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f ( ) x

x
x
z
y
Lecture Outline
• Recap
• Properties of E&M waves
– Polarization
– Poynting vector S  Intensity
– Energy density  Momentum  Light Pressure
– Frequency → E&M spectrum
• How to change “colors”
– Nonlinear optics
• The Doppler shift
Summary of Electromagnetic Radiation
• Combined Faraday’s Law and Ampere’s Law
– time varying B-field induces E-field
– time varying E-field induces B-field
x
z
y
• E-field and B-field are perpendicular

2 2
2 2

x x
o o
E E
z t
c c
u c
c c
=
E
B
S
s b e
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
= ×
• B
y
is in phase with E
x

• B
max
= E
max
/ c
max
sin( )
x
E E kz t e = ÷
(plane wave solution)

(Linear) Polarization
• We have been discussing the plane electromagnetic waves.
Our main example has been harmonic:
) sin(
0
t kz E E
x
e ÷ =
0 =
y
E 0 =
z
E
0
sin( )
y
E
B kz t
c
e = ÷
0 =
z
B 0 =
x
B
in terms of components:
u

x
y
0
cos sin( )
x
E E kz t u e o = ÷ +
0
sin sin( )
y
E E kz t u e o = ÷ +
0 =
z
E
) sin(
ˆ
0
o e + ÷ = t kz E e E

o is constant
phase
• This wave is an example of a linearly polarized wave.
– We always define the direction of polarization as the direction of
the oscillation of the Electric field vector (x-direction in this case)
– In general, a linearly polarized wave traveling in the +z direction
can be written as:
1
a) E
x
= E
o
sin (kz + et)
b) E
y
= E
o
sin (kz - et)
c) B
y
= B
o
sin (kz - et)
6) Which equation correctly describes this electromagnetic wave?
7) In which direction is this wave polarized?
a) x
b) y
c) z
Preflight 22:
Right:
• polarization is the direction of oscillation of the E field.
• Ey is obviously wrong because E is in the x direction. Ex is wrong because
(kz + wt) would mean it was moving in the -z direction, but it's moving in the
+z direction.
a) E
x
= E
o
sin (kz + et): NO: this wave moves in –z direction
b) E
y
= E
o
sin (kz - et): NO: the wave in the picture has E
y
= 0
c) B
y
= B
o
sin (kz - et): YES: +z direction…

7) Direction of polarization = direction of E
Lecture 22, ACT 1
• At t = 0, z = 0, the electric field of an electro-
magnetic wave is oriented at an angle u with
respect to the x-axis, as shown.
– Which arrow indicates the direction of
the magnetic field at the same location
and instant of time?
(a) A (b) B
u

x
y
A
B
Lecture 22, ACT 1
• At t = 0, z = 0, the electric field of an electro-
magnetic wave is oriented at an angle u with
respect to the x-axis, as shown.
– Which arrow indicates the direction of
the magnetic field at the same location
and instant of time?
(a) A (b) B
• This question cannot be answered unless the
direction of propagation is specified:
• If the wave propagates in the +z direction,
then B-field is along A
• If the wave propagates in the –z direction,
then B-field is along B

