Reference:
Farid Kendoul, Isabelle Fantoni, Rogelio Lozano
“Modeling and Control of A Small Autonomous Aircraft
Having Two Tilting Rotors”
Sumarized by:
tata
Birotor with OLT
Birotor with LT
(vectors only)
Description
• The main components of a birotorcraft are the two rotors
attached on both side of the airframe (lateralwise), equidistant
to airframe’s symmetric axis. Each rotorairframe attachment rest
on a 2 DoF angular joint so that each rotor’s can be inclined (tilted)
with respect to airframe body (see slide 2 & 3). Each joint is driven
by an actuator.
• Both rotors act as thrustactuating device. Moments produced
while the rotors are operating are made to diminished each other
by setting the rotor pair rotation opposing each other and by
applying tilt angle ratio constraint as will be shown in this
presentation.
• Controlling input is achieved by applying rotor output differentials
between rotor pair, tilting each rotor’s attitude, or a combination
of both.
BiRotor System
Functional Diagram
Equation of Motion
G G
d d
d d
d d
d d
p h
F M
t t
V
m V
t t
= =
 
= · × = · + × ·

\ .
J J +
W
W W W
Force and Moment as momentum rate
Vectors are stated in Body Reference Frame
Equation of Motion
 
 
T
P grav ae
B
T
P grav ae
B
F F F F V u v w
M M M M p q r
= + + =
= + + = W
External force, external moment, vector of translational
velocity, and vector of angular velocity
Tensor of moment of inertia, on body reference frame with origin at
center of gravity.
G G G
G G G G
G G G
xx xy xz
yx yy yz
zx zy zz
J J J
J J J
J J J
=
J
Equation of Motion
(Rigid Body Kinematics)
I B
I/ B I/ B
V V
= · = ·
DCM KM
f
q W
y
I/ B
I/ B
cos cos cos sin sin sin cos sin sin cos sin cos
cos sin cos cos sin sin sin sin cos cos sin sin
sin sin cos cos cos
1 0 0
0 cos sin
sin sin cos cos cos
· ÷ · + · · · + · ·
= · · + · · ÷ · + · ·
÷ · ·
= ÷
÷ · ·
DCM
KM
q y f y f q y f y f q y
q y f y f q y f y f q y
q f q f q
f f
q f q f q
Equation of Motion
I/ B
I/ B
G
direct cosine matrix of local inertial reference frame with respect to body reference frame
kinematic matrix of local inertial reference frame with respect to body reference frame
tensor of
DCM
KM
J moment of inertia at center of gravity (G)
,
vectors of external force and moment
, vectors of translational and angular momentum
vectors of translational and angular displacement ra ,
F M
p h
V W
G B
R R B
te
vertical distance of vehicle's mass center (G) from body frame's origin (O )
horizontal distance of rotor frame origin (O ) from body frame's origin (O )
vehicle's mass
, , components of
i i
h
l
m
p q r W, expressed in body frame
components of , expressed in body frame , ,
longitudinal and lateral inclination angle of rotor reference frame to body reference frame ,
V u v w
a b
variable description
Equation of Motion
( )
( )
3 3 3 3
3 3 CG
CG
3 3 3 3
1
CG
3 3 CG
d
d
d
d
or
d
1
d
d
d
V
m V m
F
t
M
t
V
F m V
t
m
M
t
× ×
×
× ×
÷
×
· × ·
= · +
× ·
÷ · ×
·
= ·
÷ × ·
I 0
0 J
J
I 0
J
0 J
W
W
W W
W
W
W W
6 DoF equation of motion
Rotors’ Reference Frame Orientation with
respect to Body Reference Frame
R B
R / B
1 1
i
i
= · DCM
BR R B
R
BR
Note: is angular speed of rotor 's reference frame 1 with respect to body reference frame 1 ,
and its component is NOT the rotation speed by which it produces thrust and
expe
i i
i
i
i
z r e
W
riences respective torque.
R
B
R
BR BR
B/R R
R
,
i
i i
i i
i
i
p
q
r
= · =
KM
b
W a W
y
Each rotor reference frame has 2 degree of freedom with respect to vehicle's body reference frame.
Its attitude can be derived by applying 2 consecutive rotations: one on its axis followed by one on y axis.
The corresponding rotation angles and rotation rates are ( , ), and ( , ).
x
a b a b
Rotors’ Direct Cosine Matrix and Kinematics,
with respect to Body Reference Frame
R1 R1 R1 R1 R1
B/ R1 R1 R1
R1 R1 R1 R1 R1
R2 R2 R2 R2 R2
B/ R2 R2 R2
R2 R2 R2 R2 R2
cos sin sin cos sin
0 cos sin
sin sin cos cos cos
cos sin sin cos sin
0 cos sin
sin sin cos cos cos
· ·
= ÷
· ·
· ·
=
· ·
DCM
DCM
a  b a  b a
b b
a b a b a
a b a  b a
b b
a  b a b a
R1 R1
R1 R1 R1
R1 R1 R1
R1
B
R2 R2
R2 R2 R2
R2 R2 R2
R2
B
1 0 0
0 cos 0
0 sin 0
1 0 0
0 cos 0
0 sin 0
p
q
r
p
q
r
= ·
= ·
b
 b a
b y
 b
 b a
 b y
Rotors’ Force
Rotor force is generated by thrust. Other sources of
force are periodic and have zero sums at any
instantaneous time, assuming that each rotor is
perfectly symmetric.
Distribution of force from rotor thrust along each axis
in body reference frame is regulated by tilt angles o
and .
( )
( )  
2
P R
1
T
R
B/ R R
0 0 , 1, 2
T i
i
T i
i i
F F
F T i
=
=
= · ÷ =
¯
DCM
Rotors’ Force
( )
( )
( )
R R R1 R2
P
R R1 R2
R R R1 R2
imbalance
imba
cos sin
sin
lance
equilibrium
cos cos
T T
F T T
T T
· · +
= · ÷ :
÷ · · +
:
:
b a
b
b a
Rotors’ Moment
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
There are several sources moment is generated by a rotor:
Moment from the product of moment arm and thrust ( ).
Moment due to torque ( ).
Moment due to gyroscopic effect ( , , , ).
Moment d
T
Q
p q
M
M
M M M M




