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LIVESTOCK & FISHERIES IN PAKISTAN

THE ISLAMIA UNIVERSITY OF BAHAWALPUR

OVERVIEW
INTRODUCTION MAJOR AREAS ISSUES CURRENT & FUTURE POTENTIOL CONSTRAINTS DEPARTMENTS FISHERIES AND INTRODUCTION DEPARTMENT OF FISHERIES CURRENT SCENARIO CHALLENGES SUGGESTIONS

SADIA AKRAM

THE ISLAMIA UNIVERSITY OF BAHAWALPUR

LIVESTOCK AND FISHERIES IN PAKISTAN INTRODUCTION


Agriculture 49% GDP 11.2% Exports 10% Growth rate of 4-5% Avg. growth of 2.8% Reason of lower growth rate Purpose

LIVESTOCK AND FISHERIES IN PAKISTAN


INTRODUCTION
Fisheries 3.5% 2000-2005 1.2% Reason Scope for improvement Constraints for development Constraints for exports

MAIN FUNCTIONS OF
LIVESTOCK DEPARTMENTS
Technical services up to village level regarding disease control Providing training to rural farmer regarding modern technologies for establishment Providing modern technologies regarding increasing production Development measures to increase the efficiency of Agriculture sub-sector

LIVESTOCK DEPARTMENTS
Animal Quarantine Department (AQD):The department is responsible to regulate
the import, export and quarantine of animals and animal products in order to prevent the introduction or spread of diseases.

LIVESTOCK DEPARTMENTS
Livestock Wing (LW) :The Livestock
Division, (now Livestock Wing) was created in 1974 to organize the activities of livestock sector.

MINFAL:is mainly responsible for policy


formulation,economic coordination and planning in respect of food grain, agricultural & livestock.

LIVESTOCK DEPARTMENTS
MINFAL:is mainly responsible for policy
formulation,economic coordination and planning in respect of food grain, agricultural & livestock.

Livestock
Between 1955 and 1996,population increased by Buffalo increased by 248%, cattle by 75%, sheep by 277%, goats by 530%, camels by 33% and poultry by 4255%.

Livestock
There are an estimated 20.7 million buffaloes, 17.9 million cattle, 30.5 million sheep, 47.6 million goats, 1.2 million camels and 380 million poultry. Annual production is 1.029 million tones of beef, 1.003 million of mutton, 385,000 of poultry meat and 20.95 million of milk, in addition to 5.915 billion eggs (Livestock Wing 1997).

Table gives the distribution among provinces.


specie pun s Goat sheep buffal o cattle camel 35.92 % 28.70 170.1 0 50.27 33.5 sind 22.56 % 11.23 20.5 22.08 22.8 20.82 NWF 14.01 % 9.58 8.09 18.73 7.3 16.7 balutn Nor 24.37 % 47.71 .40 6.6 36.4 5.7 3.14 % 2.76 .0048 2.32 .084 .1505 total 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%

poultr 56.62 y

Breeds Of Livestock
Two breeds of dairy buffaloes, the NiliRavi and Kundi 10 breeds of cattle: the Sahiwal and Red Sindhi dairy breeds, the dual-purpose Cholistani and Dhanni, and the draft breeds Thari, Dhajal, Baghdadi, Lohani, Rojhan and Konkrej. 31 breeds of sheep, the most important are Baltistani, Bibrik, Cholistani, Kachhi, Kajli, Lohi and Lati, or Salt Range.

Breeds Of Livestock
34 breeds of goat, of which the most important are Beetal, Dera Din Panah, Kamori, Nachi and Teddy. 15 breeds of camel, including both riverine and mountain types.

