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1.

1 Vector Algebra

1.2 Differential Calculus

1.3 Integral Calculus

1.4 Curvilinear Coordinate

1.5 The Dirac Delta Function

1.6 The Theory of Vector Fields
Chapter 1 Vector Analysis
1.1 Vector Algebra
1.1.1 Scalar , Vector , Tensor

1.1.2 Vector Operation

1.1.3 Triple Products

1.1.4 Vector Transform

1.1.1 Scalar , Vector , Tensor
Scalar:
Vector:
Function :
3
A

A

magnitude , 0 direction
magnitude , 1 direction
magnitude , 2 direction
Tensor
all quantities are tensor .
Scalar :
Vector :
function :

ˆ ˆ

i j ij
i j
e e
i j
o
=
¦
· =
´
=
¹
1
0
1.1.1
i
n
i
i
e A A ˆ
1
¯
=
=

i
n
i
i
f a f
¯
=
=
1
i a a
n
i
i ¯
=
=
1
i
i
e
ˆ
base of number system
base of coordinates
i
f
base of functions
Any component of the base is independent to rest of the base
orthogonal
that is ,
1.1.1
Tensor :
magnitude , 0 direction , 0 rank tensor scale
[ no dimension ]
magnitude , 1 direction , 1
st
rank tensor vector
[in N dimention space : N components ]
magnitude , 2 direction , 2
nd
rank tensor 2
nd
rank tensor
[in N dimention space : N
2
component ]
magnitude , 3 direction , 3
rd
rank tensor 3
rd
rank tensor
[in N dimention space : N
3
component]
. . .
. . .
. . .
1.1.2 Vector operation
¯
=
· · · · · + + + =
n
i
i
a a a a
1
3 2 1
•Addition
6 4 2
1 1 1
= + = + = b a c
Ex.
j i A
ˆ
3
ˆ
2 + =

j i B
ˆ
5
ˆ
4 + =

B A j c i c C
  
+ = + =
ˆ ˆ
2 1
6 4 2
1 1 1
= + = + = b a c
8 5 3
2 2 2
= + = + = b a c
;
;
;
i i i
c a b = +
( )
¯ ¯ ¯ ¯
= = = =
= + = + = + =
n
i
i i
n
i
n
i
n
i
i i i i i i
e c e b a e b e a B A C
1 1 1 1
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
  
Vector addition=sum of components
i
1.1.2
( )
j i
n
i
n
j
j i
n
j
j j
n
i
i i
e e b a e b e a B A c ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
1 1 1 1
· =
|
|
.
|

\
|
· |
.
|

\
|
= · =
¯¯ ¯ ¯
= = = =


 
cos
n n n
i j ij i i
i j i
a b a b A B o u
= = =
= =
¯¯ ¯
1 1 1
=
•Inner product
Ex.
j i A
ˆ
3
ˆ
2 + =

j i B
ˆ
5
ˆ
4 + =

;
( ) ( ) j i j i B A C
ˆ
5
ˆ
4
ˆ
3
ˆ
2 + · + = · =
 
j j i j j i i i
ˆ
5
ˆ
3
ˆ
4
ˆ
3
ˆ
5
ˆ
2
ˆ
4
ˆ
2 · + · + · + · =
23 15 8 5 3 4 2 = + = · + · =
u sin B A B A C
    
= × =
( ) ( ) ( )
i j i i k k i j k j j k k j i
k j i
k j i
k j i
b a b a e b a b a e b a b a e
b b b
a a a
e e e
B A C ÷ + ÷ + ÷ = = × = ˆ ˆ ˆ
ˆ ˆ ˆ
  
¯
=
=
=
=
n
k
j
i
k j i ijk k j i ijk
b a e b a e
1
1
1
ˆ ˆ
c c
=
1.1.2
·
ˆ
= = × = u sin B A B A C
    
Area of
•Cross product
k j i ijk
b a e B A
ˆ
c = ×
 
ijk
c
= 1 clockwise
= -1 counterclockwise
= 0
k j i = =
k j i = =
j i =
k j = i k = or or
1
2 3
1
-1
1.1.2
Define :
( ) ( ) | |
k j i ijk k j ijk i i i
c b a c b a C B a C B A c c = = × = × ·
    
