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Well planning Objective: To formulate a drilling program for drilling a well having following characteristics: (1) safety: Highest

priority in well planning Personnel considerations must be placed above all. Second priority involves safety of well and rig equipment. Contingency plan for fire and blow out should form an integral part of well plan. (2) minimum cost: Minimize the cost of the well without sacrificing or compromising on the safety aspects. (3) usable: The objective of drilling a hole to target depth will not be achieved if the final well configuration is not usable.

Usable means: The final hole diameter is large enough to facilitate desired completion. The pay zone is not irreparably damaged. Activities before start of drilling operation: Activities undertaken prior to start drilling operation can be broken down into the following steps: Release of location. Survey of surface / subsea location. Sometimes the cost can be reduced by a small change in surface location. Civil works and foundation for onshore drill-site and soil coring / sea bed survey in case of offshore well. Preparation of geo-technical order. Preparation of complete well programmed.

Preparation of bill of material and initiation of purchase, if required. Procedures from obtaining sanction for purchase to receipt of material. Rig allocation and its shifting to the new location. Input data for well planning: The information's required for planning of a well are: The objective of well. Well data package consisting of seismic data, location map, structural map, expected pore pressures, offset and correlation logs and information on formation type, top and thickness.

Offset and correlated drilled wells data consisting of bit record, mud reports, mud logging data, drilling reports, well completion reports, complication reports and production / injection histories. Proposed logging, testing and coring programs. Government reflection and companys policy. Geo technical order: The various input data are thoroughly analyzed and the geo-technical order (G.T.O) is prepared which provides broad guidelines for drilling of the well. G.T.O. Furnishes the following details: General data, like well name, well number, area, location, water depth, elevation, well type, category, objectives of the well etc.

(A)

geological data consists of following details: Depth Age Formation Litho logy Interval of coring Electro logging Collection of cuttings Angle of dip Oil / gas shows Formation pressure Formation temperature Mud loss / caving zones

(B) mud parameters consist of: Type of mud Specific gravity Viscosity Ph Percentage of sand Filtration loss (D) drilling data includes: Casing policy and rise of cement Type of drilling Type and size of bit Number of bits expected and Meterage per bit Weight on bit Rpm of rotary Stand pipe pressure Pump discharge Bit nozzle details, Drilling time, remarks, if any

Drilling program preparation: Drilling program can be broken down into 13 main sections: Well details Well objectives BHA design Casing policy Wellhead selection Bop requirements Cementing program Deviation program Survey requirements Mud program Bit and hydraulics program Evaluation requirements Estimation of well cost

BHA design Drill stem constitutes members used for drilling by the rotary method from swivel to the drilling bit. It consists of Kelly, drill pipe and BHA BHA ( bottom hole assembly ) includes drill collars, stabilizers, jars, reamers, shock sub, bit sub etc. Kelly - Heavy square or hexagonal steel pipe , to transmit rotating force to the bit through drill string. Length- 11 to 16.5 meters Size - 5 1/ 4 OD, 3 ID

Drill pipe OD-

used to connect Kelly to bit 2 3/ 8 to 6 5/ 8 obsolete commonly used commonly used

Range - 1 (18 22 feet ) 2 (27 3 0 feet) 3 (38 - 45 feet) Grade E X G S Min. Yield strength - 75000 psi - 95000 psi - 105000 psi - 135000 psi

HWDPHeavy weight drill pipe (HWDP) reduces failures at transition zone . It also increases performance and depth capabilities of small rigs in shallow drilling areas. Drill collars Heavy , thick walled steel pipes Drill collars provide Weight on bit for drilling Keep the drill pipe in tension & maintains weight to keep the drill stem from being subjected to buckling forces Minimize bit stability problems from vibrations, wobbling and bouncing etc. Spiral drill collars are used to reduce pressure differential sticking in the hole Sizes - 3 1/ 8 to 11 OD Shape - round , square, spiral

Drill stem auxilliaries Drill stem sub Kelly saver sub Lifting sub Stabilizers & reamers Thread protectors Bettis protector

Casing policy: Functions of casing : To isolate troublesome or unstable formations ( lost circulation zones and heaving shales ). To isolate different pressure or fluid regimes. To protect fresh water zones. To protect producing horizons from mud and mud filtrate contamination. To protect weaker zones from breakdown caused by heavy muds whose hydrostatic head is required for pressure control purposes in lower sections. To control well pressure by containment of downhole pressures. To provide a stable seat for packers, liner hangers etc. To support the well head and BOP stack. To confine produced fluid to the well bore and provide a flow path for it.