a
b
( )
ue to tilting mechanism's reaction ( ). M
a
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
R
2
P R R R R R
1
i
T i Q i i i i
i
M M M M M M
=
= + + + +
¯
W W a
Total moment generated by rotor system:
Rotors’ Moment
( )
( )
( )
R R G R
, 1, 2
T i i T i
M R R F i = ÷ × =
From the product of moment arm and thrust:
( )  
T
R
B/ R R
0 0 , 1, 2
Q i
i i
M Q i = · = DCM
Due to torque:
( ) ( )
R R
B/ R R
, 1, 2
i i
i i
M i e = ÷ × · · = DCM J
W
W
Gyroscopic moments:
( ) ( )
R
R R R
B/ R R
, 1, 2
i
i i i
i i
M i e = ÷ · × · = DCM J
W
W
     
T T T
R1 R2 G
G
0 0 0 0 0 0 R l R l R h = ÷ = =
Tilting mechanism’s reaction:
( )  
R
T R
B
0 0 , 1, 2
i
i
M J i = ÷ · =
a
a
Rotors’ Moment
From the product of moment arm and thrust:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )  
( ) ( )  
( )
R1 R1 G R1 R2 R2 G R2
T T
R1 G R2 G
B/ R1 R1 B/ R2 R2
R1 R1 R1 R2
R1 R1
G R1 R1 R1 G
0 0 0 0
0 cos sin 0 co
sin
cos cos
T T T T M R R F M R R F
R R T R R T
T T
l T l
h T h
= ÷ × = ÷ ×
= ÷ × · ÷ = ÷ × · ÷
· · ·
= ÷ × · = ×
÷ ÷ · · ÷
DCM DCM
b a
b
b a
R2 R2
R2 R2
R2 R2 R2
R1 R1 R1 G R1 R1 R2 R2 R2 G R2 R2
G R1 R1 R1 G R2 R2 R2
R1 R1 R1 R2
B
s sin
sin
cos cos
cos cos sin cos cos sin
cos sin cos sin
cos sin co
T
T
l T h T l T h T
h T h T
l T l T
·
÷ ·
÷ · ·
· · · + · · ÷ · · · ÷ · ·
= ÷ · · · = ÷ · · ·
· · · ÷ · ·
b a
b
b a
b a b b a b
b a b a
b a
R2 R2
B
s sin
·
b a
R2 R1 R R2 R1 R R2 R1 R
R2 R1 R R2 R1 R R2 R1 R
sin sin sin cos cos cos
sin sin sin cos cos cos
o o o o o o o o o
        
