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Theories of Motivation

In the grasslands, somewhere on the African continent, success can be defined in terms of life and death, Survival is a strong motivator. Here’s a short story …

When the light comes in the Eastern sky and you sense that the sun will soon steal the comfort and security of the night, the gazelle starts to stir. He knows that if, during this day, he does not run faster than the fastest cheetah, he may be caught and then he will be killed.

Not far away, the cheetah stretches out this powerful muscles and thinks of the day ahead, He knows that if he does not run faster than the slowest gazelle, he will surely starve.
The moral of this story …

It doesn‟t matter whether you are a gazelle or a cheetah … …when the sun is up … … you had better be running. * .

Outline • • • • • • • • Skip over Needs Theories of Motivation Drives Learned Needs Process Theories of Motivation Responses to the Reward System Motivating Employees Through Reinforcement Goal Setting Workplace justice .

3. 2.Theories of Motivation 1. 6. What is motivation How do needs motivate people? Are there other ways to motivate people? Do equity and fairness matter? What role does reinforcement play in motivation? What are the ethics behind motivation theories? . 4. 5.

MARS Model of Behaviour Motivation Personality Emotions Perceptions Values Attitudes Stress Behaviour and Results Role perception Ability Situational factors .

" Curt Coffman and Gabriela Gonzalez-Molina. Warner Books. on your understanding of human psychology: how each individual employee connects with your company and how each individual employee connects with your customers. It depends. . quite simply.D. or organizational development.Its all about the people "The success of your organization doesn't depend on your understanding of economics. or marketing. 2002. Ph. in Follow This Path: How the World's Greatest Organizations Drive Growth by Unleashing Human Potential.

direction. and persistence of effort a person shows in reaching a goal: • Intensity: How hard a person tries • Direction: Where effort is channelled • Persistence: How long effort is maintained skip .What Is Motivation? • Motivation – The intensity.

seek responsibility. and can exercise self-direction and selfcontrol.Theory X and Theory Y • Theory X – Assumes that employees dislike work. • Theory Y – Assumes that employees like work. will attempt to avoid it. controlled. . or threatened with punishment if they are to perform. are creative. and must be coerced.

. due to such things as interest. challenge. and other tangible rewards. and personal satisfaction. bonuses.Motivators • Intrinsic Motivators – A person‟s internal desire to do something. • Extrinsic Motivators – Motivation that comes from outside the person and includes such things as pay.

when unsatisfied. Motivation-Hygiene Theory ERG Theory McClelland‟s Theory of Needs .Needs Theories of Motivation • Basic idea – Individuals have needs that. will result in motivation • • • • Maslow‟s Hierarchy of Needs Theory.

acceptance.Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs • Physiological – Includes hunger. sex. belongingness. and other bodily needs • Safety – Includes security and protection from physical and emotional harm • Social – Includes affection. thirst. shelter. and friendship .

autonomy. and external esteem factors such as status.Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs • Esteem – Includes internal esteem factors such as selfrespect. includes growth. achieving one‟s potential. and attention • Self-actualization – The drive to become what one is capable of becoming. and self-fulfillment . and achievement. recognition.

Exhibit 4-1 Selfactualization Esteem Social Safety Physiological .

Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory • Hygiene factors – the sources of dissatisfaction – Extrinsic factors (context of work) • • • • Company policy and administration Unhappy relationship with employee‟s supervisor Poor interpersonal relations with one‟s peers Poor working conditions .

Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory • Motivators – the sources of satisfaction – Intrinsic factors (content of work) • • • • • Achievement Recognition Challenging. varied. or interesting work Responsibility Advancement .

p. An exhibit from Frederick Herzberg. 90. all rights reserved. no. Copyright © 1987 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College. 1 (January 2003). . “One More Time: How Do You Motivate Employees?” Harvard Business Review 81.Comparison of Satisfiers and Dissatisfiers Source: Reprinted by permission of Harvard Business Review.

Exhibit 4-3 Contrasting Views of Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction Traditional view Dissatisfaction Satisfaction Herzberg's view Hygiene Factors Dissatisfaction No Dissatisfaction Motivators No Satisfaction Satisfaction .

• Herzberg did not really produce a theory of motivation. • The theory is inconsistent with previous research. • The reliability of Herzberg‟s methodology is questioned. .Criticisms of Motivation-Hygiene Theory • The procedure that Herzberg used is limited by its methodology. • No overall measure of satisfaction was used.