Estimation of formation pore pressureMost of the decisions pertaining to casing policy are based on formation pore pressure. The two sources of well pressure data for well planning are geophysical / geological data and offset well data. In the exploratory wildcat wells in new area, pore pressure prediction has to be done by analyzing seismic data. Seismic data is used in the exploration phase to locate potential reservoir traps and to estimate formation tops in the litho logical column. It can be used to give a qualitative estimate of the formation pressure and hence an indication of any pore pressure abnormalities.

The presence of over pressured formations and an estimate of the magnitude of the overpressure can be predicted by studying the seismic velocity data from shale sequences. As the density and elasticity of shale increases with depth and compaction, the seismic velocity will increase. Over pressured shales are under compacted, which, at a particular depth will result in lower density and elasticity than expected and therefore, a lower seismic velocity than expected. Shallow gas sands present one of the most difficult well control problems particularly in offshore drilling operations. They tend to be high pressure and low volume and can unload a well very quickly with risk of toppling jack-up rigs, sinking floaters and causing fire and explosion. In order to try and identify potential gas bearing zones at shallow depths, detailed high resolution seismic surveys are performed and analyzed by what is known as bright spot technique.

Estimation of formation fracture pressureCan be based on anticipated geology and offset well records. It is important to have an accurate assessment of this so that casing seat can be selected in an effective manner. Once a leak-off test has been carried out in the well, equations such as daines are used by employing values of poissons ratio for given formations to estimate probable fracture gradients at other depths in the well. In case of continuous depositional basins, Eaton's equation with suitable modifications can be used for the estimation of fracture pressure gradient.

Casing seat selectionAfter the pore pressure and fracture pressure charts have been drawn, size of final production conduit is decided so as to select different casing sizes required to be lowered at various casing seats selected. The setting depth depends upon : Competency of formations with high fracture gradients. Length of open hole section. Requirement of cementing programs. Other anticipated down hole problems.

Casing designCasing design is carried out considering following criteria: Burst Collapse Tensile Other Loadings Burst is pipe failure which occurs when the pressure inside the pipe is greater than the internal yield value of the pipe plus the pressure outside the pipe. Collapse occurs when the external force on the pipe is greater than the combination of the internal pressure plus the collapse strength of the pipe. Tensile failure occurs if the pull exerted on the pipe is too great for the tensile strength of the pipe or coupling.

Wellhead selectionThe wellhead must be of correct pressure rating, designed for the special services like H2S environment if required and be capable of accommodating all designed casing strings. BOP requirementThe BOP requirement for a given well will depend upon company policy and anticipated bottom hole pressures. Surface holes have either no BOP requirement, or will need to use a diverter. BOPs for H2S well will be different from that used in a normal oil well .

Cementing programsObjectives To bond and support casing. Protecting the casing from corrosion. To restrict fluid movement between formations ( zonal isolation ). The effectiveness of cementation depends on these main factors, all of which must be considered.

Slurry design Oil well cement slurry consists of cement, water and additives. Volume of cement slurry is calculated which is proportional to the height of cement column in the annulus. Estimation of bottom hole temperature to predict slurry behavior down hole. Mud type and its parameters which may affect cementing process. Formation in which casing is to cemented. Hole geometry.

Some of the important slurry properties-: YieldVolume of space the slurry will occupy after having been mixed with water and additives as per design specifications. A high yield slurry is one that will contain relatively large amount of water and therefore be of relatively low density. DensitySlurry must be dense enough to control formation pressures but not cause formation breakdown. Light weight slurries can be prepared by adding extenders such as bentonite to the slurry mix water or by aerating slurry. Weighing materials such as ilmenite, hematite and barite can be added to increase slurry density.

Compressive strength Cement must have compressive strength to support the casing and isolate zones. The speed at which cement slurry develops compressive strength depends to a great extent on down hole temperatures. If temperatures are too low to allow a particularly slurry to reach sufficient compressive strength in a reasonable amount of time, chemicals can be added to slurry to accelerate hardening and promote strength development. Calcium chloride is the most common accelerator.

Fluid lossThis is the amount of water lost from slurry to the formation for a given pressure differential. If this not controlled , then fluid can be lost from slurry causing premature or flash setting. To control fluid loss, chemicals such as synthetic polymers and cellulose derivatives are used. Flow characteristicsGood flow characteristics contribute to good formation bonding and less pumping difficulties. Additives are available to reduce cement friction and to encourage slurry turbulence at low pump rates. Thickening timeThis determines how long the slurry remains pumpable and depends mainly upon the cement composition and down hole temperature. It can be manipulated by using retarders.