ABC
c c c
b b b
a a a
= =
3 2 1
3 2 1
3 2 1
(volume enclosed by vectors , ,and )
1.1.3 triple products
A

B

C

Figure 1.12
1.1.4 Vector transform
( )
ˆ ˆ
x y
A A x A y
' ' ' ' '
= +
( )
ˆ ˆ
x y
A A x A y = +
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
'
'
2
1
22 21
12 11
2
1
A
A
a a
a a
A
A
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
=
u u
u u
cos sin
sin cos
R

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
'
'
y
x
y
x
B
B
B
B
u u
u u
cos sin
sin cos
B R B



· =
'
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
'
'
y
x
y
x
A
A
A
A
u u
u u
cos sin
sin cos
A R A
  
· =
'
Vector transform
j ij i
A R A =
'
1.2 Differential calculus
1.2.1 Differential Calculus for Rotation
1.2.2 Ordinary Derivative
1.2.3 Gradient
1.2.4 Divergence
1.2.5 The Curl
1.2.6 Product Rules
1.2.7 Second Derivatives
y y x x
B A B A B A B A + = u = · cos
 
y y x x
B A B A B A B A
' '
+
' '
= u
' ' '
=
'
·
'
cos
 
y x x
'
÷
'
=
ˆ
sin
ˆ
cos
ˆ
u u
y x y
'
+
'
= ˆ cos ˆ sin ˆ u u
|
|
.
|

\
|
'
'
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
' c
c
' c
c
' c
c
' c
c
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
y
x
y
y
x
y
y
x
x
x
y
x
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
y x
y
x
y
x
x
x x ' ÷ ' =
' c
c
' +
' c
c
' = ˆ sin ˆ cos
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ ˆ u u
y x
y
y
y
x
y
x y
'
+
'
=
'
c
c
'
+
'
c
c
'
= ˆ cos ˆ sin
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ ˆ u u
1.2.1 Differential Calculus for Rotation
1.2.2 Ordinary Derivative
dx
dx
df
df ) ( =
Geometrical Interpretation:
The derivative is the slope of the graph of f versus x
dx df
l d


=


( ) l d f l d f e e
y
y
x
x
  
· V = · + =
c
c
c
c
) ˆ ˆ (
Ex. f =xy

f=xy
2

y
x
f
=
c
c
x
y
f
=
c
c
;
2
y
x
f
=
c
c
;
xy
y
f
2 =
c
c
1.2.3 Gradient
For a function ) , ( y x f
y
e
x
e
y x
c
c
+
c
c
= V ˆ ˆ

Define
i
e
y
e
x
e
i y x
c
c
=
c
c
+
c
c
= V ˆ ˆ ˆ

f V

: gradient of f
l d
df
f l d f l d f df

    
V ¬ V = · V = u cos
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ( ) ( )
df df f f f f
x y x y dx dy x y x y
df dx dy dx dy e e dxe dye
c c c c
c c c c
= · + · = · + · = + · +
1.2.4 Divergence
y
V
x
V
i i i
i
y
x
v v v
c
c
c
c
c
c
+ = c = = · V

( ) ( )
i
i
ij j
i
j i j
i
j j
i
i
v v e e v v e e v
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
= = · = · = · V o ˆ ˆ ˆ ) ˆ (

[a scalars]
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
dx
x V dx x V
x dx x
x V dx x V
x
V
x
÷ +
=
÷ +
÷ +
=
c
c ) (
>0 : blow out
<0 : blow in
dy y +
y
( ) x V
( ) dx x V +
dx x + x
1.2.5 The Curl
ˆ ˆ
ˆ( )
y
x
ijk i j k ijk i j k
V
V
x y
v v e e v
z
c c
c
c
c c
V× = c = c
= ÷ +
) (
ˆ
) (
ˆ
) (
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ ˆ
y
v
x
v
k
x
v
z
v
j
z
v
y
v
i
v v v
z y x
k j i
v
x
y
z x
y
z
z y x
c
c
÷
c
c
+
c
c
÷
c
c
+
c
c
÷
c
c
=
c
c
c
c
c
c
= × V