MAJOR AREAS IN LIVESTOCK


Dairy production
Rural subsistence smallholdings Milk for family Unit consists of three buffaloes Grazing

MAJOR AREAS IN LIVESTOCK


Dairy production
Rural market-oriented smallholdings Producing milk in excess of family requirements Unit consists of fewer than six buffaloes
Main source of milk in Pakistan

MAJOR AREAS IN LIVESTOCK Dairy production


Rural commercial farms More than 40 animals Fodder crops are grown Contribution is small Peri-urban commercial dairy farms largest being at the Landhi Cattle Colony, Karachi 150,000 milking animals Most herds in this sector have 15 to 50 animals

MAJOR AREAS IN LIVESTOCK Sheep and goats


Nomadic Transhumant Sedentaryhousehold

MAJOR AREAS IN LIVESTOCK Poultry


Rural poultry contributes 56% of total egg production and 25% of poultry meat The traditional rural system Commercial poultry production

Poultry The Traditional rural system


Flocks of between 5 and 10 birds Common breeds are Desi, Lyallpur Silver Black, Aseel, Fayoumi, Rhode Island Red and crosses Women's work

Poultry Commercial poultry production


Investment of over RS 23 billion The average size of a layer flock is 2500 and a broiler 2200 birds Brick houses

Improvement in present system of poultry


Packing and distribution system should be modernized Government should take immediate steps to improve the roads Prices of feed and medicines should be kept within reasonable limits. Poultry coordination boards should be established

Improvement in present system of poultry


Long run vaccination should be started at national level. Government should construct veterinary laboratory Steps should be taken to improve sanitary and hygienic conditions

Research in Livestock
PARC had a technical committee on animal health and production The research areas for immediate attention are Breeding : selection and breeding models for the different livestock production systems Identification of special traits of different breeds and conservation of animal genetic resources

Research in Livestock
Nutrition :
Availability of feed in different production systems throughout the year Reproduction : Development of methods for accurate heat detection in buffaloes in smallholdings

Research in Livestock
Health :
working models for disease and monitoring
Reasons for failure of vaccination against disease Development of combined vaccines for large and small ruminants

Dairy science :
Methods for inducing milk ejection in buffaloes Milk preservation methods suitable for local conditions

Research in Livestock
Research is carried out by PARC at the federal level Livestock improvement will be possible only through investment in research and development Increased demand for livestock products

Livestock Reduces Poverty


Each family holds about 2-3 cattle/buffalo and 3-4 sheep/goats and derives 30 to 40 per cent of its income from it. Small scale producer Role of women Protein intake of poor is by enhancing livestock production. In rural areas farming, livestock, and non-farm activities are major sources of employment and income Livestock development is imperative for strengthening of the national economy globalization.

CREDIT POLICY FOR POVERTY REDDUCTION


The policy that has already been submitted to the prime ministers secretariat Banks were unwilling to grant loans against the guarantee of sheds as proposed by MINFAL Banks turned down to lend between Rs 0.5 million and Rs 5 million. Policy of banks to give credit to only those who have property

Current Situation Of Live Stock And Potential Exist In This Sector

Constraints To Livestock Production:


Biological

The lack of proven bulls and a good artificial insemination service have resulted in a large number of animals with low genetic potential. This is a major problem in setting up dairy and small ruminant development projects.

Estimated feed and fodder resources meet only 70% of the calculated feed requirements of the livestock population. Although sufficient in quantity, the quality of poultry feed is questionable. Infectious diseases and parasitesvaccination against infectious diseases ranges from 0.5% to 10% and the quality of available vaccines needs to be improved. The animal disease surveillance and monitoring system is poor and diagnostic facilities are inadequate.

POLICY CONSTRAINT

There is a lack of government investment. Total allocation for livestock in most of the five-year development plans has not exceeded 1% and is less than 8% of the agriculture sector allocation. Most livestock raised on smallholdings by poor, landless farmers, who are not organized and have no political voice. In many areas, keeping livestock is a matter of prestige rather than an economic activity. An unplanned marketing system with too many middlemen reduces producers profits. The mandates of research and development institutions lack clarity and are too broad in relation to available resources.

There is a lack of well-documented, site-specific management guidelines for different livestock

operations.
Rangelands are deteriorating because of unplanned and excessive grazing. There is no land tenure and

no investment in the common rangeland.


With no price premiums for quality milk and meat, the viability of the commercial dairy and meat industries is questionable

Contribution of livestock in major industrial export of Pakistan


The significance of the Food Industry to Pakistans economy can be determine from the fact that it contributes approximately 23% to total GDP. With a natural inclination towards agro resources, Pakistan is capable of producing a vast variety of food commodities fresh as well as processed. Increasingly now, the food industry is capitalizing on the availability and use of latest machinery to meet growing domestic & international demand.