u

x
y
A
B
The Poynting Vector
• The direction of the propagation of the electromagnetic wave
is given by:
b e s
ˆ
ˆ ˆ × =
0
E B
S
u
×
÷
• This wave carries energy. This energy transport is defined
by the Poynting vector S as:
2
377
E
S =
O
– The direction of S is the direction of propagation of the wave
– The magnitude of S is directly related to the energy being
transported by the wave:
2 2 2
2
max max
0
1
sin ( )
377 2 377
E E E
I S kz t
Z
e
( ,
= ( , = = ( ÷ , =
O O
• The Intensity of a wave is the spatial- and time-average of S:
Define
O = = 377
0 0
c Z u
2
0 0
EB E
S
c u u
= =
[Watts/m
2
]
Energy Density in E-M Waves, cont.
• Usually we are interested in the average energy density:
• Note: We can also define the Intensity of a wave as
I = average power transmitted per unit area
= average energy density times wave velocity:
Same as before! :-)
2
2 2 2
0 max
0 0 max
sin ( )
2
E
u E E t kx
c
c c e ( , = ( , = ( ÷ , =
• If we introduce , we have
max
rms
2
E
E ÷
2
2
0 max
0 rms
2
E
u E
c
c ( , = =
2 2 2 2
2
max max max rms
0 0
0
1
2 2 2 377 377
E E E E
I c u c E c
c
c c
u
= ( , = ( , = = = =
· O O
Light Pressure
Energy transport → momentum
Momentum =
energy carried by wave
speed
total U
c
=
Intensity = →
energy
time-area
energy/ momentum
time-area time-area
I c
c
= =
momentum
Force =
time
Force
area
I
c
=
≡ Radiation Pressure
Light pressure, though
“light”, has noticeable
effects → comet’s tail
pushed away from the sun*.
2
*Note: The dust tail is pushed away
by radiation; the ion tail is pushed
away by the solar wind!
5) An absorbing black disk of radius r, mass m, is hanging
by a thread. A laser beam with radius a, intensity I, and
frequency e, is incident on the disk (centered on it) from
the left. If we increase ____ (keeping all other parameters
the same), the light force on the disk will increase.



a. disk radius r

b. disk mass m

c. laser beam radius a

d. laser beam intensity I

e. laser frequency e
force = pressure x area
pressure = I/c

r < a: increasing r  more of the
beam is intercepted  more force.
increasing a does nothing
(if I is kept constant)

r > a: increasing a  more of disk is
hit by the beam  more force.
increasing r does nothing
Increasing I definitely increases force.
Intensity is independent of frequency.
Preflight 22:
Example
The intensity of sunlight in Urbana, IL is 100 mW/cm
2
.
What is the amplitude E
max
of the electric field?
What is the pressure on the black ground (pretend it is perfectly absorbing)?
On the white sidewalk (pretend it is perfectly reflecting)?
Finally, what is the maximum amount of energy a solar cell could absorb in
1 sec, assuming an area of 1m
2
?
Solution:
2
2 2
1 W 100 cm
100 mW/cm 1000 W/m
1000 mW 1 m
I
| |
= × × =
|
\ .
2
max
1
2 377
E
=
O
Energy = average energy density × volume = 1000 J
2
6 3
0 max
3.3 10 J/m
2
E I
u
c
c
÷
( , = = = ·
2 8 8 3
Area 1m 3 10 m/s 1s 3 10 m ct × = · · · = ·
Black ground: Pressure =
2
8
1000 W/m
3 10 m/s
I
c
=
·
6 2
3.3 10 N/m
÷
= ·
Reflective surface: ×2 enhancement → Pressure =
6 2
6.7 10 N/m
÷
·
2
W
m
2 377 1000 868 N/C - O- = 868 V/m =
max
E =
Methods to Get Different Colors:
Why would you want to do this?

More information storage!
It is a consequence of the quantum
Uncertainty Principle (itself due to the
wave nature of everything) that you
cannot focus light to a spot smaller
than ~ì. Therefore, with ultraviolet
photons (300nm) you can get a
minimum spot ~1/2 the diameter of a
spot with red photons (600nm)  a
factor of 4 in area  4x information
storage on an optical CD or DVD
(and faster too)!
Ex.: two infrared photons (ì = 1064nm) → one green photon (532nm)
How else to change the frequency? 5. Use the Doppler Shift…
Classical Doppler shift (sound waves)
Source moving toward you at speed v
s
:
Let c be speed of sound (in stationary air).
0
0 t =
1
d
t
c
=
2
t T = 3
s
d v T
t T
c
÷
= +
3 1
(1 )
s
s
v T d d
v
t t T T
c
c c c
= ÷ = + ÷ ÷ = ÷
1
'
'
f
T
=
1
f
T
=
1
'
1
s
v
c
f f f
| |
= >
|
÷
\ .
Receive 2nd crest
my interval between crests '
÷ T

