Introduction of steam turbine

What is steam turbine?
Machine converting heat energy in the steam into mechanical energy at shaft Rotor coupled to shaft, receives its rotary motion direct from action of high velocity steam impinging on blade fitted in grooves around rotor peripheral 2 type of turbine – impulse & reaction

How is achieved?
Carnot cycle – Sadi Carnot Rankine cycle Improvement to Rankine cycle

Where it is fitted?
Power plant – single & COGAS ULCC Steamship

When it is introduced?

History of steam plant / turbine
WW2 – requirement for compact & powerful engine Introduction to more efficient & higher power diesel plant Boom for LNG transportation Introduction of dual fuel diesel plant Introduction of diesel electric plant

Advantages of steam turbine
Direct rotary motion on shaft More even torque on shaft No internal friction No internal lubrication required High power / weight ratio Steam expansion down to condenser pressure – high efficiency Less space occupy for turbine

Disadvantages steam turbine
 Large heavy condensing plant  Special heat resisting metal – inlet of HP turbines  Separate astern turbine required  Large / heavy reduction gearing – propeller efficiency at low speed  Special LO system & bearings – cope with high RPM & temp  Complex plant – proper warming through & cooling down, prevent distortion of rotors & casing  Higher fuel consumption??

Comparison
Steam turbine ER spaces Less Reciproc engine More

Weight
Attendance Utilisation of high vacuum High temperature High pressure Rubbing parts Reciprocating parts

Lighter
Less Better Permit use of high temp Permit use of high press No rubbing parts No (no vibe)

Heavy
More Not as good Not as good Not as good Rubbing parts Yes (vibration)

Overload capacity
Reliability Exhaust steam oil contamination Regulation

Extremely good
Very good Free Excellent

Not as good
Not as reliable Not free Not as good

Economic

For medium & large unit

For small size unit

Introduction of steam turbine
General arrangement

Classification
Method of steam expansion
Impulse turbine
Simple / single stage Velocity compounded Pressure compounded Pressure – velocity compounded

Reaction turbine Impulse reaction

Classification (cont/…)
Direction of steam flow
With relation to shaft
Axial flow Radial flow Tangential flow

With respect to sequence
Single flow Double flow Compounded, cross or tandem connected Re-entry / repeated flow

Classification (cont/…)
According to drive connection
Direct connected
High speed machinery – feed pump etc

Geared
Propulsion, generator at medium speed

Electric (indirect)
Turbine drive generator – fast action

Electric (indirect)
Advantages:
Excellent maneuverability Elimination of astern turbine Increased economy at reduced power

Disadvantages
If no power, no means for propulsion

According to shipboard use application
 High pressure condensing
Most efficient, more compact, utilises all energy

 High pressure non condensing
Small generator, feed pump, exhaust used for other purposes

 Extraction
Bled steam from turbine to drive other machinery

 Exhaust
Exhaust steam to drive turbine

 Re-heating
Recycle exhaust steam for other useful work

SINGLE CYLINDER ROTOR

Single cylinder rotor
Usually low power – up to 15000kW Advantages:
Reduced installation costs Reduced maintenance costs Mainly due to:
Simpler gland steam system Simpler LO system Simpler drain system Simpler turbovisory system Simpler gearing

Single cylinder rotor (cont/…)
Disadvantages:
Higher fuel consumption – steam rate about 1% higher due to:
Blade speed can’t be chosen for max efficiency Rotor length require larger shaft diameter – interstage losses are higher

Single failure can affect all Astern arrangement may have to be overhung

CROSS COMPOUND

Multi cylinder turbines
Marine installations – use at least 2 cylinders Each cylinder consist many stages Common – HP & LP cylinder Advantages:
Shorter turbines Smaller shaft length & diameter Smaller bearings – better lubrication

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