0 >
c
c
x
V
y
0 <
c
c
y
V
x
0 ) ( ˆ > + = × V
c
c
c
c
y
V
x
V
x
y
z V

1.2.6 Product Rules
The similar relations between
calculation of derivatives and vector derivatives

(1)Sum rules
dx
df
k kf
dx
d
= ) (
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
) (
A k A k
A k A k
f k kf
 
 
× V = × V
· V = · V
V = V
(2)The rule for multiplication by a constant
( )
d df dg
f g
dx dx dx
+ = +
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
f g f g
A B A B
A B A B
V + = V +V
V· + = V· + V·
V× + = V× + V×
1.2.6 (2)
(produce of two scalar functions)
(dot product of two vectors)
B A
 
·
g f
dx
df
g
dx
dg
f fg
dx
d
+ = ) (
(3) Product rules
there are six product rules:two each for gradient,
divergence and curl.

Product rule for divergence:
A B B A
A B B A B A
   
     
) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
V · + V · +
× V × + × V × = · V
f g g f fg V + V = V ) (
two product rules for gradient
1.2.6 (3)
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
B A A B B A
f A A f fA
× V · ÷ × V · = × · V
V · + · V = · V
two product rules for divergences
A f

(scalar times vector)
(cross product of two vector functions)
) ( B A
 
×
two product rules for curls
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) + ( ) ( )
fA f A A f
A B B A A B A B B A
V× = V× ÷ × V
V× × = · V ÷ · V V· ÷ V·
1.2.6 (4)
(4)The quotient rule
2
2
2
) ( ) (
) (
) ( ) (
) (
) (
g
g A A g
g
A
g
g A A g
g
A
g
g f f g
g
f
V × + × V
= × V
V · ÷ · V
= · V
V ÷ V
= V
  
  
2
) (
g
dx
dg
f
dx
df
g
g
f
dx
d
÷
=
The quotient rule for derivative:
The quotient rules for gradient,divergence ,and curl
1.2.7 Second Derivatives
1. Divergence of gradient:
T T T e e
T e e T e T
i j i ij j i j i
j j i i j j
2
) ˆ ˆ (
) ˆ ( ) ˆ ( ) ˆ ( ) (
c = c c = c c · =
c · c = c · V = V · V
o
j j i i
e V V e V ˆ ) ( ) ˆ (
2 2 2
V = V = V

T T T T
z y x
2 2 2
2
c + c + c = V
so
2
V
is called Laplacian,
T is a scalar; is a vector
V

i i
e c = V ˆ a derivative vector
(inner product of same vector; ) A A A · =
2
1.2.7 (2)
0
) ( ˆ ) ( ˆ ) ( ˆ
) ( ˆ
) ( ˆ ) ( ˆ
ˆ
) ˆ ( ) ˆ ( ) (
1 2 2 1 3 3 1 1 3 2 2 3 3 2 1
1 2 321 2 1 312 3
1 3 231 3 1 213 2 2 3 132 3 2 123 1
=
c c ÷ c c + c c ÷ c c + c c ÷ c c =
c c e + c c e +
c c e + c c e + c c e + c c e =
c c e =
c × c = V × V
T T e T T e T T e
T T e
T T e T T e
T e
e T e T
j i k kij
j j i i
2. Curl of gradient :
a
(cross product of same vector, ) 0 = × A A
 
1.2.7 (3)
) ( ) (
2
V V V
  
· V V = V · V = V
) ( V

· V V
3. gradient of divergence:
4. divergence of curl
3
1,
ˆ ˆ ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) 0
l l kij k i j kij lk l i j
ijk k i j k i i k j
j cw
i j k
V e e V V
V V
o
=
= =
V· V× = c · e c =e c c
=e c c = c c ÷ c c =
¯
(similar to ) 0 ) ( = × · V A A
  
