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# Ordinary Differential Equations

Outline:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. ODE’s Solution Using MATLAB Mixing Process Example Level Process Example Multiple Reactions Process Example Reaction Process with input disturbance

Ordinary Differential Equations
• MATLAB has a collection of m-files, called the ODE suite to solve initial value problems of the form M(t,y)dy/dt = f(t, y) y(t0) = y0 where y is a vector. • The ODE suite contains several procedures to solve such coupled first order differential equations.

ODE Solution Using MATLAB Step 1: Express the differential equation as a set of first-order ODEs M(t. y0).y)dy/dt = f(t. Time index Solution matrix ODE solver ODE file for derivatives Solution time span [t0 tf] Initial conditions .y) Step 2: Write an m-file to compute the state derivative function dydt = myprob(t. y) Step 3: Use one of the ODE solvers to solve the equations [t. tspan. y] = ode_solver(‘myprob’.

Solver to try if ode45 fails or is too inefficient . onestep modified Rosenbrock solver of order 2 • ode15s: implicit. one-step Runge-Kutta low-order solver • ode45: explicit.ODE Suite Solvers Non-stiff equations • ode23: explicit. one-step Runge-Kutta medium order solver. First solver to try on a new problem • ode113: multi-step Adams-Bashforth-Moulton solver of varying order Stiff equations • ode23s: implicit. multistep numerical differentiation solver of varying order.

where Cin=50mol-g/m3.Example 1: Mixing Process A single well-mixed reactor with one inflow and one outflow Consider the CSTR. . Q=5m3/min. C(0)=10mol-g/m3. V=100m3.

𝑑𝐶 𝑉 = 𝑄𝐶𝑖𝑛 − 𝑄𝐶 𝑑𝑡 • identify the independent variable.Example 1: Solution • Applying the conservation of mass. Accumulation = 𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 − 𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡 + 𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 • You get the differential equation as. the dependent variable. t. c and initial value. the initial value 𝑑𝐶 1 = 𝑄𝐶𝑖𝑛 − 𝑄𝐶 = 𝑓(𝑡. 𝑐) 𝑑𝑡 𝑉 𝐶 0 = 10 . then we can rewrite the ODE as in explicit form as.

%initial value [t.C] = ode45(‘myODE1’. %m^3/min C_in = 50.timeSpan.C) Q = 5. %mg/m^3 V = 100. C_0 = 10.m timeSpan = 1:1:200.) • Write m-file function for the ODE with initial value problem above as %File Name: myODE1.Example 1: Solution (cont.m function dCdt = myODE1(t.C_0) %call Matlab solver . %m^3 dCdt = (Q*C_in – Q*C)/V • Solve the Example 1 by creating new m-file or type syntax in command window as below %File Name: Example1_Solution.

Example 1: Solution (cont. C(t) in CSTR') Parameter C_in C (t = 0) Q V Value 50 10 5 100 Unit mol-g/m3 mol-g/m3 m3/min m3 .'LineWidth'.2) xlabel('time') ylabel('Concentration. C [molg/m^3]') title('Concentration profile.'r'.) Optional: you can write code below after call the Matlab solver % display solution of C(t) plot(t.C.

Q: Derive and solve the differential equation describing this process over a 100 second interval.Example 2: Level Process A fluid of constant density starts to flow into an empty and infinitely large tank at 8 L/s. A pump regulates the outlet flow to a constant 4L/s. .

Example 2: Solution The volume profile is described as 𝐴𝑐𝑐𝑢𝑚𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 = 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑖𝑛 − 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑜𝑢𝑡 Thus. then 𝑑(𝑉) =4 𝑑𝑡 . 𝑑(𝜌𝑉) 𝑑𝑡 = 𝜌𝑞𝑖𝑛 − 𝜌𝑞𝑜𝑢𝑡 Since density is constant.

%initial value [t.V] = ode45(@myODE2.timeSpan.%call Matlab solver plot(t.2) xlabel('time') ylabel(‘Tank Volume.V) dVdt = 4.‘b'. • The initial condition (at t = 0) of volume inside tank is 0 liter %File Name: Example2_Solution.'LineWidth'. V *liter+') title(‘Volume profile. %File Name: myODE2.m timeSpan = [0 100].) Q: Derive and solve the differential equation for this process over a 100 second.m function dVdt = myODE2(t. V_0 = 0. V(t) in infinity tank') .Example 2: Solution (cont.V_0) .V.

Example 2: Solution (cont.) .

. reaction #1 (A B) with rate constant. k1 and reaction #2 (BC) with rate constant k2.Example 3: Multiple Reactions Process • The reactions are A B C occur within the tank where. • The following set of differential equations below describes the change of concentration for three species in the tank.

Q: Solve the differential mole balance in the CSTR. Solve the system of equations and plot the change in concentration of each species over time.Example 3: Multiple Reactions Process (Cont. Ca=5mol and Cb=Cc=0mol. .) • Where k1=1 hr-1 and k2=2 hr-1 and at time t=0. • Select an appropriate time interval for the integration.