= = = = = =
¬ ¬
= = = = = =
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
G R R R
R1 R2
R R G R R1 R2
R
R R R1 2
B
2
R
1 R
cos sin i
cos cos sin equilibrium
cos sin equilibr
mbalan e
i m
c
u
T T T
T
M M M
l h T T
h T T M
l T T
÷ · · · +
= +
· · + · · ÷ :
=
· · :
:
· ÷
b a b
b
b a
a
Rotors’ Moment
Due to rotor torque:
( )   ( )  
T T
R1 R2
B/ R1 R1 B/ R2 R2
R1 R1 R1 R2 R2 R2
R1 R1 R2 R2
R1 R1 R1 R2 R2 R2
B B
0 0 0 0
cos sin cos sin
sin sin
cos cos cos cos
Q Q M Q M Q
Q Q
Q Q
Q Q
= · = · ÷
· · · ·
= ÷ · = ÷ ·
· · ÷ · ·
DCM DCM
 b a b a
b b
b a b a
R2 R1 R R2 R1 R R2 R1 R
R2 R1 R R2 R1 R R2 R1 R
sin sin sin cos cos cos
sin sin sin cos cos cos
o o o o o o o o o
        
= = = = = =
¬ ¬
= = = = = =
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
R R1 R2
R R R1 R2
R
R R R
R R1 R2
1 R2
B
cos sin equilibrium
cos cos equi
sin
libri
im
um
balance
Q Q Q
Q
M M M
Q Q
M
Q Q
Q Q
= +
÷ · · ÷ :
=
· · ÷ :
÷ · + :
b a
b
b
a
Rotors’ Moment
( ) ( )
 
( )
( )
( )
( )
T
R1 R1 R1
B/ R1 R1 R1
R1
R1 R1 R1 R1 R1
R1
R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1
R1 R1 R1 R1 R1
, 0 0
cos cos sin
cos sin cos cos
sin cos sin
M h h J
q r J
M r p J
p q J
e
e
e
e
= ÷ × · = ÷ ·
· · + · · ·
= ÷ · · + · · · ·
÷ · ÷ · · · ·
DCM
W
W
W
b a b
b a b a
b b a
Gyroscopic moments due to body angular rate:
( ) ( )
 
( )
( )
( )
( )
T
R2 R2 R2
B/ R2 R2 R2
R2
R2 R2 R2 R2 R2
R2
R2 R2 R2 R2 R2 R2
R2 R2 R2 R2 R2
, 0 0
cos cos sin
cos sin cos cos
sin cos sin
M h h J
q r J
M r p J
p q J
e
e
e
e
= ÷ × · = ·
÷ · · ÷ · · ·
= · · + · · · ·
÷ · + · · · ·
DCM
W
W
W
b a b
b a b a
b b a
Rotors’ Moment
Gyroscopic moments due to body angular rate:
R2 R1 R
R2 R1 R R2 R1 R R2 R1 R
R2 R1 R R2 R1 R R2 R1 R
sin sin sin cos cos cos
sin sin sin cos cos cos
J J J
o o o o o o o o o
        
= =
= = = = = =
¬ ¬
= = = = = =
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
R R1 R2
R R R R1 R2
R R R R R R1 R2
R R R R1 R2
R R R1 R2
R R R1 R2
imbalance
imb
equ
al
i br um
a
li i
cos cos
cos sin cos cos
cos sin
sin
s in
M M M
J q
r p J
J q
J r
J p
e e
e e
e e
e e
e e
= +
· · · · ÷ :
= ÷ · · + · · · · ÷ :
+ · · · · ÷
+ · · · +
÷ · +
· · :
W W W
b a
b a b
b
b
a
b a nce
( ) ( )
( )
R1
R1 R1 R1
B/ R1
R1
B/ R1 R1 R1
R1 R1 R1 R1
R1
R1
R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1
R1 R1 R1 R1
R1 R1 R1
0
cos 0
sin
cos cos sin sin
cos
sin cos
M h
J
J
J
e
e
e
= ÷ · ×
 