1.2.7 (4)
2
2
2
2
ˆ ( ) ( )
ˆ
ˆ ( )
ˆ ˆ
ˆ ˆ ( ) ( )
ˆ ˆ
( ) ( )
( )
ijk i j k
l lmk m ijk i j
l li mj lj mi m i j
i j i j j i j
i i j j i j j
i i j j
V V e
e V
e V
e V e V
e V V e
e V V e
V V
o o o o
V× V× = V× e c
= e c e c
= ÷ c c
= c c ÷ c
= c c ÷ c
= c V· ÷ V
= V V· ÷V
V V V
  
2
) ( ) ( V ÷ · V V = × V × V
5.Curl of curl
Poof:
(similar to ) ) ( V A A
  
× ×
1.3 Integral Calculus
1.3.1 Line, Surface, and Volume Integrals
1.3.2 The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
1.3.3 The Fundamental Theorem of Gradients
1.3.4 The Fundamental Theorem of Divergences
1.3.5 The Fundamental Theorem for Curls
1.3.6 Relations Among the Fundamental Theorems
1.3.7 Integration by parts


1.3.1 Line,Surface,and Volume Integrals
(a) Line integrals
(b)Surface Integrals
í
·
b
aP
l d V
 
P:the path(e.g.(1) or (2) )
í
·
s
a d V


S:the surface of integral
1.3.1 (2)
(c)Volume Integral
í
V
Tdt dz dy dx d = t
í í í í í
+ + = + + = t t t t t d V z d V y d V x d z V y V x V d V
z y x z y x
ˆ ˆ ˆ ) ˆ ˆ ˆ (

Example1.8
?
2
= =
í
v
t Td z y x T
8
3
)
12
1
)( 9 (
2
1
) 1 (
2
1
} ] [ {
1
0
2
3
0
2
1
0
1
0
3
0
2
= = ÷
= =
í í
í í í í
÷
dy y y dz z
dz dy dx x y z d T
y
t
Solution:
Suppose f(x) is a function of one variable.
The fundamental theorem of calculus:
) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
a f b f dx x F
a f b f dx
dx
df
b
a
b
a
÷ =
÷ =
í
í
dx
df
x F = ) (
1.3.2 The Fundamental Theorem of Calculus
Figure 1.25
Suppose we have a scalar function of three variables T(x,y,z)
We start at point ,and make the journey to point
(1)path independent
(2) ,a closed loop(a=b)
) , , (
z y x
a a a
) , , (
z y x
b b b
í
= · V 0 ) ( dl T
A line is bounded by two points
1.3.3 The Fundamental Theorem of Gradients
Figure 1.26
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
b
a
dT T dl
T dl T b T a
= V ·
V · = ÷
í
1.3.4 The Fundamental Theorem of Divergences
í í í í í
· = · = = c = · V
s s
k j
s
i k j i i
v
i
volumn
a d V i da i V d d V d d d V d V

  
ˆ
)
ˆ
( ) ( t
Proof:
is called the flux of through the surface. V

( )
volumn surface
V d V da t V· = ·
í í
surface
V da ·
í
1.3.4 (2)
Example1.10
2 2
ˆ ˆ ˆ (2 ) (2 )
s
V y x xy z y yz z V d Vda
v
t = + + + V· =
í í
Solution:
2 = · V
í
t
v
d V

) ( 2 y x V + = · V

í í í í
+ = +
v
t
1
0
1
0
1
0
) ( 2 ) ( 2 dz dy dx y x d y x
y dx y x + = +
í
1
0
2
1
) (
1 ) ( ,
1
0
2
1
= +
í
dy y
1
0
1 1 dz =
í
3
1
1
0
1
0
2
= = ·
í í í
dz dy y a d V


3
1
1
0
1
0
2
÷ = ÷ = ·
í í í
dz dy y a d V


3
4
) 2 (
1
0
1
0
2
= + = ·
í í í
dxdz z x a d V


í í í
÷ = ÷ = ·
1
0
1
0
2
3
1
dxdz z a d V


1 2
1
0
1
0
= = ·
í í í
ydxdy a d V


í í í
= ÷ = ·
1
0
1
0
0 0dxdy a d V


2 0 1
3
1
3
4
3
1
3
1
= = · + + ÷ + ÷
í
s
a d V


(2)
(1)
1.3.5 The Fundamental Theorem for Curls
í í í í í
· = · = c = · c e = · × V
line
k
line
k k j k
s
j i k j i
s
ijk
surface
l d V d V d d V da e V e a d V
 


) ˆ ( ) ˆ ( ) (
Proof:
a d V
surface


· × V
í
) (
0 ) ( = · × V
í
a d V
surface


(1) dependents only on the boundary line,
not on the particular surface used.

