the first CDMA standard IS-95 was issued. CDMA commercial networks are established in about 40 countries or area. In 1995. China Unicom began to construct CDMA networks—the largest in the world (about 70Million line now). CDMA technology was put into commercialization in Hong Kong and America on large scale. . At present.    In1993. almost 20% of all users in the world. In April 2001.

There are predominantly three types of multiple access methods: 1.TDMA(Time Division Multiple Access) 3.FDMA(Frequency Division Multiple Access) 2.CDMA(Code Division Multiple Access) .

. Usually implemented in narrowband systems.• • • • • • • Assigns different channels to individual user. Continuous transmission. Inefficient if customer does not use the channel. No synchronization and framing bits are needed as in TDMA systems. No other user can share the same channel. AMPS first analog cellular system uses FDMA/FDD.

Only one user allowed in each time slot to transmit and receive . No duplexers are required. Cyclic usage of the slots. GSM uses TDMA technique. Transmission is non continuous. Multiple slots per user possible. Less expensive than FDMA. High synchronization overhead is required.         Divides the spectrum into time slots. .

. cdma2000 uses CDMA technique. Other ongoing communication appears as noise. Sender and receiver know the codeword in advance.All users use the same carrier frequency. Each user has its own pseudorandom codeword. Performance degrades with increase in number of users.


    Spread spectrum – a transmission technique wherein data occupy a larger bandwidth than necessary There is no restriction on time and frequency in this scheme. . All the users can transmit at all times and at all frequencies. Each user has its own pseudorandom codeword which is approximately orthogonal to all other code words.

Because users are isolated by code.   The receiver needs to know this codeword used by the transmitter and it performs correlation to detect only the specific desired signal. eliminating the frequency reuse problem encountered in other technologies. This technology is used only when the network interacts with the subscriber or the subscriber interacts with the network. . they can share the same carrier frequency.

Rc Bandwidth. Wc . W s(t) r(t) d(t) c(t) SPREADING SEQUENCE Chip Rate.Wi c(t) BANDWIDTH.Rc Bandwidth. Wc SPREADING SEQUENCE Chip Rate . Ri Bandwidth .INTERFERENCE JAMMER FILTER INFORMATION SIGNAL i(t) Data Rate.

  CDMA is a spread spectrum multiple access technique. . A spread spectrum technique spreads the bandwidth of the data uniformly for the same transmitted power.a locally generated code runs at a much higher rate than the data to be transmitted. In CDMA .

(Tc is much smaller than Tb ). The ratio Tb / Tc is called the spreading factor or processing gain and determines to a certain extent the upper limit of the total number of users supported. **REVERSE PROCESS IS FOLLOWED AT RECIEVER SIDE** . The data signal with pulse duration of Tb is XOR’ed with the code signal with pulse duration of Tc. The bandwidth of the data signal is 1 / Tb and the bandwidth of the spread spectrum signal is 1 / Tc.   The figure shows how a spread spectrum signal is generated.

Improved call quality: CDMA provides better and more consistent sound quality than systems based on other technologies.       No SIM card is required. Dynamic allocation of channels is possible. Longer Battery Life and Smaller Phones. Enhanced privacy when compared to systems using other technologies. Longer Talk Time. . Fewer dropped calls due to handoff. Allows the largest number of subscribers to share the same radio frequencies.

which dominates the performance in most CDMA systems. ‘ROAMING’ on CDMA is limited.  Near-far problem is a serious hindrance. Tight synchronization is required to use orthogonal codes.  Since most countries have chosen the GSM standard.  Quasi-orthogonal codes cause self-interference. .

comic book store. images.      Daily Downloads : characters. Games and entertainment: magazine. Position location services: friend finder. Sending photos over the air: MMS messages. navigation assistance. horoscopes. . Real time stock quotes Text Communication : chat. instant messaging. SMS. E-mail.

• Technology of choice for 3G generation because of it’s Greater total capacity Outstanding voice quality Fewer dropped calls • RF planning and implementation is simplified by it’s Capability of re-using single cell frequency Non-contiguous bandwidth requirement • It’s use in satellite communication is of great importance .