• Growth – Intrinsic desire for personal development. • Relatedness – Desire for maintaining important interpersonal relationships.Alderfer’s ERG Theory • Existence – Concerned with providing basic material existence requirements. .

to achieve in relation to a set of standards. to strive to succeed • Need for power – The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise • Need for affiliation – The desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships .McClelland’s Theory of Needs • Need for achievement – The drive to excel.

Relationship of Various Needs Theories Maslow Self-Actualization Alderfer Growth Herzberg Motivators McClelland Need for Achievement Need for Power Esteem Affiliation Security Existence Physiological Relatedness Hygiene Factors Need for Affiliation .

– Alderfer: More than one need can be important at the same time. the desire to satisfy a lower-level need increases. If a higher-order need is not being met. They will not lead to satisfaction.Summary: Hierarchy of Needs – Maslow: Argues that lower-order needs must be satisfied before one progresses to higher-order needs. or power. affiliation. . – Herzberg: Hygiene factors must be met if person is not to be dissatisfied. – McClelland: People vary in the types of needs they have. Motivators lead to satisfaction. Their motivation and how well they perform in a work situation are related to whether they have a need for achievement. however.

Summary: Impact of Theory – Maslow: Enjoys wide recognition among practising managers. feedback. since high achievers are more interested in how they do personally. – Alderfer: Seen as a more valid version of the need hierarchy. Most managers are familiar with it. and moderate risks. – Herzberg: The popularity of giving workers greater responsibility for planning and controlling their work can be attributed to his findings. . Tells us that achievers will be motivated by jobs that offer personal responsibility. Shows that more than one need may operate at the same time. – McClelland: Tells us that high need achievers do not necessarily make good managers.

Criticized for how data were collected and interpreted. In particular.Summary: Support and Criticism of Theory – Maslow: Research does not generally validate the theory. Good empirical support. – McClelland: Mixed empirical support. particularly on needs achievement. – Alderfer: Ignores situational variables. . there is little support for the hierarchical nature of needs. but theory is consistent with our knowledge of individual differences among people. – Herzberg: Not really a theory of motivation: Assumes a link between satisfaction and productivity that was not measured or demonstrated.

Four Drives Theory .

• Both holistic and humanistic.4 Drives Theory • • • • Reflect contemporary thinking Out of Harvard Business School Professors Lawrence and Nohria There are 4 innate and independent drives that we all have. .

by Paul R. Drive to Acquire • Need to take/keep objects and experiences • Basis of hierarchy and status • Need to form relationships and social commitments • Basis of social identity • Need to satisfy curiosity and resolve conflicting information • Basis of self-actualization • Need to protect ourselves • A reactive (not proactive) drive • Basis of fight or flight Drive to Bond Drive to Curiosity / Learn Drive to Defend Driven: How Human Nature Shapes Our Choices. 2001 .Four-Drive Theory. Lawrence and Nitin Nohria (Jossey Bass.

Features of Four Drives • Innate and hardwired -.everyone has them • Independent of each other (no hierarchy of drives) • Complete set -. . • Never drives are excluded from the model.

. Four drives determine which emotions are automatically tagged to incoming information 2. Social skill set determines how to translate drives into needs and effort. Drives generate independent and often competing emotions that demand our attention 3.How Four Drives Affect Needs 1.

personal values. and experience to translate competing drives into needs and effort .Four Drive Theory of Motivation • Mental skill set uses social norms.

Learned Needs Theory
• Some needs can be learned. • Need for achievement
– Desire for challenging and somewhat risky goals, feedback, recognition

• Need for affiliation
– Desire to seek approval, conform, and avoid conflict – Try to project a favourable self-image

• Need for power
– Desire to control one‟s environment – Personalized versus socialized power

Implications of Needs/Drives Theories

•Four drive theory • provide a balanced opportunity for employees to fulfill drives • employees continually seek fulfillment of drives • avoid having conditions support one drive over others •Maslow • allow employees to self-actualize • power of positive experiences •Offer employees a choice of rewards

Expectancy Theory of Motivation

• Look at the actual process of motivation • Share information from your readings about the expectancy theory.

Expectancy Theory (Vroom et al. 1964)
• The theory that individuals act depending on whether their effort will lead to good performance, whether good performance will be followed by a given outcome, and whether that outcome is attractive to them.