(2) for any closed surface.
A surface is enclosed by a closed line
Figure 1.31
( )
surface boundary
line
V da V dl V× · = ·
í í
1.3.5 (2)
Examples 1.11
( )
s p
V da V dl V× · = ·
í í
z yz y y xz V ˆ ) 4 ( ˆ ) 3 2 (
2 2
+ + =

x dz dy a d and z z x x z V ˆ ˆ 2 ˆ ) 2 4 (
2
= + ÷ = × V

3
4
4 ) (
1
0
1
0
2
= = · × V
í í í
dz dy z a d V
s


, 1 3 , 3 , 0 0
1
0
2 2
= = · = · = =
í í
dy y l d V dy y l d V z x
   
, 4 , 4 , 1 0
3
4
1
0
2 2
= = · = · = =
í í
dz z l d V dz z l d V y x
   
, 1 3 , 3 , 1 0
0
1
2 2
÷ = = · = · = =
í í
dy y l d V dy y l d V z x
   
, 0 0 , 0 , 0 0
0
1
= = · = · = =
í í
dz l d V l d V y x
   
3
4
3
4
0 1 1 = + ÷ + = ·
í
dl V
Solution:
(1)
(2)
1.3.6 Relations Among the Fundamental Theorems
(1)Gradient :
í í
· = · × V
line
boundary surface
l d V a d V
 


) (
•combine (1)and (3)




•combine (3)and(2)
0 ) ( 0 )] ( [
0 ) (
= V × V ¬ = · V × V ¬
= · V
í
í
T a d T
l d T
surface
line


(2)Divergence :
(3)Curl :
( ) ( ) ( )
b
a
T dl T b T a V · = ÷
í
( )
volumn surface
V d V da t V· = ·
í í
( ) 0
[ ( )] 0 ( ) 0
surface
volumn
V da
V d V t
V× · =
¬ V· V× = ¬ V· V× =
í
í
1.3.7 Integration by parts
b
a
b
a
b
a
b
a
b
a
b
a
b
a
fg dx
dx
df
g dx
dx
dg
f or
dx
dx
df
g dx
dx
dg
f fg dx fg
dx
d
dx
df
g
dx
dg
f fg
dx
d
+ ÷ =
+ = =
+ =
í í
í í í
) ( ) (
, ) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
a d A f d f A d A f or
a d A f d f A d A f d A f
f A A f A f
s

  

   
  
· + V · ÷ = · V
· = V · + · V = · V
V · + · V = · V
í í í
í í í í
t t
t t t
v v
) ( ) (
, ) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
1.4 Curvilinear Coordinates
1.4.1 General Coordinates
1.4.2 Gradient
1.4.3 Divergence
1.4.4 Curl

1.4 Curvilinear Coordinates
Spherical Polar Coordinate and Cylindrical Coordinate
) , , ( o u r
u o u o u cos sin sin cos sin r z r y r x = = =
o o u u u
o u
o u
o u
o u
ˆ
sin
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ ˆ
ˆ ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ ˆ
d r d r r dr
dl dl r dl k dz j dy i dx l d
A A r A k A j A i A A
r
r z y x
+ + =
+ + = + + =
+ + = + + =


) , , ( z r o
z dz d r r dr dl
z A A r A A
z z r y r x
z r
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
sin cos
+ + =
+ + =
= = =
o o
o
o o
o