In the backdrop of a buoyant growth rate of 6.6 %, the contribution of the agro processing industry was a healthy 22.7% of total value added in the manufacturing sector; in terms of employment repository the agricultural sector contributes over 42% of the available workforce Apart from agricultural inputs like wheat, maize, cotton and sugarcane, products such as fruits, vegetables and dairy also play a vital role. Milk production, as per latest statistics stands at 31 million tones which translate to about 51% of the total value of the livestock sector. Pakistan also enjoys a place among the top ten citrus fruit producers in the world. Ranked fourth in worldwide sugarcane production and twelfth in

sugar production

Another sub-segment that shows tremendous potential is the beverage industry; currently there are about 170 units in operation around the country that produce water, syrups and squashes.

Major Pakistani exports comprise fresh fruits, vegetables and their preparations, fish and fish preparations, spices, nuts, confectionery, sugar and other sugar preparations while imports include tea, dairy products, confectionery, chocolates, cocoa, margarine and shortening, together making Pakistan an important market for technologies as well as products.

MAJOR EXPORTS OF PAKISTAN


S.NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 COMMODITIES Rice Fish & Fish Preparations Fruits Vegetables Fruit & Vegetable Juices Poultry/ Eggs Albumen Meat & Meat Preparation Sugar Oil Seeds, Nuts & Kernels Spices Cereal Preparation & Confectionary 2005-2006 VALUE (US $) 1,112,447 196,151 117,052 24,994 13,944 2,000 19,000 22,000 11,218 23,387 32,032

12
13 14 15 16 17 18 19

Tobacco
Salt Dairy Product Maize Natural Honey Sugar Syrup /Glucose Tea Beverages

6,071
2,970 4,204 10,081 26 3,127 10,775 567

New Zealand: is heavily dependent on trade -particularly in agricultural products -to drive growth. Exports are equal to about 20% of GDP.

Exporting Commodities

Dairy, eggs, honey etc (HS 04), Meat (HS 02), Wood (HS 44), Machinery(HS 84), Edible Fruits & uts (HS 08), Fish & Seafood (HS 03), Special other projects (HS 98), Aluminium (HS 76), Electrical : Machinery (HS 85) and Albumins (HS 35).

Historically, New Zealand's economy was built on the farming sector, and its primary producers are among the world's best. Companies like Fonterra, the world's largest exporter of dairy products, have combined traditional strengths with modern technology and business practices.

QUALITY WOOL PRODUCTION:

Although there is a strong need in Pakistan for wool and mutton development, no serious efforts have so far been made in this regard because of resource constraints. The province of Sindh possesses 16 per cent of sheep population in the country which are kept mainly for their meat.

Reasons For Mutton And Wool Losses


It is the only animal which serves multiple purposes suitable in deserts and hilly areas where other animals fail to thrive, mainly due to lesser water and fodder availability. 1)It is estimated that mutton and wool losses due to mortality is approximately 10 per cent whereas production losses due to improper feeding and parasitic diseases (both ecto and endoparasitic) is not less than 30 per cent. 2)The losses of wool are estimated up to 20 per cent due to faulty shearing as about 1/4 wool is left over body of sheep. The quality of skin is also lowered due to the fact that many cuts are left over the skin due to improper shearing.

3) It is estimated that sheep have increased in numbers by more than 41 per cent during the period from 1986 to 1996. However, profitability has not increased due to lack of knowledge of breeding, management, nutrition, disease control measures, drenching against endo-parasitic and dipping against ecto- parasitic diseases. 4)The district Tharparkar is richest in sheep population, which possesses 40 per cent of the province's sheep population and is most suitable for sheep and wool development. Other such areas in the province are those of Nara area of Khairpur and Kohistan of Dadu.

Suggestion To Improve Quality Wool Production


The wool development centers once established at taluka/ union council level, can serve training places for wool development where owners in the areas be registered and provided technical assistance and veterinary extension services. These services can be provided through trained leader or an NGO in the village.

In Sindh the present population is about 23.5 million sheep from which 6.12 million kg wool is obtained. It can be doubled by providing modern techniques such as: 1. Control of ectoparasites; 2. Shearing with modern electric machines; 3. Keeping quality wool separate from lower parts wool; 4. Storing and protecting wool from parasites; 5. Selling wool at a time when it fetches the highest price.

