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BROACHING

Broaching is the process of removing metal with a tool which has “teeth” arranged in a row. Each tooth is successively higher than the previous tooth and removes more material. In broaching, one stroke or cycle of the machine produces a finished part. Broaching is used to produce both internal and external features. Production rates are high and tolerances of +/- .01mm are possible.

milling. and other metal cutting operations in that each tooth removes a small amount of material The broaching tool has a series of teeth so arranged that they cut metal when the broach is given a linear movement The broach cuts away the material since its teeth are progressively increasing Cutting action of a broaching tool in height .Broaching Principles Broaching is similar to turning.

Broaching .

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Broaching Principles Broaching is a machining process that pushes or pulls a cutting tool (called a broach) over or through the surface being machined. .

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 Chip Formation  Chip formation involves three basic requirements:  The cutting tool must be harder than the part material  There must be interference between the tool and the  There must be a relative motion or cutting velocity part as designated by the feed rate and cut per tooth between the tool and workpiece with sufficient force to overcome the resistance of the part material. .

Tool Feed Direction Gullet Depth of cut per tooth Tool Workpiece .

. tool wear and tool life.  Many combinations exist that may fulfill such requirements. and part material have an effect not only upon the formation of the chip. cutting horsepower. dimensional stability. cutting velocity. the portion of the material being machined that interferes with the free passage of the tool will be displaced to create a chip. but also upon cutting force. Chip Formation  As long as these three conditions exist. and the quality of the newly created surface.  Variations in tool material and tool geometry. feed and depth of cut. cutting temperatures.

and  The other three relative values are all affected by changes in cutting conditions and in properties of the material to be machined . The Mechanics of Chip Formation  Empirical metal-cutting studies reveal several important characteristics of the chips formed during the broaching process:  The cutting process generates heat  The thickness of the chip is usually greater than the thickness of the layer from which it came  The hardness of the chip is usually much greater than the hardness of the parent material.

. with the degree of deformation dictating the type of chip that will be produced. The Mechanics of Chip Formation  These observations also indicate that the process of chip formation is one of deformation or plastic flow of the material.

but it does not hold true for the majority of metals. The process by which chips are formed with metal-cutting tools is called plastic deformation. it was thought that chips formed in metal cutting were created in much the same way that wood chips are formed when split by an axe. Plastic Deformation  Originally. This may be partially true for brittle materials such as cast iron. .

and is characteristic of all steels. a permanent relative motion occurs and further deformation is withstood.  When the resisting stresses in a material exceed their elastic limit. Plastic Deformation  What actually happens in this shearing process is that the metal immediately ahead of the cutting edge of the tool is severely compressed resulting in temperatures high enough to allow plastic flow. but demonstrated most dramatically in stainless steels.  . This strengthening is called work or strain hardening.

 How and Where Heat is Generated  The force or energy that is put into the tool creates movement in a group of metal atoms in the workpiece. This group is a finite number of atoms which are forced to change their positions in relationship to each other. can be compared to the friction and heat caused by bending a paper clip back and forth until it breaks.   . This internal friction. As the atoms in the metal ahead of the tool are disturbed. the friction involved in their sliding over one another is thought to be responsible for 60% or more of the total heat generated. and the heat it generates.

This is assuming that the tools are sharp and made correctly as far as clearance angles and face angles are concerned. This area accounts for about 10% of the heat generated. a chip eventually slides up the cutting face of the tool.  The third area of heat generation is on the land or flank of the tool. As the tool wears. the above percentages will vary.  . How and Where Heat is Generated As the tool continues to push through the work piece. This external friction accounts for about 30% of the total heat generated. or if the clearance angle is insufficient for the material or the part configuration. This contact zone will actually increase as the part continues to close in after the cut resulting in extremely high pressures on the land area of the tool. especially when there is excess wear on the land. This sliding creates an external friction which again releases heat.

 Advantages  Rough to finish in one pass  Production rates are high  Cutting time is quick  Rapid load and unload of parts  External and internal features  Any form that can be produced on a broaching tool can be produced  Production tolerances are excellent  Surface finishes are better than milling  Operator skill is low .

 Disadvantages  Tooling cost can be high  In some cases--not suited for low production rates  Parts to be broached must be strong enough to withstand the forces of the process  Surface to be broached must be accessible .