Figure 1.36
Figure 1.42
1.4.1 General Coordinates
Cartesian coordinate
1 , 1 , 1 , , = =
i i
h z y x q
i i i
z y x
z y x
e dq h
e dq h e dq h e dq h
e dz e dy e dx l d
ˆ
ˆ ˆ ˆ
ˆ 1 ˆ 1 ˆ 1
3 3 2 2 1 1
=
+ + =
· + · + · =

k j j i i ijk
z
e dq h dq h a d
e dq h dq h e dy dx a d
ˆ
ˆ ˆ
3 2 2 1 1
=e
= =


3 2 1 3 2 1
3 3 2 2 1 1
dq dq dq h h h
dq h dq h dq h dz dy dx d
=
= = t
z

z

y

x

1
a d

dx
dy
dz
1.4.1 (2)
Cylindrical coordinate
1 , , 1 , , r h z r q
i i
= = o
) ( r s ÷
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
ˆ
s z
i i i
dl ds dl sd dl dz
dl dr r r d dz z h dq e
da rd dz r
m
m
mm
m
= = =
= + + =
=
3 2 1 3 2 1
dq dq dq h h h
dz h d h dr h
dz rd dr
dl dl dl d
z r
z r
=
=
=
=
o
o
t
o
o
1.4.1 (3)
Spherical coordinate
u o u sin , , 1 , , r r h r q
i i
= =
sin
ˆ
ˆ ˆ sin
ˆ ˆ sin
ˆ ˆ
ˆ ˆ
sin
r
r
r
r
dl dr dl rd dl r d
dl drr rd r d
da dl dl r r d d r
da dl dl r dr d
da dl dl r dr d
d dl dl dl r dr d d
u m
u m
m
u
u m
u u m
u u u m m
u u m
u m u
m u m
t u u m
= = =
= + +
= =
= =
= =
= =
2
1
2
3
2
(C) Figure 1.38
(a)
(b)
Figure 1.39
1.4.1 (4)
¯ =
i
i i i
e dq h l d ˆ

3 2 1 3 2 1
ˆ
dq dq dq h h h d
e dq h dq h a d
k j j i i ijk
=
=e
t

In summary:
Gradient
i i
i
i i
i i
i
i i i i
i
q
T
h
e
dq h
dq q T
e T
e dq h T dq
q
T
l d T dT
c
c
=

c c
= V ¬
· V =
c
c
¬
· V =
1
ˆ
) (
ˆ
) ˆ ( ) (
) (

1.4.2 Gradient
So for
o u u
o u
o
o
o u
o
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= V
c
c
+
c
c
+
c
c
= V
sin
ˆ ˆ ˆ ), , , (
ˆ ˆ ˆ ), , , (
r
T
e
r
T
e
r
T
e T r
z
T
e
r
T
e
r
T
e T z r
r
z r
ˆ ˆ ˆ ( , , ),
T T T
x y z T x y z
x y z
c c c
V = + +
c c c
for
for
( )
V s
V d V da t V· = ·
í í
1.4.3 Divergence
3 3 2 2 1 1
2 2 1 1 3 1 1 3 3 2 3 3 2 2 1
dq h dq h dq h
dq h dq h V dq h dq h V dq h dq h V
V
+ +
= · V

( )
i i
V h dq V da V· = ·
I
j j i i k
k
ijk
q d h q d h V
¯
c
2 2 1 1 3 1 1 3 3 2 3 3 2 2 1
3 3 2 2 1 1 3 3 2 2 1 1
) ( ) (
dq h dq h V dq h dq h V dq h dq h V
A V A V A V dq h dq h dq h V
+ + =
· + · + · = · V

] ) ( ) ( ) ( [
3
3
2
2
1
1 3 2 1
2 1 3 3 1 2 3 2 1
1
        
A
q
A
q
A
q h h h
h h V h h V h h V
c
c
c
c
c
c
+ + =
( )
d d
d d
s
V d V da
t t
t V· = ·
í í
1.4.3 (2)
( )
k k
k
l l
l
V V da
h q
c
V· = ·
c
¯
í
I
( )
k i i j j ijk
k
l l
l
V h q h q
h q
c
c
= c c
c
¯
í
I
( ) V h q h q V h q h q V h q h q
h h h q q q
c
= c c + c c + c c
c c c
í
1 2 2 3 3 2 3 3 1 1 3 1 1 2 2
1 2 3 1 2 3
V h h V h h V h h
h h h q q q
c c c
c c c