The Growing Livestock Farming


Livestock is the second important sector of agriculture While the share of agriculture in GDP declined from 26 in 1986-87 to 24 per cent in 2003-04, the share of livestock went up from eight to 11.4 per cent during that period. In other words, the share of livestock in agriculture increased from 30 to 48 per cent. Its foreign exchange earnings increased to Rs53 billion in 2003-04 which is 12.34 per cent of the total national export earnings as compared to its share of 5.3 per cent in 2001-02. Despite the neglect of livestock sector, its share in GDP and that of agriculture as well as of export earnings increased.

Increase of livestock population between 1960-61 to 2002-03


Livestock Baffloes Cattle Goats Sheep Camels Donkeys Horses Mules Total

1960-61 2002-03 Increase (million in numbers) 8.2 24.8 16.6 16.4 23.3 6.9 10.4 52.8 42.4 12.4 24.6 12.2 0.4 0.8 0.4 1.4 4.0 2.6 0.3 0.3 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.1 (1966-67) 49.6 130.8 81.2

ANALYSIS
there was significant increase in the population of livestock, especially goats, buffaloes, sheep and cattle in the given order. Although, there was increase in the population of camels and bovines, but this increase except that of donkeys was not significant .Because their population was below one million in 1960-61 and it remained below one million even after 43 years in 2002-03.

Increase in livestock products Livestock 1971-72 2002-03 Increase products (000 tons) Milk 7800.0 27611.0 20011.0 Beef 346.0 1060.0 714.0 Mutton 208.0 702.0 494.0 Poultry meet 14.0 372.0 358.0 Wool 22.1 39.7 17.6 Hair 2.9 19.9 17.0 Bones 152.0 348.0 196.0 Fat 45.8 129.7 83.9 Blood 14.2 44.0 29.8 (million numbers) Egg 583.0 7991.0 7408.0 Hides 4.3 8.2 3.9 Skins 16.4 40.3 23.9

Analysis
there was significant increase in livestock products such as milk ,beef ,mutton poultry meat and eggs etc .But inspite of significant increase in milk production mostly due to increase in the number of buffaloes ,cattle and milk breeds of goats and sheep ,the import of milk and milk bye-products increase from Rs226 million in 1978-79 to Rs770 million in 2002-03.

Increase in livestock but shortage of meat


Again, most of the big cities are facing shortage of meat due to smuggling of animals and meat to Afghanistan and Middle Eastern countries ,besides their export to these countries as well. This has not only caused meat deficiency in the big cities resulting in persistent increase in meat prices . For instance, due to such shortage of meat in Karachi ,animals were smuggled from India in 2002 .The situation was further compounded due to decline in supply of animals from Thar. Such shortage of meat and consequent price hike was also experienced in the twin cities of Rawalpindi and Islamabad during this period. It has been reported that government is now considering to import animals from India

Reasons
This shows mismanagement that prevails in the sector as well as in case of crop sector suggesting that both these sectors of agriculture need attention of policy makers on top priority basis for immediate planning on sound economic parameters for attaining self sufficiency.

Potential Exist In Growing Livestock Sector


Camel and its by-products have great potential of their export to Middle East ,Africa and other countries.

Policy makers and planners of livestock development should seriously consider to establish a national camel research institute in Thal, Cholistan, Thar and Chagai-Kharan based on technical and socio-economic parameters as has been done by India at Bikaner in their Rajisthan desert .

Recent policies to improve livestock by government


Diversification project vital for poverty reduction: Bosan
The present government is giving top priority to achieve selfreliance in agriculture commodities, ensure food security and improve productivity of crops and livestock .. This was stated by Minister for Food, Agriculture and Livestock, Sikandar Hayat Khan Bosan while inaugurating the seminar on Agribusiness Development Awareness organized by the Ministry of Food and Agriculture 1) He said the Agribusiness Development and Diversification Project is one of the most important projects of its kind in agriculture sector of Pakistan.

2) This project's activity will directly improve the condition of over 70%
of the population living in rural areas and will prove a vital policy instrument for poverty reduction in the country.

