# Three-Phase AC machines

Resource 1

Introduction to Motors and Generators

Three-Phase AC Machines Resource 1

Introduction to Motors and Generators

Aims
• To provide an understanding of the motor and generator effect that links electricity to magnetism
• To provide an understanding of how to apply Fleming’s left and right hand rules.

Three-Phase AC Machines Resource 1

Introduction to Motors and Generators

Objectives
• • • • • • •

At the end of this lesson you should be able to:

Describe the effects of placing a current carrying conductor in a magnetic field Perform simple calculations for the force on a conductor in a magnetic field Apply Fleming’s Left Hand Motor rule Describe the effects of moving a conductor through a magnetic field Perform simple calculations for the induced EMF across a conductor moving through a magnetic field Apply Fleming’s Right Hand Generator Rule Describe the effects of passing a current through a coil of wire to form an electromagnet

4m carrying a current of 10. F = 0.6A is placed in a magnetic field with a flux density of 0.4 = 0.03 x 10.The Motor Effect F =B I L North pole [Newtons] B = Density of the magnetic flux in Teslas I = Induced current in Amps L Force B I South pole F L = Length of conductor in field in metres Example 1 If a conductor of length 0.1272 N .6 x 0. determine the force experienced by this conductor in newtons.03T.

The Motor Effect Fleming’s Left Hand Rule North pole Each digit of your hand must be at right angles to both of the other two second finger current thumb motion first finger field L Force B I South pole If the current is reversed. the direction of motion will change .

The Motor Effect Fleming’s Left Hand Rule North pole Each digit of your hand must be at right angles to both of the other two second finger current thumb motion B first finger field South pole If the current is reversed. the direction of motion will change F Force I .

The Motor Effect Fleming’s Left Hand Rule North pole Each digit of your hand must be at right angles to both of the other two F Force B second finger current thumb motion first finger field If the field is reversed. the motion will be in the opposite direction I South pole .

The Motor Effect Fleming’s Left Hand Rule South pole Each digit of your hand must be at right angles to both of the other two field second finger current thumb motion F Force B first finger I North pole If the field is reversed. the motion will be in the opposite direction .

we can show why Fleming’s left hand rule works Current into page Current out of page field is clockwise field is anticlockwise .The Motor Effect Using the following convention.

field lines in opposite directions cause attraction North Pole Force North Pole repulsion repulsion South Pole South Pole attraction Force attraction .The Motor Effect Field lines in the same direction cause repulsion.

The Motor Effect The force on a conductor can be increased by forming a single turn coil North Pole Blue spot represents the central pivot point South Pole .

The Motor Effect The force on a conductor can be increased by forming a single turn coil Top conductor experiences force to left Force North Pole South Pole .

The Motor Effect The force on a conductor can be increased by forming a single turn coil Top conductor experiences force to left Force North Pole Force South Pole Bottom conductor experiences force to right .

The Motor Effect The force on a conductor can be increased by forming a single turn coil Top conductor experiences force to left Force North Pole Force Bottom conductor experiences force to right South Pole Combined action causes rotation .

The Motor Effect Forces add up to a rotational force called Torque (T) in Newtons per metre North Pole T T South Pole .

The Motor Effect For a multi-turn coil North Pole Torque produced T= 2nFr n = number of coil turns T T F = force on single conductor r = radius of coil South Pole .

The Motor Effect For a multi-turn coil North Pole Torque produced T= 2nFr Example 2 A 100 turn coil has a radius of 0.1 = 2.88 Nm .15m.144 N T T T = 2nFr South Pole = 2 x 100 x 0.08 x 12 x 0.15 = 0.08T and carries 12A.144 x 0. It is placed at right angles in a magnetic field of flux density 0.1m and a length of 0. F = B I L = 0. calculate the force on each conductor and the total torque produced by the coil.

225 Volts .015T at a speed of 50m/s.3m when it is moved through a magnetic field of flux density 0..3 x 50 = 0.The Generator Effect e =B L v [Volts] North pole e Velocity v South pole L + I B B = Density of the magnetic flux in Teslas L = Length of conductor in field in metres v = velocity in metres per second Example 3 Calculate the EMF induced across the ends of a wire of length 0.015 x 0. e = 0.

The Generator Effect Fleming’s Right Hand Rule North pole e Velocity v South pole If the motion is reversed. the polarity of EMF will change and the current will be reversed L + I B thumb motion Each digit of your hand must be at right angles to both of the other two second finger current first finger field .

The Generator Effect Fleming’s Right Hand Rule North pole + e L Each digit of your hand must be at right angles to both of the other two B Velocity v I South pole second finger current thumb motion first finger field - If the motion is reversed. the polarity of EMF will change and the current will be reversed .

The Generator Effect Fleming’s Right Hand Rule North pole + e L Each digit of your hand must be at right angles to both of the other two B Velocity v I South pole second finger current thumb motion - first finger field If the field is reversed. the polarity of EMF will change again and the current will be reversed again .

the polarity of EMF will change again and the current will be reversed again .The Generator Effect Fleming’s Right Hand Rule South pole e L + Velocity B first finger field thumb motion second current finger Each digit of your hand must be at right angles to both of the other two I North pole If the field is reversed.

The Generator Effect An EMF can be generated in a rotational motion by forming a coil North Pole Motion Motion South Pole EMF generated in both sides of the coil add up .

The Generator Effect An EMF can be generated in a rotational motion by forming a coil North Pole v Linear velocity v of each conductor can be worked out from the rotational speed N and the radius r v=2πrN 60 m/s v South Pole The total EMF E of a coil having n turns moving at right angles to a magnetic field is as follows E=2ne Volts .

12 x 3000 60 e = 0.06 x 0. When the coil is in its vertical position at right angles to the field.06T and rotated at 3000rpm.23 x 37. calculate (a) the EMF on each conductor (b) the total EMF produced by the coil.52 = 208.23m.1 Volts Volts .7 e =B L v Volts v =2πrN 60 E=2ne Volts m/s E = 2 x 200 x 0.52 = 0. It is placed in a magnetic field of flux density 0.The Generator Effect An EMF can be generated in a rotational motion by forming a coil Example 4 A 200 turn coil has a radius of 0.7 m/s 2 π x 0. = v = 37.12m and a length of 0.

the magnetic fields around each wire add up to produce a strong electromagnet. One side of this magnet will be a North Pole while the other side will be a South Pole If the current in the electromagnet is reversed. .Electromagnetism When a coil is formed of many wire turns. the magnetic poles will swap sides.

Electromagnetism If the coil is wrapped around a soft iron core. In a motor. Electromagnets are used in motors and generators so that the strength of the field can be varied. In a generator. . the electromagnetic field becomes much stronger. this affects the speed and torque produced. it affects the voltage generated.

Further Study – Types of motor DC motors Series Field Shunt Field Compound Field AC induction Squirrel Cage Slip ring – wound rotor AC synchronous Salient Pole Cylindrical .

Further Study .DC Motor Performance Shunt Field Series Field Compound Field Speed Torque .

Further Study .AC Motor Performance Synchronous Cage Induction Wound induction Speed Speed .