v
s
S
d

c

I receive first crest

d - v
s
T

v
s
S
c

If instead the listener moves with
speed v
o
toward the source:
( )
' 1
o
v
c
f f f = + >
9) You are riding your bicycle south on Lincoln. A police car
is coming in your direction, traveling north on Lincoln, with
its sirens blaring (trying to catch your physics professor?!).
Compared to how it would sound if you and the car were
stationary, the pitch is

a) higher b) lower c) the same

10) The change in the pitch is due to

a) the motion of the police car

b) your motion on the bicycle

c) only the relative motion

d) a complicated combination of your motion and the
motion of the car
Preflight 22:
Doppler Shifts
Classical Waves
Note that the exact value of the shift depends on whether the source or the
receiver is moving (though the sign depends only on relative motion).

This is because the medium in which the sound wave propagates gives a
preferred frame of reference—you can tell whether you are moving
through the air, or if the approaching fire truck is moving through the air.

However, according to special relativity there can be no preferred frame of
reference—the speed of light is identical for all observers (c.f., the
Michelson-Morley experiments). The consequence of this is that the
Doppler shift for electromagnetic radiation is the same whether or not the
source is moving or the receiver is moving (see appendix for derivation):
1
1
±
±
'
= =
v
c v
c
f f f
v
c v
c
- Top signs for decreasing separation
- Bottom signs for increasing separation

- If v << c, f΄ ≈ f (1+ v/c)
Applications: Police Radar
Here there is a double effect:
First, my car is moving toward the radar
transmitter as an ―observer‖; second, my car acts as a
source which is moving toward the police car receiver.

2
2
(1 ) (1 ) (1 )
'' '
~ + ~ + ~ +
v v v
c c c
f f f f
100 miles/hour = 44.7 m/s = v
10.6 GHz = f " 10.60000316 GHz = f
Ex.
3160 Hz A = f
Example 2: Red Shift
It has been known since 1930’s
that the universe is expanding.
How do we know?
Distant galaxies are moving
away from us (and the farther
away they are, the faster they
appear to be moving!)
The speed of distant objects is determined by
the Doppler shift of their atomic emission lines.
Example:
Hydrogen
434 nm ì =
0.1 = v c
Hydrogen Hydrogen Hydrogen
1 1.1
1 0.9
v
c
v
c
ì ì ì
+
'
= =
÷
479.8 nm =
Summary
• Properties of electromagnetic waves, e.g., light
– Polarization  (oscillation) direction of electric field
– Poynting vector, intensity, energy density


– Momentum, light pressure
» absorption vs. reflecting
– Frequency, wavelength, spectrum, ―color‖
• Doppler shift

Force
area
I
u
c
= ÷
0
E B
S
u
×
÷
( )
1
1
1
v c
v
c
v
f f f
c
v
c
<<
±
'
= ÷÷÷÷ ±
2
2
0 max
0 rms
2
E
u E
c
c ( , = =
2 2
max
0
1
2 377
E E
I S
Z
( ,
= ( , = =
O
Appendix: Relativistic Doppler Shift
'
s
v T
T T
c
= ÷
2
2
1
1
v
c
T T =
÷
1
(1 )
s
v
T T
f c
'
= = ÷
'
2
2
1
1 1
1 (1 )
s
s s
v
c
v v
c c
f
T T
÷
'
= =
÷ ÷
2
2
1
1
s
v
c
v
c
f
÷
=
÷
(1 )(1 )
1
s s
s
v v
c c
v
c
f
+ ÷
=
÷
(1 )
(1 )
s
s
v
c
v
c
f f
+
'
=
÷
For v
s
<<c
(1 )
s
v
f f
c
'
~ +
Moving clocks run slower
(―time dilation‖)
→ emit less often
→ period bigger:
s
v T
v
s