= ÷ · ÷ · ×


· ÷ ·
\ .
· · ÷ · · · ·
= ÷ · · ·
· · +
DCM
DCM
W W
b
a b
a b
a a b b b a
b b
a a b
( )
R1 R1 R1 R1 R1
B
sin cos J e
· · · ·
b b a
Rotors’ Moment
Gyroscopic moments due to tilting rate:
( ) ( )
( )
R2 R2 R2 R2
B/ R2
R2
B/ R2 R2 R2
R2 R2 R2 R2
R2
R2
R2 R2 R2 R2 R2 R2 R2 R2
R2 R2 R2 R2
R2 R2 R
0
cos 0
sin
cos cos sin sin
cos
sin cos
M h
J
J
J
e
e
e
= ÷ · ×
 
÷

= ÷ · ÷ · ×


÷ · ·
\ .
÷ · · + · · · ·
= ÷ · · ·
÷ · ·
DCM
DCM
W W
b
a b
a b
a a b b b a
b b
a a b
( )
2 R2 R2 R2 R2 R2
B
sin cos J e
+ · · · ·
b b a
Rotors’ Moment
Gyroscopic moments due to tilting rate:
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
R1 R2
R R R R R R R R1 R2
, R
R R R R R R
R R R R
R R
1 2
1 R2
B
R
equilibrium
equili
imbalanc
bri
e
um
cos cos sin sin
sin cos sin cos
cos
J
J M
J
e e
e
e e
e
÷ · · ÷ · · · · ÷
:
=
:
÷ · · + · · · · ÷
÷ · · · + : W W
a b a b a b
a b a b a b
b b
Rotors’ Moment
Gyroscopic moments due to tilting rate:
R2 R1 R
R2 R1 R R2 R1 R R2 R1 R
R2 R1 R R2 R1 R R2 R1 R
R2 R1 R
R2 R1 R
sin sin sin cos cos cos
sin sin sin cos cos cos
J J J
o o o o o o o o o
        