3) The Minister said the policy objectives are to create an enabling


environment for market led growth by the private sector, adding, the emphasis would be on market oriented production system which will lead to increased production and productivity of crops and livestock sector

4) This will consequently increase the income of the farmers and


decrease rural poverty

5.The Agribusiness Development & Diversification Project at a cost of Rs. 4066 million with ADB loan of Rs. 1860 million is being implemented by the Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock in consultation with all the four provinces and the special areas.

Dr. Tusneem assures good governance accountability in PARC

1) Dr. Muhammad E. Tusneem, Chairman, Pakistan Agricultural Research Council (PARC) has said that strategic research could be undertaken only in an environment of science culture based on merit. 2) Addressing an audience of agriculture scientists and technical support officers at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC) on Sept. 9, he called upon the scientists to keep pace with the challenges of 21st century and work hard towards achieving the goal of qualitative research. 3) The Chairman stressed on the urgent need to sharpen the research focus from conventional to high-tech, futuristic research. He desired doing away with the mundane conventional projects and said that research should be resource based and demand driven focusing on strategic and policy research.

The impact of globalization on poor livestock keepers:


At the same time, there has been a growing demand for meat and milk in many developing countries. Together, these developments present both significant opportunities and risks for the millions of poor people who keep livestock.
Critics warn that the opportunities of globalization have been unevenly distributed and can work against developing countries . Poor livestock keepers, for instance, usually cannot afford to meet the sanitation standards required to trade globally and find it Increasingly difficult to compete at home when cheap export products are introduced to local markets. Increased meat and milk

Production and the processing they require to meet the demands of the global marketplace can have a significant impact on natural resources. The more land is needed for livestock

the more nutrients are taken from the soil, the more deforestation occurs, the more wildlife preserves are threatened and the more wasteland gas emissions are produced.

How all can get benefit from globalization


Poor livestock keepers can benefit from globalization, but only when they are equipped to compete in the marketplace. To keep up with the growing demand for milk and meat, they need disease-control measures to make sure their animals stay healthy, passable roads to get to markets and access to financial services that will support their enterprises.

To be able to comply with stricter food-safety regulations, they need access to refrigeration, and facilities for food processing and storage. With the right tools, organization and training, and with adequate investment for long-term economic growth, poor livestock keepers will be in a better position to tackle the risks of globalization and seize its opportunities. Over the past 20 years, globalization has hit the worlds agricultural sector and opened up its markets to an unprecedented degree. .

Saira Ahmed

THE ISLAMIA UNIVERSITY OF BAHAWALPUR

Definition
The occupation or industry of catching, processing and selling fish and shellfish; an area where fish or shellfish a rates

FISHERIES HISTORICALLY

GENERAL ECONOMIC DATA


Area Total shelf area Length of coastline Population(2001) GDP per head Agriculture GDP 803 945 km2 50270 Km2 1120 Km 142070000 US$ 60757 m US$ 13522 m

Production

Imports

Exports

Total Supply

Percaputconsuptio n kg/year

'000 tons live weight

Fish for direct human consumption

430.5

0.0

118.6

311.9

2.2

Fish for animal feed and other purposes

177.1

0.0

0.0

Estimated employment (2001): Primary sector: Secondary sector: Gross value of fisheries output (at ex-vessel prices) (2001-02): Trade (2001-02): value of imports: Negligible 471 500, of which 287 000 inland fishermen and 184 000 marine fishermen 110 000 US$ 330.73 million

value of exports:

US$ 125.6 million

Fish Harbours Of Pakistan


Karachi Fisheries Harbour Korangi Fish Harbour Pasni Fish Harbour Gwadar Fish Harbour

MISSION:
Improvement of Fish production by providing better technical services. VISION: To enhance fish production by increasing per acre yield of fish.

