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How Can We Improve Women Income?

“Case Studies of Women’s Empowerment Activities at Grass Root Level”
Muhammad Dawam
Indonesia National Family Planning Population Board (BKKBN), May 2010

Buying foods or pills for birth control.?

INTRODUCTION
 Indonesia family norm: NKKBS (Small family size and prosperity)  Prosperity through productive economy activities  The are 30 percent poor families in Indonesia (34 million, Central Statistics Board, 2008)  Most of poor family planning acceptors have no income generating activities.

.What Does this Mean for Indonesia Policy ? • Needs of these women are so great that the present. women empowerment program should be strengthened from central government.

CENTRALIZATION PERIOD: 1976  Income Generating Project focused on Family Planning Performance (Regional Approach) 1979  Family Planning Group Acceptors (UPPKA) 1996  Family Welfare Group (UPPKS)  More support from Central and Local Government Budget. etc. Private Sectors/Companies 1997  2003 Family Welfare Fund Foundation (YDSM) . USAID.. International Donor Agencies such as UNFPA.

Foundation. 5 – 25 million (KRISTA) per group by Mortgage Company (accessed in 19 provinces) Current other supports from: Financial Institution (State/private Banks. 5 million per Income Generating Group 2010  Household Industry Credit from Rp. Local Government Budgets.DECENTRALIZATION PERIODE: 2006  2009: Social assistance Rp. Companies) .

THE LEGAL ASPECT THE GOAL OF NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT POLICY: TO INCREASE FAMILY EMPOWERMENT [GOVERNMENT WORKING PLAN 2009] PLAN OF ACTION: WOMEN EMPOWERMENT PROGRAM .

. New family planning acceptors contribution (low contraceptive prevalence rate regions) 2. Family planning acceptor supervision (high contraceptive prevalence rate regions).• Women empowerment program through income generating activities purposes: 1.

FAMILY ECONOMY EMPOWERMENT MODEL SOCIAL FAMILY Environment FATHER MOTHER Economic Resources CHILDREN Natural Resources Productive Economy Business Empowerment MG Ana Budi Rahayu. 2008 . Bina Swadaya Website.

Income Generating Group Guidance – BKKBN.332/HK.010/F3/2008. 2008] ACHIEVE MENT MOTIVA TION TRAINING ACCESS TO:  INFORMATI ON & SERVICES INCOME GENERATING PROMOTIONS FAMILIES INCOME GENERA TING PARTNERS: RELATED SECTORS FINANCE INSTITUTIONS  ASSOCIATION  PRIVATE .CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK WOMEN EMPOWERNMENT PROGRAM [Letter NO.

promotion on local/national events. . business management.UPPKS MANAGEMENT • Human resources (training. technical assistance. capital. • Networking (parties or individual supports). product. • Marketing facilitation through join market. • Partnership (human resources. study tour). marketing). internship. • Group facilitation to access more capital. • Product development (SNI/Indonesia National Standard).

WHY DO WE CARE OF INCOME GENERATING GROUP (UPPKS) ? • Beyond Family Planning As a media to motivate reproductive age couples and to keep the continuation of contraceptive users • The impact: to increase family stage started from Pre Prosperous Family  Prosperous Family (PF) stage 1  PF stage 2  PF stage 3  PF stage 3 plus .

• As a learning process at the family level . • Supervising along with local sectors • Managed by Family Planning Field Workers (in the village level)  operational. facilitate (funds. • Partnership with sectors concern. training).HOW DO INCOME GENERATING GROUP ACTIVITIES WORK? • Local Family Planning Board motivates. and developing the local human skill and natural resources. monitoring and evaluation.

TRADITIONAL BUSINESS Harvesting Processing Selling Packaging .

INCOME GENERATING GROUP (UPPKS): CYCLIS MODEL PLAN OF ACTION COST BENEFITS PROCESSING MARKETING PACKAGING .

INCOME GENERATING GROUP (UPPKS): HIERARCHICAL MODEL HANDICRAFT INDIVIDUAL GROUP LEADERS INDIVIDUAL INDIVIDUAL BEAUTICIAN STAPLE FOOD .

4 thousand families Source: Indonesia Middle Development Plan Survey. 2008 .THE CHARACTERISTICS OF FAMILY BUSINESS Age Groups 16 50 34 41 Plus 31-40 30 Below Total of 5.

2008 .THE CHARACTERISTICS OF FAMILY BUSINESS Source: Indonesia Middle Development Plan Survey.

THE CHARACTERISTICS OF FAMILY BUSINESS Source: Indonesia Middle Development Plan Survey. 2008 .

May 2010 Total of: 65 thousand groups .CURRENT PROFILE OF INDONESIA INCOME GENERATING GROUP (UPPKS) [The Percentage of Group Levels] Source: Family Economy Directorate website. UPPKS Baseline.

UPPKS Baseline. May 2010 Total of: 65 thousand groups .CURRENT PROFILE OF INDONESIA INCOME GENERATING GROUP (UPPKS) [The Percentage Type of Businesses] Source: Family Economy Directorate website.

May 2010 Total of: 1.CURRENT PROFILE OF INDONESIA INCOME GENERATING GROUP (UPPKS) [The Percentage of Current family Planning Acceptors] Source: Family Economy Directorate website. UPPKS Baseline.2 million members .