o o o
  
= =
= = = = = =
¬ ¬
= = = = = =
= =
= =
Rotors’ Moment
Reactionary moment:
( )   R
T R
B
0 2 0 M J = ÷ · a a
Reactionary moment occurs when actuators in tilting
mechanism system is repositioning rotor tilt. Lateral tilt for
both rotors are in oppossing direction to each other, hence
resulting reactionary moments that are eliminating each
other for symmetric action. Longitudinal tilt for both rotors
are in the same direction, resulting reactionary moment that
are the sum of both.
Rotors’ Moment
It can be seen that for moment equilibrium, moment
imbalance from rotor pair’s thrustcoupled moment
and moment imbalance from rotor pair’s torque must
counteract each other:
( ) ( )
R R1 R2 G R R R1 R2
R R1 R2
G / /
R R1 R2
sin cos sin
tan
,
sin
T Q T Q
Q Q h T T
T T
h C C
Q Q
· + = ÷ · · · +
= ÷ · = =
b b a
b
a
This is the constraint that must be satisfied for rotor
pair’s moment equilibrium on yaxis.
Rotors’ Moment
Moment imbalance due to gyroscopic effect.
( )
( )
( )
( )
R1 R2
R R R1 R2
, , R
R R R R1 R2
R R R1 R2
B
sin
cos
sin
J r
M J
J p
e e
e e
e e
· · · +
= ÷ · · · +
÷ · · · +
W W W
b
b b
b
This imbalance occurs when the birotor experiences
lateral or radial maneuvering, or when the OLT
mechanism is repositioning rotor pair lateral tilt.
Rotors’ Thrust and Torque
R R
R
R R
2
R
Rotor thrust ( ) and torque ( ) can be identified
to be functions of its rotation speed ( ). And it can
be determined that and vary proportionally
with .
i i
i
i i
i
T Q
T Q
e
e
2
2
2
R R
/
2
R R
/
, 1, 2
i i
T
i i
Q
T C
Q C i
e
e
e
e
= ·
= · =
Hence, 2
2
/
R R
/
, 1, 2
Q
i i
T
C
Q T i
C
e
e
= · =
Rotors’ Tilting Mechanism
T
T
R T R T T
T T
T
1 1
2 2
0
x
x y y
M
M M M M
J J
= · = · =
b a
Rotor tilt position is done by exerting moment of
corresponding direction to each rotor simultaneously.
M
xT
and M
yT
are nominal moments of corresponding
nominal tilt angles that must be exerted to both rotor
by mechanism’s actuators.
Input from Controller
Input of birotor system is done either by
differentiating rotorpair’s speed to drive thrust and
torque differentials, collectively changing rotorpair’s
speed to drive collective thrust and torque,
maneuvering rotorpair’s tilt angle to distribute rotor
pair’s force and moment to each body frame axis. As
shown in rotor’s moment analysis previously, rotor’s
moment has crosscouple relation among the three
axis due to rotor tilting.
Input from Controller
Selection for system input is done by evaluating rotors’ force
and moment at equilibrium condition while birotor is in level
hover flight with small tilt angles.
From force and moment analysis, one may identify four
variables by which force and moment can be exerted to birotor
system: collective thrust (T
coll
), differential torque (Q
diff
),
opposed lateral tilt angle (
R
), and longitudinal tilt angle (o
R
).
( ) ( ) 2 2
coll R1 R2 diff R1 R2 R R1 R2 R R1 R2
/ coll diff
/
2 2 2 2
R1 R2 R1 R2
/ /
1
T Q
T Q
T Q
T T T Q Q Q
C Q T
C
C C
e e
e e e e
= + = ÷ = = = =
= · = ·
= · + = · ÷
b b b a a a
Input from Controller
( )
( )
( )
C P
R R1 R2 R coll
C
R R1 R2 R / diff
R1 R2 coll
eqR eqcoll
coll
R
/ eqdiff eqR /
R
diff
1 1
0 0
2 2
1 1
0 0
2 2
1 0 0 0
T Q
T Q T Q
F F
T T T
F T T C Q
T T T
T
T
C Q C
Q
=
· + ·
~ · ÷ = · ·
÷ + ÷
= · · ·
÷
a a
b b
a
b
b
a
Translational channel
Input from Controller
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
C R R
R diff
G R R1 R2 R R1 R2 G R / diff
coll
G R R1 R2 R R1 R2 G R coll R
/
R R1 R2 R1 R2 R / diff
diff
T Q
T Q
T Q
T Q
M M M
Q
l h T T Q Q l h C Q
T
h T T Q Q h T
C
l T T Q Q l C Q
Q
= +
÷ ·
+ · · ÷ ÷ · ÷ + · · ·
~ ÷ · · + + ÷ · + = ÷ · · + ÷ ·
· · ÷ ÷ · · ·
a
b a b
a b a b
a a
( )
( )
G / eqdiff eqdiff / G / eqR eqR
coll
eqR eqcoll R
G eqR G eqcoll
R / /
diff
/ eqdiff eqR /
1 1 1
0 2
2 2 2
1 1 1
0
2 2 2
1 1
0 0 2
2 2
T Q T Q T Q
T Q T Q
T Q T Q
h C Q Q l C h C
T
T
h h T
C C
Q
l C Q l C
· · ÷ · + · · ÷
 
= ÷ · + ÷ ÷ · ·


\ .
· · · · +
b a
b b
a
a
a
Angular channel
Input from Controller
All channel
( )
eqR eqcoll
/ eqdiff eqR /
C
G / eqdiff eqdiff / G / eqR eqR
C
eqR eqcoll
G eqR G eqcoll
/ /
/ eqdiff
1 1
0 0
2 2
1 1
0 0
2 2
1 0 0 0
1 1 1
0 2
2 2 2
1 1 1
0
2 2 2
1 1
0 0
2 2
T Q T Q
T Q T Q T Q
T Q T Q
T Q
T
C Q C
F
h C Q Q l C h C
M
T
h h T
C C
l C Q l
· ·
÷
=
· · ÷ · + · · ÷
 
÷ · + ÷ ÷ ·


\ .
· · ·
a
b
b a
b
a
a
( )
coll
R
R
diff
eqR /
T T
R
T
R
T
2
1
0
2
1
0
2
T Q
x
y
T
Q
C
M J
M
J
·
· +
= ·
b
a
b
a