Functions of Fisheries Department


Conservation of Fisheries Resources. Management and development of resources on scientific lines. Training of Fisheries and Fish farmers and inservice training. Extension Services of Private Sector. Revenue earning through auctioning / licensing of water resources. Supplies of quality fish-seed to private fish farmers on subsidized rates

Aims & Objectives


Provide guidance to fish farming community. Help new fish farmers in feasibility studies Management and improvement fishing fleet Collection, analysis, interpretation and publication of fisheries statistical data Advice to federal and provincial governments in matters relating to fisheries Provide quality control service Provide technical assistance and promotion of fish processing industry :

No:

Name of Activity

Achievement

Unit 1 Preparation of feasibility for No new projects

2002-03 2

2003-04 3

2004-05 5

Construction farms

of

new

fish No

13

22

30

Area Developed

Acres

23

32

47

S.No

Name of Activity

Achievement

2002-03
1 Services rendered for stoking of 43 good quality fish seed (No of Farms

2003-04
68

2004-05
45

S.No

Name of Activity

Achievement
2002-03 2003-04 120 2004-05 65

No of Farms checked for Water 59 Analysis.

Monitoring of Growth Rate:

Name of Activity S.No

Unit

Achievement 2002-03 2003-04 63 2004-05 35

No of Farms Checked No. for Monitoring of Growth Rate

23

Fisheries Contribution To The National Economy

The value of fish and fish product is about 0.8%of total GDP. Fishery sector provide employment to about 1% of Pakistan's labour force. Export of fish is about 5%of all export earnings

Seventh Five-Year Plan and Perspective Plan Targets

In 1986 government of Pakistan constituted NCA. NCA proposed a strategy for years 1988-2000. Aimed to improve the productivity of livestock and fisheries.

Strategy of this commission was to reach the sustainable yield of 60,000 tonnes

Rana Farhan Ali

THE ISLAMIA UNIVERSITY OF BAHAWALPUR

Current Scenario
71% from capture fisheries rest from aquaculture practices 38% of total is exported 80% export to the developed countries 74% used for direct human consumption For direct human consumption was fresh fish (a share of 53.7 percent), followed by frozen fish (25.7 percent), canned fish (11.0 percent)

PAKISTAN IN THE PRESENT WORLD


Fisheries contribute only 0.3 percent to the overall GDP 1.3 percent to the agricultural GDP Export Earnings of $160 million per annum Providing direct employment to about 379,000 fishermen 400,000 people are employed in ancillary industries 25% of world exports 1.6 kg per person per year (compared to world average of 16.2 kg per person per year).

TWO BROED STRATIGIES FOR FISHING


Coastal water fishing (up to 12 nautical miles ) Deep-sea fishing Zone I (12 to 35 nautical miles ) Zone II (35 to 200 nautical miles )

CREDIT ALLOCATION
Receiving just 0.4 percent of the total this sector for fixed capital requirements like trawlers and other equipment. Bad infrastructure, Neglected sector Small opportunity considered Need to extend long-term credit to Bank.

FISHERIES RESOURCE INFORMATON SYSTEM AND TOOL(FiRST)

Long-term data storage Data analyses to support management decisions at a range of spatial scales Data-sharing and collaborative analyses From commercial fisheries, to guide management.

FIRST AIM TO FACILITATE


Long-term data storage Data retrieval for current and future users Validation and checking of data Data visualization through summaries (tables, graphs and maps) Data analysis through extraction of data in formats suitable for analysis in statisticalrograms. Retrospective analyses to understand the causes and rates of ecological change Data analyses at the geographic scales appropriate to management needs and resource boundaries Maximization of the use of limited resources, ensuring that previous and future surveys are fully used and that surveys are not duplicated Increased awareness of the state of resources

Impact OF SEPTEMBER 11
$97 million against $109 million ,fall of 11% in 2001-2002 (AUP) $1.5 from $1.75 per kg 3.42 per cent more quantities but could not get desired earning 30-40 per cent decline in purchase orders India, Bangladesh, Vietnam and Thailand benefited Presence of Chloramphenicol in shrimps, sampled consignments. Pakistan Fish Inspection and Quality Control Act

CHALLENGES
Maintain hygienic condition Processing units, not operating or in very poor condition EU ,Quality Control Of SeaFood 16000 Fish Boats Capacity is only 10,000 tons Mechanized trawling for fish resources in deeper waters
2 million hectares of freshwater bodies Inland fisheries

SUGGESSIONS
Sufficient investments and market expansion Awareness Government should work as intermediary Credit Allocation Training and Guidance Value Added Goods Vessels up gradation Handling of fish onboard fishing vessels Upgraded Boats And Catching machinery.