= + +

1 2 3 2 3 1 3 1 2
1 2 3 1 2 3
1
z
V
y
V
x
V
z
y
x
V
c
c
c
c
c
c
+ + = · V

z y x q
i
, , =
o u , , r q
i
=
z r q
i
, ,o =
)] (
) sin ( ) sin ( [
2
sin
1
2
r V
r V r V V
r r
r
o o
u u
u
u u
c
c
c
c
c
c
+
+ = · V

| | ) ( ) 1 ( ) (
1
r V V r V V
z z r r r
· + · + · = · V
c
c
c
c
c
c
o o

( )
ˆ
ijk
V h q h q e V h q
i i j j j j j
k
j
c V× · = c c · c
¯
k
q q
ijk
h h h
e V
k
h
j
V
j
h
j
q
j i k j i
ˆ )] ( [
1
c
c
c
c
c
= × V c

k
e
k
h
i
j j
k j i
q
h V
ijk
h h h
ˆ
) (
1
c
c
= c
í í í í
· = · × V ¬ · = · × V ) ( ) ( ) ( l d V a d V l d V a d V
s
da
d
a d
d
c
 

  



1.4.4 Curl
z y x , ,
z r , ,o
o u, , r
o
u
u
u
u
o
o u
o
o
u u
u
ˆ
] ) ( [
ˆ
)] ( [
ˆ
] ) (sin [
1
sin
1 1
sin
1
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
÷ +
÷ +
÷ = × V
r
r
v
r r
r
v
r
v
r
rv
rv
r v v

z rv
r v
r
z r z
v
r r
r
v
z
v
z
v
v
r
ˆ ] ) ( [
ˆ
) (
ˆ
) (
1
1
o
o
o
o
o
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
÷ +
÷ + ÷ = × V

z
y x v
y
v
x
v
x
v
z
v
z
v
y
v
x
y
z x
y
z
ˆ ) (
ˆ
) (
ˆ
) (
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
÷ +
÷ + ÷ = × V

1.4.4 (2)
1.5 The Direc Delta Function
1.5.2 Some Properties of the Delta Function
1.5.3 The Three-Dimensional Delta Function
1.5.4 The Divergence of
2
/
ˆ
r r
1.5.1 The Definition of the Delta Function
The definition of Delta function :
0 ) ( = x o 0 = x
· = ) (x o 0 = x
í
·
· ÷
=1 ) ( dx x o
c
1
c ÷ c
1
) (x f
c
1
c
2
1
c
2
1
÷
1
) (x g
1.5.1 The Definition of the Delta Function
) ( ) ( lim
0
x x f o
c
=
÷
) ( ) ( lim
0
x x g o
c
=
÷
Figure 1.46
í í
·
· ÷
·
· ÷
÷ = = ÷ ÷ dy a y a y d a y ) ( 1 ) ( ) ( o o
0 ) ( ) ( = ÷
=
÷ =
a y x
a y x
o o
a y =
· = ÷
=
÷ =
) ( ) ( a y x
a y x
o o
a y =
1.5.1 (2)
• Definition with shifted variable.
1.5.2 Some Properties of the Delta Function

) ( ) (
1
y ky
k
o o =
í í í
·
· ÷
·
· ÷
·
· ÷
= · = = dy ky k ky d ky dx x ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( 1 o o o
1 ) ( ) ( 1 = = =
í í
·
· ÷
·
· ÷
dy ky k dy y o o

( ) ( ) (0) ( ) (0) ( ) (0) f x x dx f x dx f x dx f o o o
· · ·
÷· ÷· ÷·
= = =
í í í

( ) '( ) ( ) ( ) '( ) ( ) '(0) f x x dx f x x f x x dx f o o o
· ·
·
÷·
÷· ÷·
= ÷ = ÷
í í
0


) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( a x a f a x x f ÷ = ÷ o o
í
·
· ÷
= ÷ ) ( ) ( ) ( a f dx a x x f o

