safe, pollution free Indirect solar electric technology –Wind power All renewable energy (except tidal and geothermal power), ultimately comes from the sun

• The earth receives 1.74 x 1017 watts of power (per hour) from the sun

• About one or 2 percent of this energy is converted to wind energy (which is about 50-100 times more than the energy converted to biomass by all plants on earth

Wind-Turbine Generators
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Functional similar to steam and gas turbines to generate electricity Wind energy conversion system (WECS) Aero generators (turbine/generator combination) Very small 0.5-1 KW Small 1-15 KW Medium 15-200 Large 250-1000 KW Very large 1000-6000 KW A largest wind generator built 800 kW unit operated in France Flexible 3 blades propeller - 35 m in diameter Produced rated power in a 60 km/hr wind with rotation speed of 47 rpm. Wind energy is one of America’s greatest natural resources. Netherland & Denmark Wind mill - NAL Bangalore, CSMCRI, Bhavnagar CAZRI, Jodhpur

Nature of Wind
• Wind results from air in motion arises from pressure gradient • Local winds are caused by two mechanism. Differential heating of land and water. Due to hills and mountains • 2% of all solar radiation falling on the face of the earth is converted to K.E. in the atmosphere. • 30% of K.E. occurs in the lowest 1000m of elevation. • Solar radiation heats the air near the equator and this low density heated air is buoyed up. • At the surface it is displayed by cooler more dense higher pressure air flowing from the poles • In the upper atmosphere near the equator the air thus tends to flow back toward the pole and away from the equator • The net resultant is a global convective circulation with surface winds from north to south in northern hemisphere

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• Wind energy power depends on 1.Energy and power in the wind • Conversion of the KE of the wind into mechanical energy that can be utilized to perform useful work or to generate electricity • When the wind blows against the vanes or blades. Conversion efficiency of the rotor. Wind speed 2. Cross-sectional area of the windswept by the rotor 3. transmission system and generator . they rotate about the axis and the rotation motion that can be made to perform useful work .

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Wind machines intended for generating substantial amount of power should have large rotor and be located in the area of high wind speeds. .

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it is subjected to lift and drag forces D. drag forces – parallel to flow L. lift forces – perpendicular to flow Unlike the old-fashioned Dutch windmill design. and drag which acts parallel to the direction of wind flow.TURBINE AERODYNAMICS When fluids passes through an inclined streamlined body. modern turbines use more sophisticated principles to capture the wind's energy most effectively. . The two primary aerodynamic forces at work in wind-turbine rotors are lift which acts perpendicular to the direction of wind flow. which relied mostly on the wind's force to push the blades into motion.

LIFT & DRAG • • • • • • • • • Primary mechanisms for producing forces from wind Lift forces are perpendicular to the air flow.spinning a cylinder in air stream at high speed of rotation . Lift forces are produced by changing the velocity of the air stream flowing over either side of the lifting surface Due pressure drop. Magnus effect.change in velocity The pressure difference produces a forces that begins to act on the high and moves towards the low pressure side of the lifting surface which is called aerofoil. Good aerofoil has high lift /drag ratio Stalling phenomena – drag more than the lift. Drag forces act in the direction of flow.

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Basic components of a wind energy conversion system (WECS) Aero generator: Consist of • Wind turbine Or rotor • Wind mill head • Transmission and control • Supporting structure .

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electric towers: reinforced concrete tower pole tower shell tube tower Truss tower-widely adaptable. housing the rotor bearing Transmission: Normally blade rotates 40-50rpm but generator requires 1800rpm.• Rotors Horizontal axis rotor Vertical axis rotor Wind mill head: supports the rotor . low cost • • • • . Transmission increase the rotor speed to generator speed Generator: constant speed.analog circuit. microprocessor c)actuators-hydraulic . Controls: It has following components a)sensor –mechanical . electrical b)decision elements-relays . synchronous and permanent magnet types.

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Classification of Wind Turbine •horizontal axis machines vertical axis machines •size: small size up to 2kW)-farms Medium size(2-100kW)-residence Large size(100kW)-power grid •DC out put AC output •constant speed Variable speed .

Multi blade . • Aero generator: turbine and generator • Two types .E of wind motion to mechanical energy transmitted by the shaft and generator further converts it to electrical energy .horizontal axis type . a wind turbine converts the K.Wind energy collectors (aero generator) • A wind mill is a machine for wind energy conversion.vertical axis type • Horizontal axial machine-sub-classified into Single blade .

Horizontal axis using two aero dynamic blades Rotor drives a generator through step-up gear box. more than two blades are not recommended. Because of light cost of blade rotor. Components are mounted on a bed of tower. .

Horizontal Axis propelled type using single blade Long blade is mounted on rigid hub. It has induction generator and gear box to reduce rotor cost. lower gear box cost. Counters wt cost is less than a second blade Disadvantages Vibration produced due to aerodynamic torque Un conventional appearance Large blade root bending moment . Advantages of one blade rotor Lower blade with and cost. low cost counter weight is recommended for balancing.

low cost Horizontal axis wind mill Dutch type • Blade surface are made from an array of wooden slats. .Horizontal axis multiblade type • Blades are made from sheet metal or aluminum • Rotor has high strength to weight ratio • Good power coefficient high starting torque simplicity .