Casing accessories selectionCasing accessories are attachments, used to ensure good cementation. Casing shoe- screwed or welded onto the lower end of the lowest joint of casing. These are four types :Guide shoe- serves as an aid to guide casing in open hole and has a hole in the middle for mud circulation. Float shoe- similar to guide shoe but has a non return valve for better well control during running casing. The casing is filled from surface during casing run. Differential fill- up shoe- uses a valve which allows mud to flow into the casing to keep it partially full. A steel ball can be dropped and pumped into the shoe to shear out a seat and convert the shoe into a regular float type.

Float collars- usually placed at one or two joints above the casing shoe. They serve as a stop for the cement wiper plug so that all the slurry is not displaced into the annulus. Multi stage collars- used to locate two distinct separate columns of cement in the annulus when one continuous column would produce too much hydrostatic pressure on the formation or zonal isolation is required. Centralizers- are placed on the outside of the casing to keep it concentric with the hole. Plugs- have hollow drillable alloy interior and rubber outer fins to wipe clean the casing walls. The bottom plug has a diaphragm that is ruptured by pressure after it seats on the collar. The top plug has solid alloy insert and is used to pressure test the casing.

Displacement methods- cement should be displaced in a state of turbulent flow. In case there is difficulty in achieving turbulent flow with the existing rig pump, the cement should be displaced in a plug flow regime. Pre-flushes, spacers and scavengers- any mixing of mud and cement will reduce the quality of cement job. Pre-flushes, spacers and scavengers are used to separate mud and also to condition the hole to give better ultimate bonding between cement and formation. Pre-flushes and spacers are usually made up of a combination of cement, mix water, weighing material and additives designed to help remove wall cake and to give better cement / formation bonding characteristics. The weighing material is to provide primary well control. Scavenger is a diluted form of the cement slurry used in the main job.

Deviation programApplications Side tracking. Drilling to avoid geological problems. Controlling vertical holes. Drilling beneath inaccessible locations. Development drilling. Relief well drilling. Planning considerations Lateral or horizontal displacement from the target to a vertical line from the rig. Kick off point ( kop ). Desired build angle rate. Directional profile Final drift angle Desired drop angle ( in case of s curve )

Highly deviated wells ( extended reach )- Highly deviated wells may be described as those wells whose inclination exceeds 60 degree for most of their length. Advantages Increase in horizontal reach from a central platform. Increased length of completion zone through the reservoir. Limitations Increased frictional resistance against borehole, making it difficult to run and pull tools. The tendency for solids to settle out from the drilling fluid and cement slurries. It becomes more difficult to control direction and apply WOB.

Horizontal drilling- A horizontal well is one where the inclination reaches 90 degree through the reservoir section. Horizontal drilling is useful to profitably exploit heavy oil reservoirs, marginal oil fields and thin bed reservoirs. Water / gas coning problem is also substantially minimized by using this technique. Depleted reservoirs can also be revived to be good producers by drilling sufficiently longer intervals horizontally in the pay beds. The extra cost of drilling a horizontal well is justified by the potential of additional production.

Drain hole drilling or short radius drilling- used for production from tight formations and reducing gas or water coning problems. In this type of profile, the well is drilled vertically using conventional techniques. After logs or DSTs have been carried out to evaluate the formation, the well is plugged back to a point above the oil water contact. A special BHA is then run which is used to build up angle rapidly along a circular arc of about 6 12 mt. ( Corresponding to a build up rate of 2 3 degree per foot drilled. ) Reaching almost horizontal after drilling only 15 18 mt. of hole. The achieved angle is then hold using a stabilized BHA through the reservoir section. These small diameter holes are generally left uncased. The same technique can be repeated further up the hole for multiple zone exploration and production from single well bore. It is also possible to drill out of a cased hole ( side track) after a window has been cut.

Mud programIt can be done in following steps Determination of mud weight requirement to maintain primary well control. Determination of suitable trip margin which is added to the primary well control mud weight to give a programmed mud weight. Confirmation that this mud weight does not exceed formation fracture strength when considered in a dynamic mode. Analysis of formation to be drilled and the likely reaction of these to the available drilling fluid alternatives.