Cb = C(2) and Cc = C(3). Cb and Cc variable must be defined within the same matrix. and so by calling Ca =C(1). k1*Ca . they are listed as common to matrix c. dCdt=[-k1*Ca. . Cc=C(3) . Cb=C(2).m function dCdt=myODE3(t.k2*Cb. global k1 k2 .C) Ca=C(1). k2*Cb] • Optional : Ca.Example 3: Solution • The following function file and run file are created to obtain the solution: %File Name: myODE3.

‘+b'.2) Legend(‘Ca’. C_0=[5 0 0].2) plot(t.m global k1 k2 k1=1.1).C_0) .'LineWidth'.’Cc’) hold off .‘om'.C(:.3).’Cb’.C(:.‘*r'.) %File Name: Example3_Solution. hr') ylabel('Concentration of each species.Example 3: Solution (Cont. timeSpan=[0 5].C(:.timeSpan.2).'LineWidth'. %initial value [t.%call Matlab solver %display profile plot(t. C(t) in CSTR') hold on plot(t.'LineWidth'.C] = ode45(@myODE3. mols/hr') title(‘Concentration profiles.2) xlabel('time. k2=2.

) .Example 3: Solution (Cont.

The CSTR suffer with a disturbance at inlet volumetric flow rate. inlet flow rate and outlet flow rate. .Example 4: Reaction Process with input disturbance A CSTR initially filled with 10mol/L of A is to be started up at specific conditions of inlet concentration. while the outlet volumetric flow rate is kept constant.

05𝑡 .05𝑡 .20 + 0.15 .) Input conditions ν𝑖𝑛 0.005m / Ls ol CA0 conditions ol Output 10m / L vout  0. 0 < 𝑡 ≤ 8 𝑡 = 0.15m / s ol V 10L k  0. . 𝑡 > 14 V 10L k  0.005m / Ls ol CA0 10m / L ol vout  0.15m / s ol Q: Solve the differential equations in the CSTR and plot the CA(t) and V(t) profile in same Figure. 8 < 𝑡 ≤ 14 0.25 − 0.Example 4: Reaction Process with input disturbance (Cont.

𝑉 . 𝑉 𝑡 = 𝑓(ν𝑖𝑛 ) • Differential equations mole balance of A: d v C i n A  (A A k CC C ) A  0 d V t • Differential equation mass balance in CSTR: d V  in  o t v vu d t .Example 4: Solution • Identify the dependent and independent variables 𝐶𝐴 𝑡 = 𝑓 𝐶𝐴 .

.15.20+0.) %File Name: myODE4.25-0.05*t. v_in = 0. % Disturbance in input flow rate if( (t >0) & (t <=8) ).k*Ca. dXdt(2. Ca_0 = 10. v_out = 0. % The differential equations dXdt(1.:)= v_in .15.:)= (v_in/V)*(Ca_0-Ca) .v_out. v_in = 0. end %Variables V = X(1.:). else v_in = 0.X) k = 0.Example 4: Solution (Cont.05*t. elseif( (t>8) & (t <= 14) ).:).005. Ca = X(2.m function dXdt=myODE4(t.

V(t) in CSTR') subplot(2. [liter]') xlabel('time.'LineWidth'. V(t) profile can be obtained from code below: %File Name: Example4_Solution.'LineWidth'. %initial value [t. X_0=[10 10].1). C(t) in CSTR') .2).CA(t) and volume profile.X] = ode45('myODE4'.1).1.X(:.'b'.C_A [mols/liter]') title('Concentration profiles. plot(t.Example 4: Solution (Cont.X_0) .2). s') ylabel('Concentration. s') title('Volume profiles.plot(t.m timeSpan =[0 150].'r'.1.timeSpan. %call Matlab solver %display profile subplot(2.) A: The concentration profile of A .2) ylabel('Volume.2) xlabel('time.X(:.

Example 4: Solution (Cont.) .

X_0) .'LineWidth'.1).2) ylabel('Volume.X(:. V(t) in CSTR') subplot(2.X(:.X1(:.2).C_A [mols/liter]') title('Concentration profiles.2) hold on plot(t1. C(t) in CSTR') legend('ODE45'.X] = ode45('myODE4'.%call Matlab solver [t1.2). plot(t. [liter]') xlabel('time.timeSpan.'b'.X_0).2) hold on plot(t1.2) xlabel('time.m timeSpan =[0 150]. s') legend('ODE45'.'r'.'b'.X1] = ode15s('myODE4'.X1(:.1). plot(t.1). s') ylabel('Concentration.2).timeSpan. %initial value [t.1. X_0=[10 10].'r'. %display profile subplot(2.'LineWidth'.'LineWidth'.'ODE15s') hold off ** Please ask for this code… .'ODE15s') hold off title('Volume profiles.1.'LineWidth'.Extra: Comparison between ODE45 and ODE15s %File Name: Example4_Solution_extra.