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The applications are in Electric power generator Pumping water . nylon or plastic are arranged as sail wings Horizontal axis types generally have better performance.Sail type The blade surface are made from cloth.

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. • The rotor is not subjected to continuous cyclic gravity load.Vertical –Axis machines Savonious or ‘S’ type rotor (low velocity wind) Darrious type rotor (high velocity wind) • Vertical axis machines are of simple design as compared to horizontal axis type. Advantages of vertical type • They will react to wind from any direction and therefore does not need yawing equipment to turn rotor into wind • It requires less structural support since the gear box and generator are located at the ground level .

Savonius rotor • Works like a cup anemometer • It requires low velocity winds • Two semi circular drums are mounted on a vertical axis on a vertical axis perpendicular to wind direction. Characteristics • Self starting • Low speed • Low efficiency .

• • • • • • Advantages Elimination expressive power transmission system Produce power effectively even at low wind speed 8km/hour Cost is lower It has simple structure Since generator . . easy access for maintenance Disadvantages It is not useful for tall installation.gearbox at ground level. because a long drive shaft problems.

Darrieus type machine • • • • • • • • • • It has two or three thin curved blades with aerofoil cross section and constant chord length both end of the blades attached to vertical shaft. Shaft torque is transmitted to generator for power generator Characteristics High speed High efficiency Potentially low capital cpst Advantages The rotor blades can accept the wind from any direction It eliminates yaw control requirement for its rotor to capture wind energy Disadvantages Efficiency is lower than conventional horizontal rotor Vibratory stresses are encountered which will affect the rotor life .

Performance of wind machines • • • • The parameter involve in estimation of performance : Power coefficient Tip speed ratio Solidity Power coefficient cp = power extracted by rotor/power available in the wind = Tip.speed ratio λ=blade speed/ free stream wind speed =ωR/Vi R is the tip radius ω is the angular velocity solidity γ=blade area / swept frontal area (face area) • • • • • .

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Environmental effects Environmental benefits of electricity generation by wind energy:The generation of electricity by wind turbine does not involve the release of • Carbon dioxide (or) pollutants • Acid rain • smog • radioactive contaminations It does not require consumption of water supply Environmental impacts of wind turbines: Possible impacts are • Noise • Electromagnetic interference Mechanical noise due to mechanical or electrical equipment (gear box. generator) Aerodynamic noise due to interaction of air flow with the blades .

This interference depends mainly on turbine blade materials and surface shape of tower. .Electromagnetic Interference • When the turbine is positioned between the transmitter and receiver. some of the electromagnetic radiation can be received signal to be distorted significantly .

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87W/m2 .226kg/m3 from given p R and T.226x153 =1226W/m2 = 2068.0132x105 287 x(273  15) a)total power in the wind stream Ptot=ρAVi3/2 power density =Ptot/A =ρVi3/2 =1.Problem 1 Wind at 1 standard atmospheric pressure and 15 degree C has velocity of 15 m/sec calculate: a) The total power density in the wind stream b) The maximum attainable power density c) A reasonable obtained power density d) The total power e) The torque and axial trust The turbine has diameter of 120m . ρ = p RT 1. speed 40 rpm at maximum efficiency Air density ρ=1.226x153/2 b)maximum Power density=Pmax/A =(8/27)ρVi3 =8/27x1.

17kN d) Total power P = power density x Area = 724x (π/4)D2 = 724x(π/4)x(120)2 =8184 kw e) Torque at maximum efficiency: Tmax = (2/27)(ρDVi3/N) =2/27x(1.max=π/9 ρD2Vi2 = π/9x1.226x120x153/(40/60)) =55. P/A = η(Ptot/A) = 0.226x120x153/(40/60)) =55.17kN Maximum axial thrust Fx.226x1202x152 =1385.87kN .c) assume η= 35% Power density.87 =724 w/m2 d) Total power P = power density x Area = 724x (π/4)D2 = 724x(π/4)x(120)2 =8184 kw e) Torque at maximum efficiency: Tmax = (2/27)(ρDVi3/N) =2/27x(1.35x2068.

92 = 0.19/overall = 231.19 watt Power required at rotor efficiency =231.253 .03 m3/hr of water through a head of 28 m when the wind speed is 3.Problem: A wind mill with multiblade lifts 3.3 m/s.65 watt P tot = ½ ρAVi3 = =1370.65/1370.03/3600)x9.81x28 =231. Assume transmission efficiency as 0.95x.70) =347.95 and pump efficiency as 0.19/(.70 Ideal power needed to pump the water P = ρQgH = 1000x(3. Calculate the power coefficient for a rotor diameter of 9 m.92 watt Power Coefficient = power required at rotor/ P tot = 347.

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