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Presented by:Khushbu Joshi

Motivation is derived from Latin word which means “to move”. “a process that starts with physiological or psychological deficiency or need that activates a behavior or a drive that is aimed at goal or incentive”(Luthans:1998) “The process that account for an individual‟s intensity, direction and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal”. (Robbins)

Concept of Motivation
A need must be felt by an individual in such a way that it drives him/her to satisfy it.  The force underlying this behavior may be called motivation.  This force may vary depending upon the intensity and importance of the need to the individual.

Concept of motivation Peoples behavior is determined by what motivates them.  Their performance is a product of both ability level and motivation.  Incentives: that can fulfill a need and decrease the intensity of a drive is called incentive .   Needs: a physiological or psychological imbalance leads to the creation of a need  Drives/motives: propel individual to attain their goals or satisfy their needs.

Basic Motivational Model Needs or expectations Results in Driving Force ( behavior or action) to achieve Desired Goals feedback Fulfillment which provide .

CHARACTERISTICS It is as an internal feeling  Continuous process  Dynamic process  A psychological concept  A way to direct and explain behavior  It is willingness to exert effort  System oriented  .

Contd… Need-satisfying process  Energising process  Positive and negative  Whole individual is motivated  Frustated individual cannot be motivated  .


Content theories place emphasis on the wants and needs that people are trying to satisfy.CONTENT THEORIES These theories attempt to explain those specific things which actually motivate the individual at work. and the goals they pursue in order to satisfy these needs. These theories are concerned with identifying peoples needs and their relative strengths. .

directed and sustained. They are concerned more with how behaviors are initiated. Process theories place emphasis on the actual process of motivation.PROCESS THEORIES These theories attempt to identify the relationship among the dynamic variables which make up motivation. .

2. Esteem. 5. Safety. 3. Physiological.I Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs  Abraham Maslow hypothesized that within every human being there exists a hierarchy of five needs: 1. Self-actualization. 4. Social. .

Higher-order needs are needs that are satisfied internally (within the person): social. esteem. and self-actualization needs. Lower-order needs are needs that are satisfied externally: physiological and safety needs. .Hierarchy of Needs Maslow then categorized these 5 needs into lower-order needs and higher-order needs.

Needs model of MASLOW HIERARCHY .

 .II THEORY X AND THEORY Y (DOUGLAS MCGREGOR) McGregor concluded that a manager‟s view of the nature of human beings is based on a certain grouping of assumptions and that he or she tends to mold his or her behavior toward subordinates according to these assumptions.

 Since employees dislike work. .  Employees will avoid responsibilities and seek formal direction whenever possible.  Most workers place security above all other factors associated with work and will display little ambition.Theory X  Employees inherently dislike work and. whenever possible. they must be coerced. will attempt to avoid it. controlled. or threatened with punishment to achieve goals.

responsibility. even seek.  The average person can learn to accept.Theory Y Employees can view work as being as natural as rest or play.  The ability to make innovative decisions is widely dispersed throughout the population and is not necessarily the sole province of those in management positions  .  People will exercise selfdirection and self-control if they are committed to the objectives.

 They are related to the job context and concerned with the job environment. which if absent. Hygiene or Maintenance Factors (Herzberg)  These are the factors. cause dissatisfaction.  They act as a „platform‟ upon with the satisfaction factors can be built .  They serve to prevent dissatisfaction.III TWO-FACTOR THEORY Given by Frederick Herzberg.

if present. serve to motivate the individual to superior effort and performance.Motivators or Growth Factors (Herzberg)  These factors. factors are related to the job content of the work itself. strength of these factors will affect feelings of satisfaction or no satisfaction. but not dissatisfaction.  These  The .

◦ Personal life. ◦ Relationship with peers. ◦ Status. ◦ Supervision. ◦ Relationship with subordinates. Growth . ◦ Salary. ◦ Security  Motivator Factors: ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Achievement Recognition. Work itself. Advancement. Responsibility. ◦ Relationship with supervisor. Hygiene Factors ◦ Company policy and administration. ◦ Work conditions.