Expectancy Theory of Motivation
E-to-P Expectancy
P-to-O Expectancy

Outcomes & Valences

Outcome 1
+ or -



Outcome 2
+ or -

Outcome 3
+ or -

and Valance. • The motivational force for a behaviour. or task is a function of three distinct perceptions: Expectancy.Choosing to act • When deciding among behavioural options. The motivational force is the product of the three perceptions: MF = Expectancy x Instrumentality x Valence . individuals select the option with the greatest motivation forces (MF). Instrumentality. action.

Instrumentality probability: based on the perceived performance-reward relationship. Valence: refers to the value the individual personally places on the rewards. he or she will receive a greater reward.VIE …. It is the expectancy that one's effort will lead to the desired performance and is based on past experience. and the perceived difficulty of the performance goal. This is a function of his or her needs. self-confidence. goals. The instrumentality is the belief that if one does meet performance expectations. • Expectancy probability: based on the perceived effort-performance relationship. • • . and values.

Increasing E-to-P Expectancy • • • • • Train employees Select people with required competencies Provide role clarification / agree goals Provide sufficient resources Provide coaching and feedback .

Increasing P-to-O Expectancy • Measure performance accurately • Describe outcomes of good and poor performance • Explain how rewards are linked to past performance .

Increasing Outcome Valences • Ensure that rewards are valued • Individualize rewards • Minimize countervalent outcomes .

Discussion of Expectancy Theory • If it is in the organization‟s interest to put people first and allow them to fulfill all four drives. . then why don‟t managers simply do that? Use expectancy theory to explain the manager‟s behaviour.

.Expectancy Theory Discussion • Identify three activities you really enjoy and three activities you really dislike. analyze each of your answers to assess why some activities stimulate your effort while others don‟t. • Using the expectancy model.

result in higher performance than do easy goals.” • The specificity of the goal itself acts as an internal stimulus.Goal-Setting Theory • The theory that specific and difficult goals lead to higher performance. • Specific goals increase performance. when accepted. – Goals tell an employee what needs to be done and how much effort will need to be expended. . • Difficult goals. • Feedback leads to higher performance than does nonfeedback. – Specific hard goals produce a higher level of output than does the generalized goal of “do your best.

Goal Difficulty and Performance High Task Performance Area of Optimal Goal Difficulty Low Moderate Challenging Impossible Goal Difficulty .

Regulating effort Increasing persistence Encouraging the development of strategies and action plans T ask performance Source: Adapted from E. Locke and G. Locke. . A. NJ: Prentice Hall. . Reprinted by permission of Edwin A. P. Latham. A Theory of Goal Setting and Task Performance (Englewood Cliffs. .Locke’s Model of Goal Setting Directing attention Goals motivate by . 1980).

Management by Objectives • A program that encompasses: – – – – Specific goals Participative decision-making Explicit time period Performance feedback .

they should be SMART: – – – – – Specific Measurable Attainable Results Oriented Time bound .Goals Should Be SMART • For goals to be effective.

Characteristics of Effective Feedback Specific Credible Effective Feedback Relevant Sufficiently frequent Timely .

Multisource (360-degree) Feedback Supervisor Customer Project leader Co-worker Evaluated Employee Co-worker Subordinate Subordinate Subordinate .

less damaging • Social sources (supervisor. co-workers) – Better for „good news‟ feedback – Improves self-image and esteem .Preferred Feedback Sources • Depends on the situation • Nonsocial sources (gauges. printouts) – Better for goal progress – Considered more accurate.

what employee contributes (e.g.Elements of Equity Theory • Outcome/input ratio – inputs -.g.. skill) – outcomes -. pay) • Comparison other – person/people against whom we compare our ratio – not easily identifiable • Equity evaluation – compare outcome/input ratio with the comparison other ..what employee receives (e.

Equity Sensitivity • Benevolents – Tolerant of being underrewarded • Equity Sensitives – Want ratio to be equal to the comparison other • Entitleds – Prefer receiving proportionately more than others .

Organizational Justice Components Distribution Principles Distributive Justice Perceptions Interactional Justice Perceptions Procedural Justice Perceptions • Emotions • Attitudes • Behaviours Management Interface Structural Rules Social Rules .

Procedural Justice Structural Rules Voice Consistent Bias-Free Listens to all Knowledgeable Appealable .