 Provide appropriate technological tools/machinery.THE CASE STUDY OF WOMEN EMPOWERMENT Title: “Factors Affecting on Credits Installment Problems. .  Saving habit. 2000” [Management Aspect] Locations: West Java and Lampung Provinces Results:  Lack of business motivation  Wrong type of business (not market oriented)  Did not have entrepreneurship behavior  Without skill (traditional)  Unqualified product Recommendations:  Achievement motivation training intervention.

Cooperation. 2002” [Management Aspect] Locations: West Java. Companies). .THE CASE STUDY OF WOMEN EMPOWERMENT Title: “Income Generating Group Development.  Provide technical assistance on group management (making proposal. access to local financial institutions).  The new credits scheme inappropriate for the poor. Bali Provinces Results:  The end of Prosperous Family Credit (YDSM) MOU  Many business uncertainty continuing. Cental Java.  Lack of coordination with partners (sectors and or financial institutions). Recommendations:  Advocacy and facilitation to develop soft loan from the local funding sources (BRI.

 Provide technical guidance on economic productive up to village level. 2003” [Management Aspect] Locations: West Sumatera and Yogyakarta Provinces Results:  Province program Managers’ lack of supervision on economic productive techniques (paid more attentions on credit management  revolving funds.  Limited managerial and technical training to Family Planning Field Workers and Village Community Institutions  Lack of community leaders and local partners participations. Recommendations:  Province propose capacity building on management and technical training to program managers. . reporting).THE CASE STUDY OF WOMEN EMPOWERMENT Title: “The Impact Of Family Welfare Credit.

and Bangka Belitung Provinces • Group activities continuations: – Existing supervision – Providing technical support – Group Leaders pioneering (Transparencies. building trust. closeness). . • Group product continuations: – Self motivations – Entrepreneurship – Capital (internal capital collection – a plus) – Technical skills – Products quality (output) • One Group Pilot Project in a sub district policy.THE CASE STUDY OF WOMEN EMPOWERMENT Title: “The Evaluation on Income Generating Group (UPPKS) Performance. 2008” [Management Aspect] Locations: Central Java. South Sulawesi.

 The activities tend to be income generating project it self. South Sulawesi.THE CASE STUDY OF WOMEN EMPOWERMENT Title: “ Income Generating Group (UPPKS) Reposition. Recommendations: Back to beyond family planning through:  Focusing on the affected target (reproductive age acceptors)  Developing integrated family planning group activities across related components in all managerial levels . and North Sulawesi Provinces Results:  Various strategies implementation among districts (approach: community. 2009” [Management Aspect] Locations: Papua. and family level).  Family planning group activities were not integrated yet.

2008 AND 2009            Building a dream Capability and self reliance A succeeded entrepreneur (exposure) Choosing business type (market observation) Increasing quantity and quality of the products Marketing Budget management Group management Business supervision Products skills (practice) Integrated family planning activities and services .OPERATIONAL RESEARCH ON INCOME GENERATING GROUP MODEL INTERVENTION DEVELOPED IN 1998  REPLICATED IN: 2000.

 Provincial supervision strengthen the women empowerment program at district level. PT Pegadaian. .LESSON LEARNED BASED ON THE WOMEN EMPOWERMENT CASE STUDIES: Indonesia NFPCB/BKKBN:  During three decades most of Income Generating Group are at basic level.  Districts’ BKKBN commitment and support keep the program continuation.  The intensity of information and commitment to access the local capital sources needed by BKKBN institution at districts (BRI. etc).  The Family Planning Field Workers hold a key position to maintain the group development and quality.

product). administrative and finance. • The group initiative on internal saving guarantee the group life and development:  principal deposit  compulsory saving  voluntary saving  Islamic day saving  recreational saving . • Group achievement motivation training is a prerequisite.LESSON LEARNED BASED ON THE WOMEN EMPOWERMENT CASE STUDIES: Income Generating Group (UPPKS): • The group should be managed professionally • The group Cyclic Model are recommended (managable: organization dynamic.

) • Social status impact (invitation for the UPPKS leader champion to meet The President) • Basic family health contribution . etc.g.LESSON LEARNED BASED ON THE WOMEN EMPOWERMENT CASE STUDIES FOUND THAT: Women empowerment contribution/ outcomes: • Decision making on the economic activities • More women get involved in the productive economy activities • Family expenditures support (e. extra meals.: school expenses. charity.

LESSON LEARNED FROM THE WOMEN EMPOWERMENT CASE STUDIES • Succeeded indicators: the increase number of members. types of products. • Recruitment level: should be focused on reproductive age group (20-35 years old). groups. and not the beginner entrepreneurs. group level. .

. Let us act now.Please remember that these women need our help to have more empowerment.

• Changing mind set to distribute more local operational budgetary (Specific Allocation Budget).00 groups meet the capitals they need through the central government commitments (Executive and Legislative). . • Stronger commitment and support to Districts BKKBN.What Needs to be Done: • Reposition/strengthen the Women Empowerment Program with more coordination Between Head of BKKBN and Ministry of Trade and Industry.000. • Ensuring that the 65.

00 U.00 US= $ 32.Estimating Cost for Capital Support By the year 2011: 65.A .00 groups x $ 500.S.000.000.500.

charity board (YDSM) .NEEDED MORE CAPITALS SOURCES ALTERNATIVES: Local budgets (districts/municipalities) Finance institutions: banks. mortgages Association for Family Planning Income Generating Groups  Private: companies.