.IV Mcclelland’s achieveMent Motivation Theory McClelland identified different motivational categories of people and if you could identify which category a person fell into it would help establish which patterns of motivation would lead to effective performance and success at work.

NEEDS OF Mc CLELLAND THEORY Need for Achievement The drive to excel. . to strive to succeed. Need for Power The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise. Need for Affiliation The desire for friendly and close personal relationships. to achieve in relation to a set of standards.

McClelland sees this need as the most critical for the organizations growth and success.Need for Achievement The need for achievement is the desire to consistently want challenging tasks demanding responsibility and application. This need is linked to entrepreneurial spirit and the development of available resources .

this is „socialized‟ power and should be distinguished from „personalized‟ power.Need for Power  The need for power is directed to the manager working for an organization that is concerned with group goals and the power is exercised on behalf of other people.  Which is characterized by satisfaction from exercising dominance over other people. .

is related to Maslow‟ social needs -the need to belong.  It  If . an individual does not experience any sense of belonging within the organization they will not be motivated to perform well.Need for Affiliation  This is the need for good social and personal relations with people.

V alderfer’s ERG Theory This is a modified need hierarchy model and it condenses Maslow‟s five levels of need into only three levels based on the core needs of: –E-Existence –R-Relatedness –G-Growth .

ERG Theory  Existence group is concerned with providing our basic material existence requirements. (They include physiological and safety needs)  Relatedness group is the desire we have for maintaining important interpersonal relationships. .  Growth group is the intrinsic desire for personal development.

b) if the gratification of a higher-level need is stifled.The ERG theory demonstrates that: more than one need may be operative at the same time. the desire to satisfy a lower-level need increases. c) The lower order needs must be satisfied to move onto higher order needs (satisfaction progressions in process) a) .

It is based on exchange theory.VI Adams Equity Theory Equity theory focuses on peoples feelings of how fairly they feel they have been treated in comparison with the treatment received by others. . People expect certain outcomes in exchange for certain inputs or contributions.

the range of factors the employee receives in return for their inputs i.e.what the individual brings to their employment in terms of effort .  –Outcomes . The exchange variables are:  –Inputs . all the financial and non-financial rewards.  .The exchange variables Adams states that people will be better motivated if they are treated equitably. experience and skills.

Other . . 4. Self-inside.outside.inside.  There are 4 referent comparisons that employee can use:  1. 2. Self-outside. 3. Other .Equity Theory  Individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of others and then respond to eliminate any inequities Referent chosen is an important variable in equity theory.


Over rewarded piece-work employees produce less. Under rewarded hourly employees produce lower quality work. but do higher quality piece work. 2. Under rewarded employees produce larger quantities of lower-quality piece work than equitably rewarded employees 4.Propositions relating to inequitable pay: 1. . 3. Over rewarded hourly employees produce more than equitably rewarded employees.

. Distributive Justice Perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among individuals.  Procedural Justice The perceived fairness of the process to determine the distribution of rewards.

Distort/change perceptions of others Choose a different referent person Leave the field (quit the job) . Change inputs (slack off) Change outcomes (increase output) Distort/change perceptions of self 4.Choices for dealing with inequity: 1. 6. 3. 5. 2.

 . 3. Attractiveness (of the outcome).VII EXPECTANCY THEORY  The strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that an act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual. 2.reward linkage. Performance .performance linkage. (This is first proposed by Victor Vroom) Thus. Effort . it includes 3 variables or relationships: 1.

and finally. .Expectancy theory contd  The key to understanding of an individual’s goals and the linkage between effort and performance. between performance and rewards. between rewards and individual goal satisfaction.

 Expectancy theory emphasizes  Ability and Opportunity:    expected behaviors.  The attractiveness of rewards.ISSUES EXPECTANCY THEORY BROUGHT FORWARD:  It emphasizes payoffs or rewards. Performance = f ( A. O) Ability = intelligence and skills O = Opportunity to perform . M.

Ability Performance Motivation Opportunity .

Thank you .