Responses to the Reward System • • • • Equity Theory Fair Process and Treatment Cognitive Evaluation Theory Increasing Intrinsic Motivation .

overrewarded Person 2 . underrewarded Person 1s Perception Person 2 Person 1 Equity Person 2 Person 1 Inequity.Equity Theory Ratio of Output to Input Person 1 Inequity.

. but also with the relationship of this amount to what others receive. – Equity theory recognizes that individuals are concerned not only with the absolute amount of rewards for their efforts.Equity Theory • Main points: – Individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of others and then respond so as to eliminate any inequities.

Equity Comparisons • • • • Self-inside Self-outside Other-inside Other-outside .

Correcting Inequity Feelings Actions to correct inequity Example Reduce out inputs Increase our outcomes Increase other‟s inputs Reduce other‟s outputs Change our perceptions Change comparison other Leave the field Less organizational citizenship Ask for pay increase Ask coworker to work harder Ask boss to stop giving other preferred treatment Start thinking that other‟s perks aren‟t really so valuable Compare self to someone closer to your situation Quit job .

Equity Theory Propositions • When paid by time worked. overrewarded employees will produce fewer. . units than will equitably paid employees. but higher-quality. • When paid by number of units produced. over-rewarded employees will produce more than will equitably paid employees.

under-rewarded employees will produce less or poorer-quality output.Equity Theory Propositions • When paid by time worked. . • When paid by number of units produced. under-rewarded employees will produce a large number of low-quality units in comparison with equitably paid employees.

equity should also consider – Procedural justice .Fair Process and Treatment • Historically. equity theory focused on – Distributive justice • However.

.Fair Process and Treatment • Distributive Justice – Perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among individuals. • Interactional Justice – The quality of the interpersonal treatment received from a manager. • Procedural Justice – Perceived fairness of the process used to determine the distribution of rewards.

This suggests the need for recognizing individual differences. they have to value the rewards that they will receive for their effort.Discussion • Expectancy theory argues that for people to be motivated. Does this view contradict the principles of equity theory? Discuss. .

.Cognitive Evaluation Theory • The introduction of extrinsic rewards for work effort that was previously rewarded intrinsically will tend to decrease the overall level of a person‟s motivation.

Motivators • Intrinsic – A person‟s internal desire to do something. due to such things as interest. . such as pay. • Extrinsic – Motivation that comes from outside the person. bonuses. and personal satisfaction. challenge. and other tangible rewards.

Four Key Rewards to Increase Intrinsic Motivation 1.Sense of choice 2.Sense of progress Managers can act in ways that will build these intrinsic rewards for their employees. .Sense of meaningfulness 4.Sense of competence 3.

www. From Intrinsic Motivation at Work: Building Energy and Thomas.Building Blocks for Intrinsic Rewards Leading for Choice • Delegated authority • Trust in workers • Security (no punishment) for honest mistakes • A clear purpose • Information Leading for Meaningfulness • A noncynical climate • Clearly identified passions • An exciting vision • Relevant task purposes • Whole tasks Leading for Competence • Knowledge • Positive feedback • Skill recognition • Challenge • High. CA. All rights reserved. . San Francisco. non-comparative standards Leading for Progress • A collaborative climate • Milestones • Celebrations • Access to customers • Measurement of improvement Source: Reprinted with permission of the publisher..bkconnection. Berrett-Koehler Publishers Inc. Copyright © K.

– Behaviour is influenced by the reinforcement or lack of reinforcement brought about by the consequences of the behaviour.Motivating Employees Through Reinforcement • Skinner suggested that people learn how to behave to get something they want or to avoid something they don‟t want. . • This idea is known as operant conditioning.

• Negative reinforcement – Following a response by the termination or withdrawal of something unpleasant. • Extinction – Eliminating any reinforcement that is maintaining a behaviour. .Methods of Shaping Behaviour • Positive reinforcement – Following a response with something pleasant. • Punishment – Causing an unpleasant condition in an attempt to eliminate an undesirable behaviour.

. • The individual is reinforced on the first appropriate behaviour after a particular time has elapsed.Schedules of Reinforcement • The two major types of reinforcement schedules are continuous and intermittent. – Continuous reinforcement: reinforces desired behaviour each and every time it is demonstrated. – Intermittent reinforcement: ratio or interval • The individual is reinforced after giving a certain number of specific types of behaviour.

Fixed and Variable Reinforcements • A reinforcement can also be classified as fixed or variable. – – – – Fixed-interval schedule Variable-interval schedule Fixed-ratio schedule Variable-ratio schedule .