1
| |
( ) | | ( ) ( ) ( )
k
y k k y k y y o o o o = ¬ =
1.5.3 The Three-Dimensional Delta Function
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
3
z y x r o o o o =

z y x
e z e y e x r
ˆ ˆ ˆ
+ + =

3
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
1
all space
r d
x y z dxdydz
o t
o o o
· · ·
÷· ÷· ÷·
=
=
í
í í í
3
( ) ( ) ( )
all space
f r r a d f a o t ÷ =
í
1.5.4 The Divergence of
2
/
ˆ
r r
1
( )
r
r
r
V V r
c
c
V· =
2
2
2
ˆ
V
r
r
= ) 0 ( = r
2
1
(1) 0
r
r
c
c
= =
í í
· = · V
V s
a d V d V

 
t
2
2
1
( ) ( sin ) 4
s
R
R d d u u o t = · =
í
Fig. 1.44
1.5.4 (2)
1
4
1
V
Vd
t
t V· =
í
3
1
4
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) V r x y z
t
o o o o ¬ V· = =
2
3
1 ˆ
4
( ) ( )
r
r
r
t
o ¬ V· =
2
3
ˆ
( ) 4 ( )
r
r
r to V· =
2
3
ˆ
( ) 4 ( )
r
r
r to
'
'
'
V· =
0
r r r
  
÷ =
'
2
2 3
ˆ 1 1
( ) ( ) 4 ( )
r
r
r r
r to V = ÷ V = ÷
1.6 Theory of Vector Fields
1.6.1 The Helmholtz Throrem
1.6.2 Potentials
C F
D F
 

= × V
= · V
A V F
 
× V + ÷V =
requirement:
0 = · V C

2
0
lim
r
C r
÷
= 0
2
0
lim
r
D r
÷
= 0
, ,
( ')
'
1
4
'
D r
V r r
V d
t
t
÷
=
í
( ')
'
1
4
'
C r
V r r
A d
t
t
÷
=
í
2
( ')
1
4
'
( ) '
V
D r
r r
F V A d
t
t
÷
V· = V· ÷V + V· V× = ÷ V
í
3
( ) ( ) ' ' '
V
D D r r r d o t = = ÷
í
0
1.6.1 The Helmholtz Theorem
Helmholtz theorem:
Proof :
Assume
) ( ) ( A V F
 
× V × V + ÷V × V = × V C A A
  
= · V V + ÷V = ) (
2
0
2 2
1
4
'
( ')
| '| V
A d C
C r
r r
t
t
÷
÷V = V =
÷
í
' ' '
'
1
) (
r r
i i
r r
c e
i i
r r
r C
c e
i i
     

÷ ÷ ÷
c · = · c = · V
' '
ˆ ˆ
i i i i
r r r r
c e e c
÷ ÷
= · c = · V
1 1
í í
÷ ÷
V · = · V = · V
V
r r
V
r r
r C
d r C d A
'
1
' ' ) (
' '
'
) ( 4 t t t
   

 
0 ) (
'
1
' ' '
1
' '
= · V ÷ · =
í í
÷ ÷
V
r r r r
s
d r C a d C t
   



) (
' '
1
' '
1
r r r r
d
   
÷ ÷
÷V = V t
1.6.1 (2)
' 3
1
2
4
'
r r
r r
 
 
÷ ÷ = V
÷
o t
í
= ÷ ) ( ) ( ) (
0 0
x f dx x f x x o
0 , 0 ,
'
÷ ÷ ¬ · ÷ · ÷ c r c r s
í
·
· ÷
s
r
c
s
r dr
2
lim
· ÷ =
r
c
1
· = = ÷ =
· ÷
· ÷
í
s
s
r
r
r dr c ln
1 1
2
0
3
1
÷ =
r
c
n
r
r
c
r c
1
2
0
= ¬
· ¬
÷
· ÷
When n >2
0
· ÷
÷
r
1.6.1 (3)
Curl-less fields :
( ) ( )
s
l
F da
F dl
= V× ·
= · =
í
í
3 0
0
( ) ( ) ( )
b
a
F dl b a · = u ÷u
í
4
1.6.2 Potentials
( ) F V× = 1 0
0 . F F V V is a scalar potential V× = · = ÷V
( )F V = ÷V 2
Divergence-less fields :
(1) 0 F V· =
A F
 
× V = ) 2 (
( )
s
F da · =
í
3 0
is independent of surface
1.6.2 (2)
. 0 potential vector a is A A F F
   
× V = · = · V
(4)
s
F da ·
í