Using this information , a basic mud type is selected such as : Water basedi) Fresh water mud ii) Sea water mud iii) Calcium mud iv) Lignosulphonate mud v) Polymer mud Oil basedi) Invert oil emulsion mud ii) Environmentally sensitive oil based mud Determination of fluid loss, ph and viscosity requirements. Determination of temperature stability requirements

Analysis of rig mud treatment equipment to meet hole requirement with selected mud types. The treatment equipment falls into four main groups: solids removal size (in microns)
60 60 - 15 30 12

Treatment equipment

Shale shakers De sanders and De silters Mud cleaners Centrifuge

Shale shakers- These are the initial cutting removal system and remove the major portion of drilled solids circulated out of the well. Mud cleaners- By employing both desilting hydrocyclones and fine mesh vibrating screen, mud cleaners effectively remove fine drilled solids from weighted muds without excessive barite loss. De sanders and de silters- They employ hydrocyclones to remove drilled solids. The smaller the hydrocyclone, the finer will be the size of the solids that can be removed. Centrifuge- The last stage in the treatment process is usually the decanting centrifuge which can remove solids down to 1 or 2 microns in size. They are particularly important when using oil base muds. Barites can be recovered for reuse in the mud system.

Bit and hydraulic programBit selection- following factors are considered to select a bit: Formation drillability Mud system in use Directional implications Availability Formation drillabilityTricone bits for soft formation drill by gouging and scrapping action. In soft to medium - soft formations that are not too sticky, PDC bits offer the best alternative, especially in oil base muds. Harder formation will be drilled by using insert bit with journal bearings and gauge protection or alternatively diamond bits.

Mud systems in useIf oil base mud is being used, it is probably to control shale problems. In this case, PDC bits will probably offer the best choice of bit. PDC bits do also work effectively in water base muds but perform better in oil base muds. Sealed bearing bits should be used, if the drilling fluids contains abrasive particles, to prevent premature bearing failure. Directional implicationsMost tricone bits used for rotary drilling exhibit some right hand walk tendency. PDC bits on the other hand due to their symmetrical cutting action tend to drill straight ahead. If the well is planned to be drilled with tricone bit, then it is advisable to lead the well to the left and allow the natural tendency of the bit to pull the well back on course.

Hydraulic programAnnular velocity- a certain minimum annular velocity in required for a given mud type to prevent cuttings slippage through the mud and to effectively lift cuttings out of the hole to the mud treatment equipments. Bit and hole cleaning- drilling fluids flow in either a laminar or turbulent manner (or in a combination these). Laminar flow will cause less hole erosion, however, turbulent flow is likely to clean the hole better. In practice , both laminar flow and turbulent flow are acceptable in the annulus depending upon the bore hole condition.

There are two main theories concerning how much hydraulic horsepower should be expended at the bit to gain maximum cleaning efficiency. The first theory is the maximum hydraulic horse power theory, which in practice means expending 2 / 3rd of the available HHP at the bit. The alternative theory is the maximum jet impact theory which in practice means expending around 50 % of the available HHP at the bit.

Elements of well costThe cost of well is based on 8 main elementsPreparatory- cost of land , approach road, rig foundation & other civil works. Manpower- cost of drilling crew in the form of salaries, allowances & other payments Services- cost on services namely , geology, geophysics, cementing , transport, workshop , production testing, catering , sea bed survey etc. Materials- cost of casing pipes, bits , well heads, cement, mud chemicals , POL & other consumables. Project overheads- includes all other costs on drilling at the project level . Regional & HQ overheads- cost incurred at regional and HQ level towards drilling activity . Depreciation of rig equipment cost assigned to well

Depreciation of drill pipes- cost is based on per meter depreciation which is worked out centrally for different regions depth wise, based on replacement cost of pipes during the preceding year. Some of the costs are determined in terms of rig days ( cycle days ) spent on the well , while others can be determined separately for the well itself.

Preparations before spuddingBefore spudding the well, ensure that the following arrangements are made G.T.O. of the well Handling tools like elevators, power tonge, EZY torque , drill collar , slips, drill collar safety clamps. Chemicals required for preparation of mud and for controlling its parameters. Adequate quantity of diesel, oil and lubricants. Fire fighting equipments. Supply of water for drilling operations and drinking purpose. Pressure testing the high pressure lines to one and half times the working pressure.

Checking of the instruments installed for monitoring the various parameters like tong torque gauge, rotary torque gauge, rotary rpm meter, weight indicator, etc. All the equipments installed should be in working condition. Drill string required for drilling. Device for making rat hole. Kelly, Kelly drive bushings, Kelly top sub, Kelly saver sub and upper and lower Kelly cocks. Bit breaker for various sizes of bits to be used. Bits required for drilling rat hole and for drilling the interval up to the lowering of the first casing. Hole opener and the cutters if required. Conductor and surface casing to be lowered.

Safety kits required for staff and first aid kit. Well head, bop stack, choke and kill manifold. For all exploratory wells in remote areas, cementing units and adequate cement should be available. Crown - o - matic should be in working order.