Hand-raising becomes extinct. Punishment Extinction . She has learned that looking through her notes prevents the instructor from calling on her.Types of Reinforcement Reinforcement Type Positive reinforcement Negative reinforcement Example A manager praises an employee for a job well done. An instructor ignores students who raise their hands to ask questions. An instructor asks a question and a student looks through the notes to avoid being called on. A manager gives an employee a two-day suspension from work without pay for showing up drunk.

Schedules of Reinforcement Reinforcement Schedule Continuous Reward given after each desired behaviour Reward given at fixed time intervals Reward given at variable time intervals Reward given at fixed amounts of output Reward given at variable amounts of output Effect on Behaviour Fast learning of new behaviour but rapid extinction Average and irregular performance with rapid extinction Moderately high and stable performance with slow extinction High and stable performance attained quickly but also with rapid extinction Very high performance with slow extinction Example Compliments Fixed-interval Weekly paycheques Variable-interval Pop quizzes Fixed-ratio Piece-rate pay Variable-ratio Commissioned sales .

– Spend the time necessary to understand what‟s important to each employee. – Use goals and feedback. – Link rewards to performance. – Employees have different needs. – Check the system for equity.Putting It All Together • What we know about motivating employees in organizations: – Recognize individual differences. – Allow employees to participate in decisions that affect them. . – Don‟t treat them all alike.

direction. and persistence of effort toward reaching the goal. What is Motivation? – Motivation is the process that accounts for an individual‟s intensity. How do needs motivate people? – . will result in motivation. All needs theories of motivation propose a similar idea: individuals have needs that. when unsatisfied. 2.Summary and Implications 1.

Are there other ways to motivate people? – Process theories focus on the broader picture of how someone can set about motivating another individual. Rewards should be perceived by employees is related to the inputs they bring to the job. management by objectives).Summary and Implications 3. 4. Process theories include expectancy theory and goal setting theory (and its application. Do equity and fairness matter? – . Individuals look for fairness in the reward system.

Skinner suggested that behaviour is influenced by whether or not it is reinforced. What role does reinforcement play in motivation? – B. F. then. 6. Managers might consider.Summary and Implications 5. What are the ethics behind motivation theories? – There is a debate among theorists about whether motivation theories are used for the employees‟ benefit or to just improve productivity. how their actions towards employees reinforce (or do not reinforce) employee behaviour. .

HR Implications Performance Evaluation .

Employees Distrust Performance Appraisals • 70 percent of employees do not believe the performance appraisal process helps them improve their performance. . • Less than 40 percent say their company has clear performance goals. • Only 39 percent of employees see the connection between their day-to-day work and company goals. • Only 44 percent feel that people are held accountable for their performance.

What Gets Evaluated? • Individual Task Outcomes • Behaviours • Traits .

Who Should Evaluate? • • • • • Immediate Manager Peers Self-Evaluation Immediate Subordinates Comprehensive Approach: 360-Degree Evaluations .

and suggestions for improvement • Critical Incidents – Evaluating those behaviours that are key in making the difference between executing a job effectively and executing it ineffectively • Graphic Rating Scales – An evaluation method where the evaluator rates performance factors on an incremental scale . past performance. potential.Methods of Performance Evaluation • Written Essays – A narrative describing an employee‟s strengths. weaknesses.

and then assign summary ranking . such as quartiles – Individual: rank-order employees from best to worst – Paired: compare each employee with every other employee.Methods of Performance Evaluation • Behaviourally Anchored Ratings Scales (BARS) – An evaluation where actual job-related behaviours are rated along a continuum • Multiperson Comparisons – Group: employees placed into particular classifications.

Potential Problems • • • • • • • Single Criterion Errors Recency Errors Leniency/strictness Errors Halo Errors Similarity Errors Low Differentiation Errors Forcing Information to Match Nonperformance Criteria .

Improvements • • • • • • • Use Multiple Criteria Emphasize Behaviours Rather Than Traits Document Performance Behaviours in a Diary Use Multiple Evaluators Evaluate Selectively Train Evaluators Provide Employees With Due Process .

communicate expectations Don't do it often enough (usually annually) Fail to consider the dynamic aspects of the job Hard to define levels of performance No rewards for being skilled at performance appraisal .Why Organizations Fail at Performance Appraisal • • • • • • Time consuming Difficult to establish.

“Motivation in Action” .Assignment Read Chapter 5.